Remarks at Meet and Greet With the Staff of McMurdo Station
Secretary of State
SECRETARY KERRY: Kelly, thank you very, very much. Thank you all. I know it was coming to see me, or what? (Laughter.) No, I don’t mean to make light. Honestly, it’s very, very touching that you all came out to share a few words this evening. Kelly, thank you. That – first of all, that means a lot to me. But frankly, more importantly, being here really means a lot to me, and I’ll share a few thoughts with you in a few minutes.
Let me just begin by thanking Kelly for her stewardship, your tremendous leadership of our polar initiatives. I’ve been above the Arctic Circle but – several times now, but this is my first trip to Antarctica. And I might add, I think it closes out my going to every continent. Is that correct? Okay. (Laughter.)
But Kelly said something about the weather changing and things being interrupted. Folks, I’ve been working in Washington – everything gets interrupted. (Laughter.) So there’s no change in what’s going on here, believe me. And I knew the weather was always dicey. It’s November. It’s a little early, and I think about 25 percent of the expeditions get weathered out still because of how early it is.
But this is something I’ve always wanted to do and have had great difficulty finding the time to do it because of the press of business. And I just thought given the election happening and the obvious four or five days that I knew would be taken up one way or the other, it just occurred to me that – let that happen and take the time to come down here.
And I particularly wanted to come down here because I was in the Arctic recently and the scientists there kept saying to me as I looked at this massive fjord dumping 86 million metric tons of ice into the fjord every single day, and everybody here I know has probably seen the rushing rivers of water coming underneath the ice and the melt that’s taking place there. But they, even in the midst of that, said you’ve got to go down to Antarctica, you’ve got to get a sense of what is really at risk here, and you have to understand the science and what is happening there. So I immediately agreed with my staff that we were going to schedule to come down here no matter what. And I can’t tell you how glad I am.
I completely understand why you’re all here, even more so as a result of just a few hours. And I can see how this grabs you. I can see how some of you are willing to put up with those winter months. How many of you are winter people here? (Inaudible) people. Oh, I know. But no, how many? Raise your hands. Well, God bless you, I don’t know how you do that, but thank you for doing that. Thank you, all of you, for doing what you do.
Just in the few hours here, my head is spinning with cosmic nuclides and magma events and various sediment layers. And Scott – where is Scott? Scott Borg did a brilliant job today of teaching me more geology than I learned at university, but that’s because I was frozen – I was in the helicopter, I couldn’t move. It was not a class that I could cut. (Laughter.) Anyway, thank you.
But it was really brilliant to be out there. And while we didn’t get to the pole, I really got a huge amount of what I wanted to sense in coming here. And hats off to all of you. Those of you who spend time out on the ice, in the mountains, in the hills, doing the research that you’re doing and helping to keep McMurdo as the centerpiece of Antarctic research. I know there are a lot of other countries here. We’ve worked with all of them. I am chair of the Arctic Council right now, and we’ve been very proud to run one of the most active programs in history in that capacity. And this just really helps me to come full circle in many, many ways.
And I want to share a little bit of that with you, because we have some big challenges ahead of us. I am going from here to the Middle East. And then I go from there to Morocco – to Marrakech – for the Conference of the Parties meeting on the Paris Agreement. Now, I have been doing this for a long time. I began back in 1970 when I came back from Vietnam. My first effort was not protesting the war, though I became well known for doing that. It was actually helping to organize Earth Day – the first Earth Day – in response to the fact that people were living next to toxic waste sites, dumps, the Woburn Dump – some of you may have heard of it – Woburn, Massachusetts – and the families that were getting cancer in high proportion to other people. And so that was the beginning. Rachel Carson began it all really in many ways for a generation, but we all became involved in the effort to change things. And I want to juxtapose what we did then to now because we may have to do all of that again depending on what takes place over the course of the next few years. And I don’t just mean the United States. I mean globally.
In 1970, we didn’t have an EPA. We were reawakening to the challenge of conservation and protection of the environment. And 20 million Americans came out of their homes on one single day to protest and to say we want the environment to be a voting issue. And so after the 20 million people came out, we didn’t just stop and say great, we had 20 million people; wasn’t that a wonderful demonstration. We translated that day into action, and we targeted the 12 worst votes in the United States Congress. We called them the “Dirty Dozen,” because they never voted for the environment.
And in the next election, 1972 – I’m dating myself – but in 1972, 7 of the 12 lost their races. And what happened was all of a sudden the folks in Washington who can live with a sense of impunity see the public as we’ve seen in the most recent round of fighting over issues. That ignited a new fervor for actually doing something. And so we passed the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water (inaudible). All of these things came about in the span of about two years or so – Coastal Zone Management – and we created the EPA, which Richard Nixon, who wasn’t involved in initiating any of these things, signed into law. That’s when it started. And it came about because people said we’re going to make a difference. We’re not going to be told we have to live with these things that we know we don’t have – want to live with – dirty air, bad water, dumps that make people sick, and so forth.
So that was the beginning for me of a journey which ultimately took me to be lieutenant governor of the state, and there I became the chairman of a task force on acid rain, because then we were losing our lakes and our streams and rivers and fish dying and so forth. We had places that nothing would live in. Lakes had died. People have forgotten that now. Why? Because we actually did something which passed a trading mechanism – trading in sulfur futures – so that we were able to basically take acid rain as a major problem off the table.
So then in the 1980s – I went to the Senate in 1984. Ronald Reagan was President. We began a process of focusing on climate change. Al Gore, Tim Wirth, Frank Lautenberg – a whole group of us became deeply involved in trying to the focus the country on the challenge of climate change. And then that was the first time Jim Hansen stood up and said anything about what was happening and declared that climate change is here, now. This is 1988, folks.
In 1992, I went to Rio as a delegate with a delegation that included Al Gore and Tim Wirth and others, and we became involved in the Earth Summit that passed a voluntary mechanism for dealing with reducing emissions. Involuntary didn’t work.
I went to Kyoto and negotiated in Kyoto. We came up with the Kyoto Agreement. Kyoto didn't work. We couldn't even pass it in the United States Senate. Why? Because coal companies spent millions of dollars scaring people in elected office and preventing us from being able to do it. And so we began to tackle that too.
And the reason I’m saying all of this is because there are rumors circulating in Washington today that there may be efforts to sort of undo some of what President Obama has done in order to put in place a climate action plan and move the country and the world to compliance with what we know we need to do in order to keep the Earth warming above 2 degrees centigrade. Now, I don’t know if that’s going to happen. I’m not predicting anything. I’m not getting into any political fight here or anything like that. But I’m just saying to you that I’ve seen the curves, I’ve seen the ups and downs of this process for over 30 years, and we’ve made gains and we’ve had setbacks. And we’ve never made the gains without fighting for them, and we’ve always had a difficulty in being able to make the gains because we haven’t necessarily had the quality of the science that we need to be able to prove to people what happening. And that is where you come in and that is why this is so important.
It’s so important because most of the things that have been predicted by scientists over the course of the last 30 years are not just coming true; they’re coming true at a far faster, more alarming pace. I mean, we have floods today that are 500-year floods. You’re supposed to have them once every 500 years. We have them multiple times now in a year. We have fires that are ripping away, shredding forests at extraordinary rates, of greater intensity, lasting longer, more of them. We have more high-density storms than we’ve ever had in our modern history certainly on a regular basis.
We spent $8 billion in the United States of America to clean up for about seven or eight storms. Imagine – I mean, we’re fighting to get a fraction of that applied to a global fund to be able to help with technology transfer to help less-developed countries be able to make the right choices in energy over the course of the next years. A fraction of that. Imagine if we put that money into prevention or put that money into clean, alternative, renewable, sustainable energy over the course of that period of time. So the choices are, to me, very, very obvious right now. And I think they are to you too, because you’re here and you’re in science and you’re in (inaudible), you’re either scientists or supporting scientists involved in this effort to try to pull the information together that we need to make smart choices.
Now, in the last year – the reason I say there’s a reason for hope and enthusiasm is in the last year we’ve done some amazing things. The United States went to China – I went to China in the first months of my being Secretary of State and told them we need to change what happened in Copenhagen where we failed utterly to bring the country – world together to deal with something on climate change. We negotiated with the Chinese. We put together a working group for the purpose of being able to have our President stand up and announce together they were both going to try to set targets for reductions in emissions at the Paris talks, and we did it a year ahead of time. Guess what? President Xi and President Obama were able to stand up on a podium together in Beijing and say here are our intended reductions. And that ignited a fire – a good fire – under the efforts of nations all across the world.
So we came to Paris. And in Paris, 186 countries committed independently to different plans to reduce emissions in order to try to hold the temperature rise to 2 degrees centigrade. Extraordinary. And the purpose – the excitement of it was not just that we got 186 countries to say something or even to have different plans. It was that we knew that wasn’t enough to hold it to the 2 degrees. But what we also knew it would do is ignite an extraordinary amount of investment into new technology in order to begin to make the right choices about energy, because as every one of you here knows, the solution to climate change is not some pie-in-the-sky, yet-to-be-determined thing. The solution to climate change is energy choices – what you choose to do to power your vehicles, power your plants. You guys struggle with it out here – solar versus diesel and all these kinds of things we have to talk about and think about – black soot, et cetera. That’s the choice. But a lot of countries can’t afford it. And so they look at the price of different sources of energy and they see coal and say, “Wow, it’s less.” Whatever, 3 cents per kilowatt-hour or something.
Well, now we are seeing solar contracts let for a provision of energy to people at 3 cents an hour, 2.9 cents from Saudi Arabia recently. It’s competitive. And in fact, it’s cheaper. And the reason I say it’s cheaper is that most countries don’t, most people don’t, engage in real accounting when it comes to measuring the costs, because they don’t measure the cost of cancer and billions of dollars for particulates in the air. They don’t measure that $8 billion that you have to pay out in order to fix the big storm damage. They don’t measure what happens when you lose whole communities because you’ve lost water or you’ve lost the ability to grow things because of climate change because it’s hotter. And at some point, people have to wake up to common sense.
Last July was the hottest July in the history of measured weather, temperatures. The June before was the hottest June. The entire year before was the hottest year in recorded history. And that’s not all. It was part of the hottest decade in recorded history, which, by the way, came before the second hottest decade which was the one before it, and the third hottest decade which is the one before that. Now, does that tell you anything just as a matter of common sense? When every scientist in the country of reputation is saying it’s getting warmer and you can see what’s happening, people want to stop and say time to do something about it. Well, we haven’t won the battle yet, but we at least passed Paris.
We also – then I went to Kigali. We negotiated in Kigali, which we have been working on for several years, to come up with a reduction in hydrofluorocarbons. So we now passed a Kigali Agreement which will phase out hydrofluorocarbons, replace them with – by the way, hydrofluorocarbons was the supposed solution a number of years ago to the problem that we were having originally with – and it turned out that hydrofluorocarbons were, what, 100 times more potent or a 1,000 times or whatever, than CO2. So we undid the mistake that was to make up a for a mistake. But we did it and it’s going to happen, and we will phase out HFCs completely before 2050.
Then we also knew that we wanted to do something about airplanes and what they were doing in terms of emissions. So we got an international agreement on a market-based system to reduce emissions from airplanes.
That’s not all we did. I’m proud to tell you that we also wound up doing something I’ve been working on since its inception – one of the original sponsors of it. Together with New Zealand, we managed to pass and get Russia finally on board after meeting personally with Putin and personally with Lavrov and a number of conversations, and we passed the Ross Sea Marine Protected Area, the largest marine protected area in the world, which matters to you. (Applause.)
So now we have to think about how we’re going to implement it and what we’re going to do to protect it and gain more knowledge about what is happening in it and so forth. But here’s the bottom line, and I’ll wrap it up and I’m happy to take a couple of questions maybe. We may have to still fight for the following reasons, and this will be part of my message when I go to Marrakech. The rate that China, India, other countries in the world, many in Africa, elsewhere, because of this false judgment about cost, the rate at which people are bringing coal-fired power plants online now, notwithstanding Paris, is a risk to everybody. It could kill any efforts to hold the temperature below the 2 degrees centigrade. So we need to get more of a movement going. We need to get more people engaged. We need to get more people looking at the science, understanding it, but understanding that this is not a choice between living better or lifestyle and giving up things, because all of this is achievable and living better at the same time. And there are countless new jobs to be created for people in building the infrastructure of the new energy for the world. And by the way, it’s the biggest market in human history.
The market of the 1990s which saw America see every bracket of income earners had their incomes go up in the 1990s has a $1 trillion market with a billion users. The energy market is already a multitrillion-dollar market in the double digits, and already there are 4 to 5 billion users. But guess what? It’s going up to 9 billion in the next 30, 40 years – readymade marketplace. And what we have to do is make sure we’re not being satisfied with the short-term cheap choice, so called, of rushing to put up a coal-fired power plant just to meet consumer demand, but rather make the choices which are available today for alternative, renewable, sustainable energy, which in and of itself will create a jobs revolution in infrastructure around the world.
That’s our choice. You folks are critical to this effort – every single one of you engaged in this effort, everybody involved with the National Science Foundation, everybody contributing to our knowledge about what might happen. I mean, one of the things that sticks with me is there are three miles of depth of ice up there in places on the ice sheet. And with what’s happened already in the Western Antarctic ice shelf and the breakoff and the undermining of that ice sheet with the water coming in and water that might be warmer now is dangerous. We don’t know the full implications. I’m not standing here and predicting exactly what will happen, but we do know that there’s enough ice up there that if every bit of it melted, you’d have 180 to 200 feet of increase of sea level. I’m not saying that’s about to happen. It’s not going to happen in this century barring some – we understand that. But the trend line is moving in the wrong direction. We are looking at the potential of several meters or one meter in the course of this year and several meters over a period of time almost in certainty, and that’s a lot of water.
So my friends, I spoke a little longer than I intended to, but I just want to share with you the sense of value that President Obama and I and others have about what is happening here. And we will fight to continue this. We’ll actually fight to increase this. This deserves more effort in order to crash course the analysis that we need to know what is happening here in these ice sheets and to understand exactly what to anticipate so we can make smarter decision in our public policy. Maybe it won’t be necessary to do something as dramatic as some people think, but I’d like to know that based on proof. Because the problem is if the naysayers and the delayers and the deniers are wrong, the results are absolute catastrophe; you can’t recoup it. If I’m wrong or President Obama’s wrong or Al Gore’s wrong or whatever – if you’re wrong, what’s the worst that can happen if we make the choices we’re talking about? You’ll have cleaner air. You’ll have better health, less kids going to the hospital and spending billions of dollars in the summer time because of environmentally-induced asthma. You will have cleaner energy, sustainable energy, be less dependent on fossil fuel and so forth. Think of that. That’s the worst that can happen. More jobs, more health, and live up to our responsibilities to protect the environment.
So I don’t know what these next months and next few years are going to bring, but I know that we all have to be prepared to carry this message because there are still people who don’t understand the basics of it or are unwilling to accept it or, for whatever reasons, want to turn their heads and move in a different direction. And the results of that could be absolutely that catastrophe that I talked about.
So look, I’ve been at this a while. I’ve seen us make the gains. I’ve seen us have some setbacks. But I am absolutely convinced – no question in my mind – I’ve been to more than 90 countries now as Secretary of State and I’ve flown, I don’t know, whatever miles, and I don’t get any frequent flyer miles. (Laughter.) But in all of that time, I’m telling you this is catching on. The rest of the world is not going to abide by scofflaws. They’re not going to tolerate people walking away from responsibility, because every country has to be part of this. No one country can solve this problem. And every other country that I know of is starting to try to figure out how they’re going to be able to do it.
So we’re all in this together. There’s only one planet Earth, three-quarters of which, by the way, is ocean. And I’ve spent a lot of time in the oceans. We just had an incredible oceans conference, which is what led me years ago to be involved in the Ross Sea effort and other efforts. We did a set-aside of a canyon, the first set-aside in the Atlantic for marine protected area, first set-asides – huge set-asides in the Pacific. We raised $5.3 billion at Our Oceans conference, all committed to working on conservation and protecting our fisheries, reducing pollution, and reducing acidification.
So it’s all linked. It’s all part of the same challenge. And ultimately, it’s a challenge which, boy, you can get reminded of in one-half a day here when you fly around and you see the sun circling around almost at the same azimuth, and you see the extraordinary beauty here and the intensity of the weather and a little penguin walking around, coming up to you out in one of the stops we had. I mean, this is – this reminds you how small we are, how powerful Earth and universe are, how important it is for us to live up to our responsibilities in the short span of time God gives us to be here on this Earth. And as I say that, I want to call to mind Dr. Gordon Hamilton, whom you all lost, we lost, in the last days, and remember that there are risks with this. People are willing to take those risks. You’re willing to take those risks. And you’re willing to live under difficult circumstances, although I must say there’s a beauty to this that I know you’ve already tapped into. And I just tell you all that in many ways you’re very, very lucky.
So thank you for what you’re doing. Keep on doing it. Be part of this fight, because we don’t have an alternative. We have to win this one. And I’m counting on every single one of you, as are a lot of Americans, to help us to prove the case and get the job done. Thank you and God bless. (Applause.)
I’m happy to answer questions. Don’t ask me any political questions, guys. I’m here.
Yeah. Here, why don’t you hand him that.
QUESTION: Thank you. So I would like to --
SECRETARY KERRY: Up close.
QUESTION: How is the United States preparing for the revision and possibly the renewal of the Antarctic Treaty in 2041?
SECRETARY KERRY: Well, we’re doing our homework. I mean, we’re not there yet. It’s early stage, but we’re – we want to see it reviewed. I know there are different countries beating on the door that want to get into the action. I think there will be resistance to expanding it in many ways. I think the current group of countries are pretty – have been very responsible, and we don’t want to see any change of the attitude. The peaceful scientific research piece of this is the key. That must continue. We’re committed to that. I think almost every country I’ve talked to is. So I’m confident we’ll get there and we’ll get there in the right way, but we’ve got to do our homework.
QUESTION: How do you convince countries that draw on their strategic values, their economics on fossil fuels, to change?
SECRETARY KERRY: So the question is: How do you convince countries that draw their economic power and their market – their economy is based on fossil fuel, so how do you persuade them to change?
Well, it’s interesting. Most of those countries – not all – have already made up their own minds – example, Saudi Arabia. The Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has put on the table with King Salman a vision which is shared by all Saudis – the Crown Prince, Mohammed bin Nayef, everybody have embraced this concept – of diversifying their economy as rapidly as they can and moving to a much lesser dependency in their total mix of their economy on fossil fuel. And I think they’re down now a very significant percentage in terms of that dependency. I think it’s somewhere around just under 30 percent or so.
In the Emirates – United Arab Emirates – the same thing. They’ve moved – now some countries in the region have less – who are major pumpers of oil have less options at this point in time. But what’s interesting, I mean, we don’t have to stop altogether. Nobody is saying to people, “We’re not going to pump, we’re not going to use oil.” By the way, oil is used, as many of you know, for other things other than propelling cars. It’s used in plastic. It’s used in medicine. It’s used in other things. So there’s going to be a demand, and we’re not going to suddenly wean ourselves off of it. The issue is can we bring it down to a sufficient level of consumption and of clean consumption so that – without putting the whole planet at risk. That’s the choice. And most of us believe that is doable.
When I sat with those countries and talked to them about the Paris Agreement, we – they bought into it. They were there. Those countries voted for Paris because they all understand, first of all, fossil fuel is finite ultimately, and they know it’s ultimately not sustainable in terms of what the marketplace is going to move to. So the marketplace is also going to be a very powerful leading force in this effort as it already is. And you watch; businesses are going to start to make a whole set of different choices – they already are – what kind of fleet of cars they buy, what they use to construct their building with and how they construct their building, and what their building’s ultimate energy cycle is.
These are all things that are happening, and they’re partly happening – last year, I said that the Paris Agreement virtue was that it was going to send a message to the marketplace that this is going to happen. Well, last year, $358 billion was invested in America in clean – globally in clean energy, alternative energy, renewable, sustainable energy. That’s more money than has been invested in it in any point in time. And for the first time in history, it is more money than was invested in fossil fuels. So that’s what’s happening. The marketplace can help make this transition take place.
Maybe a couple more and then I’ll let you guys go and – what do you do? Rock and roll tonight? Got a party or something? (Laughter.)
QUESTION: Hi. Good morning.
MODERATOR: Stand up.
QUESTION: Many of the powerful companies that are opposite goals to climate change progress, especially in developing countries, are actually American. What can the U.S. do to rein that in?
SECRETARY KERRY: Many of the what companies?
QUESTION: Powerful companies that are opposite goals to climate change progress.
SECRETARY KERRY: Correct. Well, many of them are but not all of them. And even as many are, many are not. Many are in other countries. I mean, look at – China is now the number one emitter in the world, surpassing us. We’re number two, but we were number one. So the curve is not a good curve. And so we have to get China to make different decisions. We have to make India to make a decision. India is number three and moving up.
QUESTION: Talking about American companies and --
SECRETARY KERRY: Yes, American companies are already beginning to shift because they see this marketplace signal that I just described taking place. Now, there’s some that aren’t, like some of our coal companies. Why? Because they haven’t diversified. They don’t have any other alternatives. They do have them, but they haven’t moved towards them. They haven’t embraced them. And so they still have been one of the resisters to the – to change. And we were on a track changing that. I hope we can stay on that track. I don’t know what’s going to happen now, but that may be part of the public accountability movement that has to begin to take place so that we do move them.
But a lot of corporate boards – I’ll tell you, wise CEOs are making a different set of decisions for their companies. They are moving in a different direction in what they purchase, in how they behave, and in what kind of products they use and so forth. So there’s a beginning of a kind of new corporate responsibility. We’re not there yet, but it’s beginning.
Maybe the last one, and we’ll let everybody get out of here. Yes.
QUESTION: We’re talking about corporations and companies, but what can we do? What do you think is the best tool for us as individuals in our homes to offset the (inaudible)?
SECRETARY KERRY: So what’s the best thing that individuals can do? We were talking about corporations, but now what are the best things that people can do in their homes and how do you do this. Well, a massive amount of things you can do in making choices about the products you use, how you power your house, whether you’re in a place where you can get into an alternative grid or whether you can tap into wind power or solar power or in a place where you can have your own solar panels. I mean, roofs nowadays are made of rollable, photovoltaic shingles so to speak, and you can power your house. I mean, there are different things – and by the way, it pays for itself. It seems like an upfront expense, but there are plenty of people who finance and subsidize that now, and you can do it and ultimately save money. So there are lots of things you can do – the products you buy, I mean, what you do on recycling, what you do with respect to waste, what kind of – whether or not you try to do offsets to your carbon footprint. I mean, there are just a lot of different things that people can do as they begin to be aware of what the choices are. And some of them are hard. It’s hard to break habits.
But the bottom line is this: Nobody has to give up a quality of life in order to live a better life. It’s not the choice. It’s not a choice of the economy or protecting the environment. That is a false choice, and that has been proven again and again and again. You can live better, you can do more in terms of responsibility to the planet, and meet your responsibilities. You don’t have to suddenly stop doing a whole bunch of things; you just do them differently. And that’s the thing that people are increasingly becoming aware of. And if you go into business, you can do very well and do good at the same time. And there are lots of people out there doing that. I know a guy who is a multimillionaire who started his own company. He’s an immigrant. And he refits businesses and buildings, et cetera, and he completely finances the deal. It’s hard for people to say no. And he says, “All I want you to do is give me a percentage of the savings.” And he pays out – the payout comes in the savings. And the business model is so good that he’s been able to walk in to people and he says, “And if I don’t do it, you don’t have to pay me anything.” And it works, and he’s doing very well, and he’s doing good at the same time. So that’s the point I’m making is you can do well and do good at the same time. You just have to present the right choices.
The final thing I would say to everybody here, as I said, I’ve been through this. I’ve been at it for quite a while. Everything I say tonight will go up in air and be worthless if you don’t continue doing what you’re doing, but also if you don’t – when you come home and you’re back in your communities – help people to make these choices the way I’m talking about. Start to create an accountability in the political process for smart decisions that actually change things in the right direction, not that just undo things or takes us backwards but smart decisions that actually put in place good policies that can change things for the better for a lot of people. And we need that accountability, we really do, and you all are the ones who have to provide it. Nobody in public life – no politician – has the ability to do this. It requires a whole bunch of people who want to really keep it moving in the right direction.
So again, it’s such a privilege to be here. It really is. And I want to thank each and every one of you again for being here, for making the commitment you’ve made to be part of this great endeavor. Each of you can be teachers in so many ways when you go home. You’ve got so much knowledge and so much experience about what’s happening and how to make a difference. And I hope every single one of you will never forget to be a citizen of whatever country or whatever place it is you come from, carry out that responsibility of citizenship. It’s the most important thing of all.
Thank you, all. God bless. Thank you. (Applause.)
Thank you all very much. I’ll see you around the campus.