U.S.-China Strategic & Economic Dialogue Outcomes of the Strategic Track
At the Eighth Round of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) June 6-7, 2016, in Beijing, State Councilor Yang Jiechi, S pecial R epresentative of President Xi Jinping, and Secretary of State John Kerry, S pecial R epresentative of President Barack Obama, chaired the Strategic Track, w ith participation by senior officials from across both governments. The two sides held in-depth discussions on major bilateral, regional, and global issues. Th is round of dialogue on the Strategic Track produced the following specific outcomes and areas for further cooperation :
I. Bilateral Cooperation
1. High-Level Exchanges: The United States and China commended the progress made in U.S.-China relations in recent years. The two sides decided to expand cooperation while narrowing differences in order to promote the building of a new model of relations between China and the United States, in accordance with the consensus reached by the two Heads of State. The two sides commended the outcomes of their Presidents' meeting during the fourth Nuclear Security Summit. The two presidents look forward to meeting at the G-20 Summit in Hangzhou, China and reaffirmed their desire for a successful Summit. The two sides decided to maintain high-level exchanges and continue utilizing productive bilateral mechanisms such as the Strategic & Economic Dialogue, the Consultation on People-to-People Exchange, the Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade, and the High-Level Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues . The two sides further decided to maintain close communication on bilateral, regional, and global issues, and to achieve new concrete results to benefit the people of the two countries and the world.
2. Military to-Military Relations: The two sides reaffirm their commitment to implement the consensus reached by their state and military leaders respectively, and advance the outcomes produced between the two defense authorities on promoting military-to-military relations by reducing risk and deepening practical cooperation in areas of mutual interest. The two sides decided to exchange views on the threat to peace and security posed by international terrorist organizations. The two navies plan to work toward an agreement to conduct substantive exercises in conjunction with agreed upon port visits to cooperate during natural disaster or counter-piracy operations. The two sides decided to continue to deepen practical cooperation in areas including HA/DR, UN peacekeeping operations, counter-piracy, military medicine, and military archives. China welcomes U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter to visit China in 2016, and Secretary Carter looks forward to the opportunity to visit China. In 2016, the U.S. plans to host the 2016 Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC) and the PLA plans to host the U.S.-China Joint Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Management Exchange.
3. Confidence Building Measures: The two sides reaffirm their commitment to actively implement the two Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) on Confidence Building Measures (CBM) signed between the Ministry of National Defense of China and the U.S. Department of Defense in 2014, namely the Notification of Major Military Activities MOU and Rules of Behavior for Safety of Air and Maritime Encounters MOU. In 2015, the two sides expanded the MOU with the completion of an annex on air-to-air encounters and a crisis communications annex. The completion of these MOU and annexes reflect the two sides' commitment to reducing risk, improving operational safety, and managing differences through sustained and substantive engagements. In 2016, the two sides decided to work to improve implementation of the CBMs by incorporating exercises related to the Rules of Behavior for Safety of Air and Maritime Encounters in conjunction with agreed upon port visits and coordinate on discussions of additional annexes to the Notification of Major Military Activities MOU, including a mechanism for informing the other party of ballistic missile launches.
4. Strategic Security Dialogue: The United States and China held the sixth round of the Strategic Security Dialogue (SSD) on June 5, 2016, during which the two sides had candid, constructive discussions on strategic security issues. The dialogue was co-chaired by Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Yesui and U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken, who were joined by Assistant Chief of Staff Ma Yiming of Joint Staff Department, Central Military Commission, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Asian and Pacific Security Affairs David Shear, and other senior defense and civilian officials from the two countries. The two sides noted the dialogue was beneficial to enhancing mutual understanding and trust on strategic security issues and decided to continue in-depth, sustained, and open communication, with the goal of further consolidating a stable and cooperative strategic security relationship between the United States and China. The two sides also decided to hold an inter-sessional meeting of the SSD prior to January 2017 and to hold the next SSD on the eve of the next S&ED.
5. Cyber Security: The United States and China welcomed the cyber commitments reached between President Obama and President Xi during the State Visit last September. The two sides welcomed the results of the inaugural U.S.-China High-Level Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues in December, where the two sides decided to build on these commitments through consistent implementation of guidelines for combating c ybercrime and related issues ; and cooperation to combat malicious cyber activity, including hacker attacks. Both countries also reaffirmed their commitment to refrain from conducting or knowingly supporting cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information, with the intent of providing competitive advantages to companies or commercial sectors. Both countries affirmed the value of the inaugural Senior Experts Group on International Norms in Cyberspace and Related Issues, where the two sides held constructive, in-depth and fruitful discussion on international norms and related issues in cyberspace and decided to further discuss these issues in the search for common ground. The two sides decided to hold the next round of the Senior Experts Group in six months. The two sides look forward to conducting a successful second High-Level Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues, which is planned for June 14 in Beijing.
6. Nonproliferation: Both sides welcomed the second meeting of the Nonproliferation Working Group (NWG) in Beijing in May where the United States and China exchanged views on a range of nonproliferation issues, evaluated the international nonproliferation situation, acknowledged the necessity of strengthening bilateral cooperation, and decided to continue close communication regarding each other's concerns. The two sides decided to work toward establishing mutual trust through open and timely communication in this regard. The two sides decided to take a practical approach to manage their differences and take steps to benefit the international nonproliferation system. The two sides decided to hold the third round of the NWG at an appropriate time in Washington, D.C. next year.
7. Anti-Corruption and Combatting International Bribery: The United States and China reaffirmed the U.S.-China Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation through the Working Group on Anti-Corruption (JLG ACWG) as the principal mechanism for bilateral anti-corruption cooperation, and decided to work together on the 11 th JLG ACWG meeting in fall 2016. The two sides decided to deepen cooperation on preventing official corruption and combatting transnational bribery, detecting embezzled public funds, denying safe haven for criminals and the proceeds of their crime, and recovering assets. The two sides reaffirmed the importance of publicizing their foreign bribery laws and actively pursuing credible allegations of foreign bribery. The United States welcomed China's commitment to consider joining the OECD Working Group on Bribery as a participant in the near future and China's proposal to organize a round table meeting on the Anti-Bribery Convention and combating international bribery together with the OECD Working Group on Bribery in the second half of 2016.
8. Cooperation on Anti-Corruption in the G-20 and APEC: China commended the United States' support to China's G-20 Anti-Corruption Working Group presidency in 2016. The United States and China decided to work with other delegations towards the endorsement of a G-20 Anticorruption Action Plan, setting out key work streams for the next two years. They also decided to work together with G-20 partners towards endorsement of High-Level Principles on Persons Sought for Corruption and Asset Recovery and China's establishment of a research center in Beijing on these issues. The two sides reaffirmed their G-20 commitment to tackle foreign bribery, including implementing the G-20 Principles in this area. The two sides are working together in APEC to develop strong anti-corruption cooperation including through the implementation of the 2014 APEC Beijing Declaration on Fighting Corruption.
9. Law Enforcement Cooperation: The United States and China decided to continue efforts to deepen and strengthen law enforcement cooperation to address issues of mutual concern, utilizing the U.S.-China Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation (JLG) as the principal mechanism of bilateral law enforcement cooperation. The two sides decided to work together to implement the consensus reached at the 13th JLG, including by holding a discussion about recognition and enforcement of forfeiture judgments. The two sides decided to implement the outcomes of the UN General Assembly on the World Drug Problem. The two sides decided to continue strengthening cooperation on control measures and criminal investigations of cases involving drugs, including New Psychoactive Substances, and the smuggling of firearms and other illicit items through the JLG and its working groups. It was noted that the 14th plenary session of the JLG is planned for before the end of 2016 in China. T he Ministry of Public Security of China and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security held two bilateral minister level meetings in 2015. The two sides look forward to continuing to meet at the minister level.
10. Legal Advisers Consultation: The United States and China reaffirmed the importance of engaging on legal issues of mutual interest. The third annual Legal Advisers Consultation between the Director General of the Department of Treaty and Law of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China and the Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State is planned for the fourth quarter of 2016 in Washington, D.C.
11. Disability Rights: The United States and China decided to continue their productive engagement on disability rights issues and convene the third U.S.-China Coordination Meeting on Disability in April 2017. The two sides decided to expand dialogue and exchange on the rights of persons with disabilities as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, with an ongoing emphasis on inclusive education, employment, accessibility, and rehabilitation. The two sides recognized the important contributions of professional institutions and NGOs in the promotion of disability rights issues and decided to work together with those organizations to explore technical workshops and visits designed to share experiences and identify promising practices in the related areas.
12. Nuclear Security: In recognition of their common interests and responsibilities in promoting nuclear security, the United States and China held the inaugural Nuclear Security Dialogue (NSD) in February 2016. The dialogue contributed to the successful 2016 Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) hosted by President Obama and attended by President Xi. The two sides reaffirmed the U.S.-China Joint Statement on Nuclear Security Cooperation released on March 31, 2016, expressed their commitment to deepen bilateral collaboration in this regard, and decided to hold the second round of the NSD in advance of the next S&ED. China and the United States also welcomed the official opening of the Center of Excellence (COE) in Beijing on March 18, 2016, an event that marked a significant milestone of bilateral cooperation on nuclear security and an important outcome of the NSS process. The COE contributes to the development of nuclear security. The two sides look forward to continued cooperation on training and technical exchanges at the COE. The two sides also welcomed the successful conversion of the first Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR), located at the China Institute of Atomic Energy and reaffirmed their commitment to the conversion of other MNSRs from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium fuel, as stated in the U.S.-China Joint Statement on Nuclear Security Cooperation. The United States and China also plan to exchange views on the threat of nuclear smuggling and consider expanding cooperation to counter this threat.
13. Commodity Identification Training (CIT) for Nonproliferation Export Control: The U.S. Department of Energy and the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GACC) signed the Statement of Intent for Cooperation in the Field of Commodity Identification Training for Nonproliferation Export Control in March 2016. The Statement of Intent (SOI) facilitates continued cooperation to develop a Chinese national course for CIT, aimed at combating illicit trafficking of WMD-related materials, equipment, and technology through nuclear and dual-use commodity familiarization and identification.
14. Combating the Smuggling of Nuclear Materials: The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GACC) decided to continue their technical collaboration to mature, expand, and sustain GACC's capacity building efforts in nuclear detection to combat international nuclear smuggling. DOE/NNSA and GACC decided to continue a technical exchange program on GACC's deployments at the Yangshan Import Lanes, the planned deployment of a radiation detection system at the Port of Tianjin, and the development of a training and exercise process within Customs.
15. Nuclear Forensics Analysis: The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has engaged with the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) in nuclear forensics analysis activities since January 2014 under Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology (PUNT) Working Group II. In August 2015, NNSA and CAEA presented the results of their cooperation on a bilateral uranium age dating project, and they are working to develop a peer-reviewed publication of the study. The two sides plan to continue their work on age dating by examining additional parent-daughter pairs to gain a better understanding of discordant age determinations ( e.g. , when pairs yield different ages).
16. Customs Cooperation on Supply Chain Security and Facilitation: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GACC) decided to sign the Joint Statement on Global Supply Chain Security and Facilitation in 2016 to enhance their cooperation mechanism on safeguarding the supply chain security and promoting trade facilitation.
17. Customs Law Enforcement: The Department of Homeland Security's Immigration and Customs Enforcement (DHS/ICE), the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GACC) decided to continue their regular cooperation in fighting against the smuggling of arms and ammunitions, drugs, endangered species of wild fauna and flora and its product, solid wastes, cracking down on commercial frauds, establishing a long-term cooperation mechanism and actively carrying out intelligence exchange, investigation assistance, and joint operations.
18. Container Security Initiative: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection (DHS/CBP) and the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GACC) decided to strengthen their cooperation on the Container Security Initiative (CSI) program. The two sides intend to sign the Basic Implementation Procedures for the Declaration of Principle between GACC and DHS/CBP Relating to Bilateral Customs Cooperation at Seaports to Enhance Security Cooperation in the second quarter of 2016. The two sides intend to expand CSI to address customs violations determined by the two sides, increase the number of CSI inspections, and promote the process of posting GACC officers at the Port of Long Beach in California.
19. Cooperation on Joint Validation and AEO Mutual Recognition: The Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection (DHS/CBP) and the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GACC) signed the Addendum to the Action Plan Implementing the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Cooperation on Supply Chain Security and Facilitation between GACC and DHS/CBP. DHS/CBP and GACC have completed joint validations of 437 enterprises in China and seek to conduct additional joint validations in 2016. The two sides plan to conclude negotiation of the Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) mutual recognition arrangement (MRA) in 2016 and seek to sign the MRA at an appropriate time.
20. Emergency Management: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA ) and the National Earthquake Response Support Service of the China Earthquake Administration, with continued support from the U.S. Agency for International Development's Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) and the Asia Foundation, collaborated in August 2015 to successfully deliver adapted Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) training courses in Chengdu, China. The United States and China also decided to deepen their cooperation and support for the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG). The 2016 earthquake emergency training exercise, with support from USAID/OFDA, is planned for Yogyakarta, Indonesia from July 25 to 29. The two sides intend to increase collaboration on activities related to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030), including supporting its regional and global platforms.
21. China Garden: The United States and China reaffirmed their support for the China Garden Project and decided to endeavor to ensure to start construction of the China Garden before October 30, 2016. In order to do so, China announced its intention to mobilize funding and carry out the overground and underground construction of the Project, and the United States decided to strive to ensure to complete the review and approval processes before the start of the construction.
22. Sub-Dialogues, Breakout Sessions, and Bilateral Meetings: The United States and China held breakout sessions and meetings on the margin of this year's S&ED on the subjects of UN/multilateral affairs, Sudan and South Sudan, wildlife trafficking, aviation, ocean conservation, and power sector policy. The two sides conducted a series of bilateral meetings between senior officials on a broad range of issues in the U.S.-China relationship . The United States and China decided to hold the next round of sub-dialogues on Africa, Latin America, Central Asia, and South Asia at an appropriate time and to enhance bilateral coordination and explore areas of cooperation on regional and international issues.
II. Addressing Regional and Global Challenges
23. The Korean Peninsula: The United States and China condemned the Democratic People's Republic of Korea's January 6, 2016 nuclear test and subsequent launches using ballistic missile technology, and called on the DPRK to cease actions that contravene its obligations under UN Security Council resolutions and commitments under the September 19, 2005 Joint Statement. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to implement fully UNSC resolution 2270 and other relevant Security Council resolutions. The two sides reiterated their commitment to achieve the verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner and concurred on the importance of safeguarding the peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula. The two sides called on all relevant parties to make joint efforts and take the necessary actions to create the conditions for an early resumption of the Six-Party Talks. The two sides decided to continue close communication and coordination on relevant issues.
24. Afghanistan: The United States and China decided to continue and expand their cooperation in support of a peaceful, stable, and unified Afghanistan, which is in the interest of our two countries. The two sides reflected on the substantial progress made since the last S&ED, including the September 2015 High-Level Event on Afghanistan's Peaceful Development and Regional Cooperation, co-chaired by Afghan Chief Executive Abdullah, Foreign Minister Wang, and Secretary Kerry. The United States and China remain committed to maintaining close communication and cooperation on their efforts to promote and support progress on reconciliation efforts. The two sides are continuing to work together, including through the Quadrilateral Coordination Group with Afghanistan and Pakistan, to take concrete steps to support an Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process. The two sides decided to continue their joint training programs for young Afghan diplomats, now entering its fifth year, and for Afghan health and agricultural workers. The United States and China further decided to explore new areas of development cooperation in Afghanistan in close consultation with the Afghan government.
25. Sudan and South Sudan: The United States and China called for the parties to the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) to implement provisions of the agreement expeditiously and ensure the effective functioning of the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU). The two sides affirmed that international support is needed to ensure successful implementation, and decided to explore ways they might cooperate on post-conflict disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration efforts in South Sudan. The two sides concurred that the TGNU should implement the provisions of the ARCSS. The members of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC) Partners Group should remain engaged in support of the JMEC, its Chairperson, and implementation of the ARCSS. The international community should continue to support the UN Mission in South Sudan in its mandate to protect civilians, investigate human rights abuses, and create conditions conducive to the delivery of humanitarian assistance; and to support the efforts of the Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism. The two sides called on the leaders of South Sudan to enable delivery of humanitarian assistance and on the international community to continue the provision of humanitarian assistance to the people of South Sudan. The two sides stressed that the legitimate rights and interests of international partners in South Sudan should be respected and protected. The two sides also reaffirmed that Sudan and South Sudan should be encouraged to resolve differences in a peaceful way. The two sides plan to continue to consult on matters related to Sudan and South Sudan, and support peace in Sudan and South Sudan and peaceful relations between the two states.
26. Iran: The United States and China welcomed the full implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), to ensure Iran's nuclear program is and remains exclusively peaceful. Full implementation of the JCPOA contributes positively to regional and international security, as well as the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. The two sides plan to continue working together on redesigning and rebuilding of the Arak heavy water research reactor as co-chairs of the Arak Modernization Working Group. The two sides reaffirm the important role of the IAEA to ensure continued verification and monitoring of all nuclear-related commitments under the JCPOA. The two sides reaffirmed their respective commitments pursuant to the JCPOA and called on the E3/EU+3 and Iran to continue to implement their respective commitments in a comprehensive manner pursuant to the JCPOA.
27. Syria: The United States and China exchanged detailed views on the current situation in Syria and reaffirmed their joint commitment to resolve the Syrian issue through political means as outlined in UNSC resolution 2254 and the Geneva Communiqué. The sides expressed their support for the International Syria Support Group's efforts to facilitate a cessation of hostilities in Syria. The two sides expressed concern that toxic chemicals have been used as a weapon in Syria even after the Security Council passed Resolution 2118, reaffirmed their opposition to the proliferation or use of any chemical weapon, and expressed their support for the work of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in Syria. The two sides expressed deep concern over the humanitarian situation, noted the funding gaps and operational challenges the UN faces, and decided to continue to increase their significant support for the Syrian refugees and internally displaced persons via the UN, International Red Cross/Red Crescent, and their affiliated implementing partners such as the Syrian Arab Red Crescent. The two sides called on the international community to step up humanitarian assistance in accordance with United Nations guiding principles.
28. Iraq: In support of a common interest in a stable Iraq, the United States and China decided to provide support to Iraq on its economic reconstruction and called on the international community to do the same. The United States and China reaffirmed their support for the Iraqi government's efforts to implement reforms and to combat terrorism . Together with Iraq, the United States and China are to discuss areas of potential cooperation on energy. The two sides expressed deep concern over the humanitarian situation and decided to continue their strong humanitarian assistance for Iraqi refugees and internally displaced persons.
29. Counterterrorism: The United States and China condemn all forms of terrorism and decided to continue their cooperation to counter the global threat posed by terrorist organizations. The two sides decided to expand cooperation to counter terrorist financing through the implementation of UN Secretary Council Resolution (UNSCR) 2199 and 2253, and stem the trans-border flow of foreign terrorist fighters, including through enhanced information sharing, implementation of UNSCR 2178, and cooperation on aviation security. The third round of the Counterterrorism Dialogue is planned for later this year in Washington, D.C.
30. Asia-Pacific: The two sides decided to intensify their dialogue on Asia-Pacific affairs and to strengthen cooperation in multilateral mechanisms in the region, including APEC, the East Asia Summit, and the ASEAN Regional Forum. The two sides respect and support ASEAN Centrality and ASEAN-led mechanisms in the evolving regional architecture of the Asia-Pacific and decided to continue to make concerted efforts with countries in the region to build an open economy in the Asia-Pacific; promote respect for international law, including the UN Charter; and address various non-traditional security challenges such as fighting piracy, disaster prevention and mitigation, and disease prevention and control, including continuing to facilitate practical cooperation in earthquake emergency response and maritime search and rescue. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to uphold the principle of peaceful resolution of disputes, and work with other countries in the region to promote peace, stability, and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific.
31. Peacekeeping: The United States and China exchanged views on UN peacekeeping operations at an S&ED breakout session and welcomed the constructive exchange that took place during the first Peacekeeping Technical Experts Meeting held in Beijing in November 2015. The two sides reaffirmed their joint commitment to deepen their dialogue on these issues and to further discuss concrete proposals for cooperation in building the capacity of third country police and troop contributing countries in the next round of the Peacekeeping Technical Experts Meeting to be held before the UN General Assembly in September. The two sides recognized that the maintenance of international peace and security often depends upon the ability of the UN to deploy effective peacekeepers in conflict-affected areas of the world. The two sides condemned the May 31 terrorist attack on UN peacekeepers deployed in Mali, which caused the death of one Chinese peacekeeper and injured others. The United States expressed its deepest sympathy to the family of the victim, and the two sides expressed their support for the swift investigation and prosecution of those responsible. The two sides commended the UN Security Council's support for Women, Peace, and Security (WPS); reaffirmed their support for the UNSC resolutions that provide a framework for implementing and monitoring the WPS Agenda; and decided to discuss WPS issues, including at their S&ED breakout session. The two sides also decided to discuss UN police peacekeeping, and efforts to support police contributing countries.
32. United Nations: The United States and China held the second round of UN and multilateral affairs consultation at an S&ED breakout session. The two sides expressed support for the United Nations playing an important role in international affairs as the most universal multilateral organization, and explored effective ways to maintain international peace and security through multilateralism. The two sides exchanged views on a wide range of areas, including development, disaster risk reduction, and peacekeeping. The two sides reaffirmed that development is the fundamental solution to various global challenges. The two sides decided to enhance coordination regarding the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, facilitating the formulation of G-20 action plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and promoting global development cooperation. The two sides decided to strengthen cooperation on disaster management, including through exchanges, research, major natural disaster response exercises, and the implementation of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The two sides discussed the growing needs of refugees and the strains on the UN's humanitarian system. China noted the U.S.-hosted Refugee Summit and the UN High-Level Plenary on Addressing Large Movements of Refugees and Migrants at the UN General assembly would help address the growing needs of refugees.
33. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response: The United States and China participated in the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul in May 2016. The two sides decided to deepen their cooperation and support for the UN International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG), and promote the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). The two sides decided to increase resource contributions to countries adversely affected by El Nino, based upon the request of host governments, including via the World Food Programme and focusing especially on countries in the Horn of Africa. In the long-term, the two sides intend to share information and explore cooperation on reducing the impact of climate-related disasters.
34. Global Development: Building on the U.S.-China Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed during President Xi Jinping's September 2015 state visit to the United States, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Ministry of Commerce of China (MOFCOM) convened the first annual vice-minister level Development Meeting in Beijing, China on April 28, 2016. The two sides reaffirmed their shared objectives in ending poverty and advancing global development through enhanced collaboration and communication under the principle that cooperation is raised, agreed, and led by recipient countries. China and the United States intend to expand their collaboration with international institutions to tackle key global development challenges . The two sides intend to continue expanding their discussion on development matters in future development-related meetings, such as, the nexus between development assistance cooperation and combating climate change.
35. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: The United States and China reaffirmed the importance of advancing sustainable and inclusive development and implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the Sustainable Development Goals and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, through expanded cooperation to end poverty and hunger, promote inclusive economic growth, and protect the environment. The two sides also reaffirmed their commitment to help developing countries achieve their development goals and priorities. The two sides plan to continue sharing knowledge, best practices, and lessons learned on global development issues and common development challenges, and discuss new opportunities for development cooperation.
36. Responsible Mineral Supply Chain: The United States and China recognized that responsible mineral supply chain practices promote stability and prosperity in the African Great Lakes region and the two sides welcomed each other's efforts in this area. Both sides expect to encourage exchanges and the sharing of best practices between commercial enterprises in the two countries. The U.S. Department of State and relevant U.S. agencies, and China's Ministry of Commerce and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine intend to collaborate on implementation of due diligence guidance, relevant standards, and initiatives, consistent with UNSCR 1952 (2010).
37. Wildlife Trafficking: The United States and China reaffirmed their intention to implement the wildlife trafficking commitments under the September 2015 U.S.-China Presidential outcome. The two sides underscored the importance and urgency of combating wildlife trafficking and decided to enhance cooperation, including through technological innovation. The United States implemented its commitments on the import, export and domestic commercial trade of ivory in June 2016, and China enacted bans on import of ivory and its products in March 2016, and decided to publish a timetable by the end of 2016 to halt its domestic commercial trade of ivory. To reduce the impact of wildlife trafficking on all species, including on marine species such as totoaba and sea turtles, the two sides decided to: prioritize cooperation in mutually-decided upon exchange programs and enhance law enforcement cooperation, including through international, multi-country operations to effectively detect, deter, and dismantle wildlife trafficking networks; intensify domestic law enforcement efforts; treat wildlife trafficking as a serious crime; strive to eliminate market driving forces for poaching and illegal trade of wildlife; strengthen bilateral cooperation and communication in developing wildlife identification techniques that can be successfully used in judicial proceedings ; and encourage relevant actors to take voluntary actions to combat online trade of illegal wildlife products. The two sides decided to further cooperate in joint training, information sharing and public education on combating wildlife trafficking, and to work with government, international governmental organizations, civil society, the private sector, and local communities, in a comprehensive effort to combat wildlife trafficking . The two sides decided to strengthen working level communication and cooperation to implement the above mentioned joint actions, and progress should be included in subsequent S&ED outcomes.
38. G-20: The United States supports China's presidency to host a successful G-20 Hangzhou Summit in 2016 and looks forward to working closely with China to promote strong, sustainable, and balanced growth of the global economy. In supporting the G-20 as the premier forum for international economic cooperation, both sides are committed to working with other G-20 members to (i) strengthen macroeconomic policy cooperation; (ii) use all policy tools to foster confidence and strengthen growth, use fiscal policy flexibly to strengthen growth, use monetary policy to continue to support economic activity and ensure price stability, consistent with central banks' mandates, and use structural reform to boost potential growth in the medium term; (iii) explore opportunities arising from innovation; (iv) improve global economic, financial and energy governance ; (v) address climate change and bolster c lean energy; (vi) contribute to inclusive and sustainable global development through the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, both domestically and internationally, and the timely implementation of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. Both sides are committed to working with other G-20 members to make continued progress on these and other issues in the G-20 agenda and deliver positive outcomes for the Hangzhou Summit across a number of areas, including phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies by a date certain; continuing discussions and cooperation on climate and energy efficiency, such as improving emissions performance of heavy-duty vehicles and steps to reduce methane emissions; conducting cooperation on epidemic prevention, detection, and response, based on the World Health Organization Joint External Evaluation tool; and combating antimicrobial resistance. Both sides encourage all G-20 members to fully implement commitments made at previous G-20 Summits.
39. Consultation on International Economic Affairs: The U.S. Department of State and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China held a second round of consultations on international economic affairs, discussing a range of issues including the world economy, G-20, APEC, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The two sides decided to hold the third round of consultations in China in 2017 to further communication and coordination.
III. Cooperation on Climate Change and Energy
40. Commitment to Working Toward Full Implementation of the Paris Agreement: Building on the March 2016 Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change, the United States and China reiterated their commitment to work together and with others to promote the full implementation of the Paris Agreement, including through relevant work programs. The two sides decided to maintain and strengthen regular high-level dialogue on issues in the international climate negotiations through the Enhanced Policy Dialogue. The United States and China continue to encourage other Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to take their respective domestic steps in order to join the Agreement, with a view to bringing the Paris Agreement into force as early as possible.
41. Climate Change Working Group: The United States and China celebrated the progress achieved through the first three years of the Climate Change Working Group (CCWG), a durable, multi-year framework that facilitates constructive dialogue and cooperation to address climate change. The S&ED co-chairs released the annual CCWG report documenting progress to date and future goals of the various elements of the CCWG, including the ongoing work of the nine CCWG action initiatives, regular meetings of the Enhanced and Domestic Policy Dialogues, and collaboration and dialogue on HFCs. The two sides welcomed the expansion of the CCWG through creation of the new Electric Power Systems Initiative, comprised of ongoing cooperation on Smart Grids and new cooperation on Power Consumption, Demand, and Competition. Individual CCWG initiatives and dialogues meet throughout the year, and the next CCWG annual intersessional meeting is intended to be held in China in early 2017.
42. Achieving a Successful Outcome on HFCs under the Montreal Protocol: The United States and China committed to work bilaterally and with other Parties to achieve a successful outcome of a comprehensive and ambitious HFC amendment under the Montreal Protocol this year pursuant to the Dubai Pathway. This commitment builds on the two sides' close cooperation during a bilateral negotiator meeting, the 2015 Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and the April 2016 Open-Ended Working Group in Geneva. The two sides also emphasized the importance of domestic action to reduce use and emissions of HFCs. China plans to continue implementing HFC-23 byproduct controls from HCFC-22 production facilities before the end of 2020 and initiate the development of policies to reduce intentional uses of HFCs. The United States completed a regulation in 2015 that prohibits certain high-GWP HFCs in specific applications, which is estimated to avoid 54-64 MMTCO2eq of HFC emissions in 2025; expanded the list of approved climate-friendly alternatives; and in April 2016, proposed further restrictions on the use of certain HFCs.
43. Enhancing the Collaboration in ICAO: The United States and China support the adoption this October of an ICAO Assembly Resolution that, as part of a basket of measures to address CO2 emissions from international aviation, reflects a global market-based measure (GMBM). Consistent with their past contributions to the resolution of global climate-related issues, the two countries have an important role to play in helping to forge convergence on the outstanding issues. The two sides decided to work together and with other ICAO Member States to reach a successful outcome this year.
44. CCWG Heavy-Duty and Other Vehicles: The United States and China remain closely engaged as they continue to make significant, respective domestic policy and programmatic progress within the three components of the Heavy-Duty and Other Vehicles Initiative. On tailpipe emissions and fuel quality standards, China accelerated the release of its draft China 6/VI emission standards for light- and heavy-duty vehicles to mid-2016, and intends to implement these standards nationwide by 2020. China also plans to enhance its compliance programs for heavy-duty vehicles. On fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission standards, the two sides decided to hold an experience-sharing workshop that would bring together policy makers, industry, and other stakeholders in fall 2016 to discuss heavy-duty vehicle emissions and fuel consumption standards. On green freight, China with the United States held the annual China Green Freight Initiative Conference in September 2015, with thematic activities focused on green shippers. China plans to host the next annual conference, which is to include a green freight enterprise training, a shipper-carrier cooperation workshop, and a green freight technology workshop, in late 2016. On the Race to Zero Emission (R2ZE) challenge to encourage local deployment of zero emission buses, the two sides formally launched R2ZE at the 2016 China-U.S. Transportation Forum and launched the official R2ZE website ( https://www.transportation.gov/R2ZE ) to promote the program, profile the race participants, and host zero emission bus news. The two sides jointly organized a zero emission bus breakout session at the June 2016 China-U.S. Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities Summit and decided to hold the next R2ZE conference in conjunction with 2017 China-U.S. Transportation Forum. Finally, the two sides decided to work together and with other countries to secure strong outcomes to improve fuel quality and the energy efficiency and emissions performance of heavy-duty vehicles through the G-20.
45. CCWG Smart Grids: Continuing their multi-year collaboration to demonstrate and evaluate smart grid technologies across four pilot projects, the two sides completed more than 40 expert-days of technical assistance exchanges during the China Smart Grid Technologies Reverse Trade Mission in November 2015. The two sides also held a workshop in Beijing in October 2015 where participants reported on demonstration project outcomes including: (1) energy savings from distribution voltage control on different electric circuits in Irvine, CA; and (2) advanced functionalities developed in end-user energy management systems, multi-state energy coordination and control, and the big data monitoring platform in Tianjin Eco-City, China. In addition, the Benefits Evaluation subgroup published the first edition of the U.S.-China white paper on smart grid benefits analysis and evaluation in October 2015. The results show promising benefit-to-cost ratios ranging from 3 to 7 for key smart grid technologies. The two sides decided to publish the final white paper analyzing the benefits of smart grids by December 2016. Moving forward, the United States and China decided to enhance their collaboration on Smart Grid and other technologies and to rename the CCWG Smart Grids Initiative as the Electric Power Systems Initiative. The next phase of this CCWG collaboration focuses on testing smart grid equipment, devices, and systems to comply with national/industry/enterprise standards at the respective national test facilities in the two countries.
46. Clean, Efficient, and Secure Electricity Production and Transmission: The United States and China, through the U.S. Federal Regulatory Commission (FERC) and China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and National Energy Administration (NEA), decided, when possible, to hold seminars on smart grids; conduct pilot projects on the use of smart-grid technology; carry out exchanges and training of personnel; and review smart grid goods and services in both countries. The two sides encouraged local governments to play a more active role in project implementation, hosting international exchanges and cooperating on smart grid developments. The United States and China also decided to further strengthen their cooperation regarding China's movement toward market-based pricing mechanisms; strive to arrange a yearly two-way visit program; hold digital video conferences on specific topics regularly such as transmission and distribution prices; organize training courses in China on price monitoring and management of power transmission and distribution; and conduct further exchanges on the policies, experience, and reform plans related to power price management.
47. CCWG Carbon Capture Use and Storage (CCUS): The United States and China continued making progress and sharing experience among the six pairs of counter-facing CCWG CCUS demonstration projects. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Development and Reform Commission of China (NDRC), ongoing cooperative activities include technical exchange meetings, site visits, and researcher exchanges. Top achievements of the projects to date include an announcement by the Yanchang Petroleum project – following its recognition in the September 2015 U.S.-China Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change – of a 1 MM tonnes CO 2 per year Enhanced Oil Recovery/storage program, and ongoing development of a detailed engineering design for the Guangdong Offshore CO 2 project. The two sides held a CCUS Workshop in Urumqi, Xinjiang in November 2015, and held the third CCWG CCUS Workshop in Xi'an, China in June 2016.
48. CCWG Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Industry: The United States and China remain committed to advancing the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) initiative to foster deep retrofits for energy savings. At the 2015 Energy Efficiency Forum in Washington D.C. in October, the two sides recognized three pilot projects in Beijing, Tianjin and Shenzhen. Each pilot project includes a U.S. and Chinese partner. Projects are expected to achieve between 25-51 percent energy savings and represents millions of dollars of trade and investment. At the 2016 Energy Efficiency Forum in China, the two sides plan to evaluate lessons learned through the pilot process thus far, to continue collaboration on technical and policy issues, and to recognize additional pilot projects. The United States and China, along with other International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation partners, developed and released their own “TOP TENs” lists of best energy efficiency practices and best available technologies. The United States and China are collaborating on ways to promote Chinese and American businesses that represent relevant Top Ten Technologies from their respective national lists.
49. CCWG Collecting and Managing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Data: The United States and China continued working together to implement successful capacity building activities in China on GHG reporting methodologies, data verification, and electronic registry development. In further support of this initiative, the National Development and Reform Commission of China and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency adopted a new joint implementation plan, under which they held a successful workshop on methane emissions from petroleum and natural gas in fall 2015; launched a petroleum and natural gas sector GHG measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) pilot in March 2016; and held two additional capacity building events in April 2016 – a design session on reporting software development and a workshop on power sector GHG MRV. The two sides plan additional activities for 2016, including another electronic reporting software development session and a methane-focused capacity building workshop in July.
50. CCWG Climate Change and Forests: In order to reduce emissions and enhance the positive greenhouse gas sequestration effects of forests, the United States and China increased their cooperation on issues related to climate change and forests. The two sides held a policy dialogue on forestry-related agenda items under UNFCCC climate change negotiations that helped facilitate a positive outcome at COP21 in Paris in December 2015. The two sides also held a successful workshop in Beijing in September 2015 on technical cooperation in measuring, monitoring and reporting of forestry-related greenhouse gases, which brought together technical specialists and policy makers from both governments, as well as representatives of civil society and academia. Following up on these initial discussions, experts from the two sides held a May 2016 workshop in Washington to focus on institutional and technical issues related to greenhouse gas inventories, forest inventories, and monitoring. In October 2015, the United States and China each selected two pilot sites intended to be the focus of in-depth consideration by policy-makers and practitioners on the synergies among policies and practices for forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change, beginning with a workshop in China in the autumn of 2016. The two sides held a workshop on forests, climate, finance, and investment in Shanghai in April 2016 with representatives of the two governments, private sector, and civil society. The two sides continue to explore engagement on commodities, forests, and greenhouse gas emissions.
51. CCWG Boiler Efficiency and Fuel Switching : The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and the Department of State released their policy implementation roadmap in October 2015 and continued to identify and deploy potential industrial boiler energy efficiency solutions in the two selected pilot cities, Ningbo and Xi'an. The two sides led U.S. boiler technology providers and financing partners on a study tour in January 2016 to the pilot cities for meetings with government officials interested in retrofitting or replacing small-scale boilers. NDRC has proposed demonstration pilots in which multiple U.S. technologies – pollution reduction, efficiency improvement, advanced combustion/burning – could be integrated for adoption, and NDRC is developing details on those pilots for discussion at the CCWG intersessional in early 2017. To strengthen pilot city implementation plans, the two sides plan to identify specific retrofit opportunities, develop business models for deploying boiler efficiency and community scale solutions, share experiences on monitoring and managing boiler operations, and explore a U.S study tour for Chinese stakeholders to the United States.
52. Industry Boiler Energy Efficiency: The U.S. Department of Energy and China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology supported the exchanges of industrial boiler sectoral organizations, technology research and development (R&D) centers, and manufacturing enterprises of the two countries. The two sides encouraged U.S. enterprises and research institutions to set up R&D centers jointly with the Chinese side, carry out R&D, promote the application of industrial boiler energy saving and environmental protection technologies, and co-organize Chinese industrial boiler users to conduct energy saving and environmental protection training in the United States.
53. CCWG Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities: The United States and China welcomed expanded climate collaboration at the city, state, and provincial level. The first U.S.-China Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities summit was held in Los Angeles, United States in September 2015. At the summit, 29 cities, counties, states, and provinces of the two countries signed the “U.S.-China Climate Leaders Declaration,” which included the launch of a new initiative by provinces and cities in China for peaking pioneers, and medium- and long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction targets of states, counties, and cities in the United States. Beijing hosted the second session of the China-U.S. Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities Summit in June 2016, with participation by 17 U.S. cities, counties, and states and 49 Chinese cities and provinces. All 66 participating provinces, cities, states, and counties from both countries endorsed the U.S.-China Climate Leaders Declaration, which included an expansion of China's initiative for peaking pioneers and additional targets and actions of U.S. states, counties, and cities. The summit was attended by over 1000 people across 17 breakout sessions focusing on low-carbon, climate-resilient development topics. Across the two summits, dozens of memorandums of understandings, arrangements, and other cooperative agreements between cities, states, private sector actors, research institutes, and civil society were signed. The next session of the U.S.-China Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities Summit is planned to be held in 2017 in Boston, the United States.
54. CCWG Power Consumption, Demand, and Competition: To help address the challenges that intermittent wind and solar energy present to electricity grids and local consumption, the United States and China launched a new cooperation on Power Consumption, Demand and Competition under the Electric Power Systems Initiative of the Climate Change Working Group and held the inaugural meeting at the 2016 S&ED. The two sides exchanged best practices on institutional innovations and policy actions for promoting power systems that support low-carbon, climate-resilient, and sustainable development. The two sides decided to jointly develop by fall 2016 an implementation plan for their ongoing work; conduct a study tour in fall 2016 of select pilots in China, including the projects integrating wind and solar energy for local consumption; and hold additional meetings and digital video conferences before the 2017 S&ED.
55. Green Ports and Vessels: The United States and China launched the Green Ports and Vessels Initiative (GPVI), a joint initiative under the Ten Year Framework on Energy and Environment and the Climate Change Working Group. Led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China , with the Ministry of Transportation of China, the GPVI team adopted a work plan establishing priorities, activities, and anticipated achievements to reduce emissions of air pollutants and black carbon and achieve climate co-benefits. The initiative is hosting two technical capacity-building workshops in 2016 in China and the United States and is identifying demonstration pilots focused on the development of emissions inventories for air pollutants and black carbon from ports and vessels; emissions control policies, regulations, practices, and technologies; and emission control area designation, implementation and enforcement. These activities build upon China's new port and vessel emission control requirements and advance implementation of the domestic emission control areas in the Pearl and Yangtze River Deltas and parts of the Bohai Sea.
56. Clean Energy Research Center: In recognition of their commitments to continue the fruitful work under the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC), the two sides decided to hold the 8th Steering Committee Meeting of the CERC in July 2016. Dr. Wan Gang, Minister of Science and Technology of China, and Dr. Ernest Moniz, Secretary of Energy of the United States, plan to co-chair the meeting. The two sides decided to continue strengthening cooperation between CERC industries, universities, and research institutes; carry forward cooperation in four priority areas including advanced coal technology, clean vehicles, building energy efficiency, and the energy-water nexus track; and put in place a new CERC medium- and heavy-duty truck efficiency track.
57. Renewable Energy Partnership: The United States and China decided to continue cooperation under their Renewable Energy Partnership (USCREP). USCREP provides a platform for research and commercial partnerships to promote policies and practices that enhance photovoltaic (PV) solar generation; concentrating solar power (CSP); and wind energy deployment, production, and integration. USCREP decided to continue round-robin testing of Chinese CSP components to compare performance results and testing methodologies. The two sides are working together to produce a U.S.-China grid code comparison and recommendation study to help improve the design of new technical interconnection requirements to alleviate curtailment and other integration issues. Ongoing work also includes developing unified PV module quality assurance standards under the PV Quality Assurance Taskforce, which has the participation of 156 members from 59 organizations from the Chinese PV industry, including technology suppliers, research institutions, universities, testing and certification agencies. The Renewable Energy Industries Forum, organized under USCREP, brings together over 150 government, industry, and academic leaders to discuss policy and market outlooks and unlock commercial opportunities. China plans to host the 5th Renewable Energy Industries Forum in 2017.
58. Strategic Petroleum Reserves: Under the 2014 Memorandum of Understanding on Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cooperation, the United States and China engaged in multiple bilateral meetings, technical workshops and reciprocal site visits. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Energy Administration of China are continuing these efforts. To facilitate candid dialogue on SPR policy issues including analysis on global oil market and corresponding emergency preparedness emergency response and fill policy, the United States and China are planning high-level representation at these events. China commits to making available more complete, reliable, and detailed publications of energy statistics on a more frequent basis, including for SPR at bilateral forums.
59. Energy Security: The United States and China acknowledged their common interests and responsibilities to ensure global energy security, and recognized the importance of utilizing domestic and international energy policies to meet demand in a sustainable manner and achieve sustainable economic growth. The two sides decided to strengthen cooperation and increase dialogue through targeted discussions focused on topics such as the transparent and smooth functioning of international and domestic energy markets, diversified energy supplies, emergency response, renewable energy, and the sustainable and efficient use of energy.
60. Civil Nuclear Energy R&D: The United States and China decided to continue cooperation on the joint development of advanced reactors and fuel cycle technologies under the Bilateral Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperative Action Plan between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Administration of China. The 8th Joint Action Plan Working Groups Meeting was held in October 2015 in China. The next Action Plan meeting is expected to take place in September 2016 at the Idaho National Laboratory. The United States and China also decided to continue Nuclear Energy Sciences and Technologies (NEST) cooperation under the Memorandum of Understanding agreement between DOE and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) to foster collaboration in advanced nuclear energy concepts among U.S. and Chinese scientists, laboratories, research institutes, and universities. The third DOE-CAS NEST Executive Committee Meeting was held in May 2016 in Shanghai.
61. Nuclear Safety: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) of China continued their cooperation on nuclear safety through sustained regulatory and technical exchanges on the AP1000 nuclear reactor development. USNRC and NNSA inspectors worked together at the AP1000 sites in China and on AP1000 vendor inspections in the United States, and the two agencies completed staffing exchanges. The two sides plan to continue sharing expertise on AP1000 construction and pre-commissioning and continue their valuable personnel exchanges. The USNRC and NNSA are broadening their cooperation by sharing experience on issues relating to public communication; emergency preparedness and response; and radioactive waste and sources safety.
62. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies (PUNT): The United States and China decided to continue several cooperative activities through the Nuclear Energy Technology Working Group framework. These include: cooperation in operational safety at nuclear power plants; Probabilistic Safety Assessment workshops and pilot projects at operating plants; exchange of information on reactor lifetime extension and materials aging and degradation research and development; exploring opportunities for information exchange on small modular reactors; an d sharing information on nuclear liability. The two sides also decided to pursue an exchange of information on strategies and best practices related to public and stakeholder outreach. The 11th PUNT Joint Coordinating Committee Meeting was held in May 10-11, 2016 at the Savannah River National Laboratory.
63. Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation: The United States and China noted with satisfaction that the successor U.S.-China Agreement Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (123 Agreement) entered into force in October 2015, and that the two sides decided to further strengthen cooperation in the field of civil nuclear power on this basis. Last year, the United States and China started discussions aimed at finalizing both the Administrative Arrangement to, and the required Joint Training Plan under the 123 Agreement, and seek to finalize those two documents as soon as possible. The two sides concur on the importance of establishing a global nuclear liability regime, with an initial emphasis on treaty relations among China, the United States, the countries in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, and the current parties to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC), and look forward to continuing their exchange on the CSC at a workshop later this year in Beijing.
64. Shale Gas Training Program, Phase II: The United States and China decided to continue their cooperation on shale gas development by holding two additional workshops in 2016. Thus far, the second phase of the U.S.-China Shale Gas Training Program, funded by the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA), and two workshops on environmental policy and technology and gas infrastructure efficiencies have been held in China. The workshops convene U.S. and Chinese government and industry experts to discuss the commercial, technological, regulatory, and environmental aspects of shale gas development. This public-private program is delivered in partnership by the USTDA, China's National Energy Administration, and the U.S. Departments of Energy, State, and Commerce.
65. Energy Regulation Cooperation: Pursuant to the Memorandum of Understanding on Enhancing Energy Regulation Collaboration between the China National Energy Administration and the U.S. Federal Energy Regulation Commission , the two sides decided to strengthen exchange and cooperation in power market development and energy regulation by focusing on the following topics: (1) power sector tariffs; (2) bilateral contracts and energy imbalance markets; (3) integration of renewables; and (4) smart grid policy and regulation.
66. Energy Cooperation Program: In support of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP) and China's efforts to mitigate the environmental effects of coal-fired power, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA) intends to partner with Chinese entities and ECP member companies to conduct two pilot projects demonstrating technologies related to distributed energy combined heat & power. Over the last year, USTDA also partnered with ECP and China's National Development and Reform Commission to support workshops on energy performance contracting and introducing new energy sources into the Triple J Region (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei).
IV. Cooperation on Environmental Protection
67. Combatting Illegal Logging and Associated Trade: The United States and China reaffirmed their support for regional and global efforts to combat illegal logging and associated trade, and also decided to continue cooperation through bilateral mechanisms such as the S&ED, JCCT, and U.S.-China Bilateral Forum on Illegal Logging and Associated Trade. The two sides resolved to continue their bilateral exchange on such topics as the implementation of Lacey Act Amendments, timber legality verification, private sector dialogue, and customs data exchange, in order to enhance mutual understanding and promote practical cooperation. Both sides also resolved to continue the whole-of-government approach by coordinating with and involving all relevant ministries and agencies, and by working with civil society and private partners. The two sides are working together to hold the seventh U.S.-China Bilateral Forum on Illegal Logging and Associated Trade in the United States in the second half of 2016 to conduct policy dialogue, information sharing and project cooperation. The two sides reaffirmed the intent to strengthen bilateral talks as well as discussion under multilateral and regional fora, such as the APEC Experts Group on Illegal Logging and Associated Trade.
68. Forest Health Management: The United States and China decided to extend the Memorandum of Understanding between the State Forestry Administration of the People's Republic of China and the U.S. Department of Agriculture on Forestry Cooperation until April 2020. The two sides further decided to continue collaboration and carry out practical cooperation on forest health between four demonstration sites in China and several sites in the United States. The two sides are working together to hold a China-U.S. Seminar on Forest Health Management in China in the first half of 2017 to enhance personnel exchange and technical cooperation. The two sides plan to explore virtual pairing of Chinese and U.S. scientists and practitioners on biocontrol, invasive species monitoring, and pest monitoring. The two sides affirmed their support for the UN FAO Asia Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFISN), and the intent to cooperate on activities to mitigate the negative impact of invasive insects and diseases. China and the United States further decided to continue other joint efforts in the region through relevant activities in APFNet, and other relevant organizations, to promote high-level commitment and cooperation to advance forest conservation, restoration and sustainable forest management, and to facilitate progress towards the APEC 2020 forest cover goal.
69. Air Quality: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China ( MEP) deepened their cooperation to improve air quality. The U.S. Trade & Development Agency ( USTDA) coordinated with the EPA to assist MEP's development of a regional air quality management plan for Jiangsu Province, including through a USTDA-hosted meeting exhibiting U.S-manufactured technologies for reducing air pollution. The two sides plan to hold the 10th Regional Air Quality Management Conference; enhance policy, regulatory, permitting and technical capacity on regional air pollution and multipollutant controls; deepen cooperation on pollution reduction from vehicles, ports, and vessels; advance emissions monitoring; improve laboratory and off-road vehicle testing capacity and data evaluation; and promote control technologies.
70. Water Quality: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) held the ninth Policy Seminar of their Clean Water Action Plan and Water Environmental Policy Workshop; completed phase one of the groundwater sampling demonstration project; and continued sharing legal frameworks, technical expertise, and finance mechanisms for surface and groundwater protection and restoration. EPA and MEP held high-level exchanges on water economic policies, water environmental security and green investment. The two sides plan to continue advancing cooperation on water environment management; national-provincial-municipal water governance; policy research on economic instruments, public-private partnerships, pollution discharge permitting; pollution control strategies and innovative technologies; expanding the groundwater remediation pilot project; and technical exchange and training.
71. Management of Chemicals: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China continued collaboration on environmental management of chemicals and exchanged experience on the prevention and control of pollution from persistent organic pollutants and mercury. The two sides decided to continue exchanging experience in risk assessment and risk management of chemical substances; promote cooperation in the reduction, emission control and safe replacement of POPs, PFCs, and BFRs; continue exchanges and cooperation on the implementation of the Minamata Convention; and expand cooperation through international cooperation mechanisms on chemicals, including in the APEC Chemical Dialogue and Global PFC Group.
72. Hazardous Material Safe Storage and Transportation: The United States and China are working bilaterally in cooperation on transportation safety and disaster management. China's Ministry of Transport (MOT) and the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA), along with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have worked together in sponsoring a transportation of hazardous materials seminar in April 2016 and a workshop in May 2016a s part of the U.S.-China Transportation Forum.
73. Management of Waste and Contaminated Sites: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) strengthened cooperation on prevention and remediation of land contamination as China prepares to issue its national action plan on soil pollution prevention and control. The two sides shared experience in contaminated land liability tracking; risk-based assessments and remedy selection; monitoring methods; and stakeholder participation. In addition, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology hosted a workshop where product and service providers, industry experts, standards developers, MEP experts, and Chinese businesses and academia exchanged information on brownfields remediation. EPA and MEP also shared experience in hazardous waste identification, permitting programs and treatment technologies, and decided to explore collaboration on trans-boundary movement of e-waste and best practices on the recycling and reduction of various types of waste.
74. Enforcement of Environmental Laws: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) visited the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) and other partners in China to discuss best practices in environmental compliance and enforcement with national, provincial, and municipal officials. The two sides decided to collaborate on next generation compliance tools and techniques; share experience on promoting compliance with environmental laws and implementing penalty provisions; and advance compliance monitoring and information. EPA and MEP are planning a MEP study tour or staff exchange to the United States. Workgroup meetings to discuss and plan compliance and enforcement activities are planned for 2016 in the United States and 2017 in China.
75. Environmental Laws and Institutions: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) shared experience in environmental legislation and supported China's research and innovation of its environmental legislative system and revision of its environmental laws and regulations. EPA hosted MEP for roundtable discussions on environmental law and joined MEP in an NGO-hosted roundtable discussion on national-local relations and environmental problems across provincial boundaries. EPA and MEP are planning the 2016 Environmental Legislation Seminar.
76. Parks Management: The United States and China reaffirmed their mutual commitment to cooperation in parks management. The National Park Service (NPS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Development and Reform Commission of China signed a statement of cooperation regarding their efforts to establish a national parks system in China.
77. Nature Conservation: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Park Service (NPS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the P.R.C. State Forestry Administration (SFA) decided to continue working to implement Annex 12 of the China-U.S. Nature Conservation Protocol ( i.e. , the 2014-2016 work plan); carry out exchanges and cooperative projects in 2016; and further strengthen cooperation in the fields of nature reserve management, national park development, wetlands conservation and sustainable utilization, environmental education and public outreach, CITES implementation, and fisheries. On the basis of their cooperation in 2015, the two sides decided to continue encouraging the establishment of sister relationships between nature reserves, national parks and wildlife refuges, and promote links between universities, research institutes, and social organizations of the two countries.
78. Green Infrastructure Reverse Trade Missions: The U.S. Trade & Development Agency funded two reverse trade missions in partnership with the Ministry of Commerce of China that introduced Chinese delegates to U.S. goods and services related to green infrastructure, environmentally friendly design and engineering, green buildings, building efficiency, smart cities, green construction, and waste processing and recycling. The Green Infrastructure & Smart Cities Reverse Trade Mission brought a Chinese delegation to the U.S.-China Climate-Smart/Low-Carbon Cities Summit in Los Angeles, CA in September 2015. In May 2016, the Green Airport Infrastructure Reverse Trade Mission brought representatives of the Chinese construction and aviation industries to Chicago, IL, Seattle, WA, and Los Angeles, CA to learn about U.S. technologies for green airport construction, waste processing and recycling, and energy efficient transportation hubs. The two sides decided to organize one additional Reverse Trade Mission in 2016.
V. Maritime Cooperation
79. Global Oceans: The United States and China reaffirmed their commitments to further the protection and conservation of the world's ocean. The two sides plan to send senior officials to participate in the 2016 Our Ocean Conference and decided to work together to advance the conference's agenda by addressing the global challenges of sustaining fisheries, protecting vital ocean areas, and reducing ocean acidification and marine pollution. The United States and China reaffirmed their support for the proposed MPA in the Ross Sea of Antarctica, as revised in 2015. The two sides intend to continue to work together, at the next Meeting of the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources in October 2016, in consultation with other parties, toward establishment of the MPA. The two sides intend to continue cooperating on the Blue Economy in multilateral and bilateral channels to build on the APEC common view: the Blue Economy is an approach to advance sustainable management and conservation of ocean and coastal resources and ecosystems and sustainable development, in order to foster economic growth.
80. Sustainable Fishing and Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing: The United States and China established and held the first meeting of their Bilateral Fisheries Dialogue in April 2016. Building on those discussions, the two sides reaffirmed their commitment to jointly combat illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing; strengthen cooperation under bilateral frameworks and in regional fisheries management organizations and relevant international organizations; and promote the development of effective measures for combating IUU fishing by regional fisheries management organizations. The two sides decided to enhance the exchange of management experience in marine fisheries resource conservation, marine fishing, aquaculture and recreational fisheries. China welcomed U.S. ratification of the Port State Measures Agreement, and plans to conduct a feasibility study on the approval and implementation of the Agreement. The two sides decided to exchange information on the respective progress, through the annual Bilateral Fisheries Dialogue. The United States and China have exchanged, and decided to continue exchanging, views on the work of the U.S. National Ocean Council Committee on IUU Fishing and Seafood Fraud. The United States and China also decided to work together and with other relevant governments to complete negotiation of an agreement to prevent unregulated commercial fishing in the high seas portion of the central Arctic Ocean. China and the United States decided to set up fisheries law enforcement points of contacts and develop a standing process at multiple levels to exchange trade information regarding seafood products in trade.
81. Marine Litter Prevention and Reduction: Building on cooperation launched at the last S&ED, the United States and China identified Xiamen and Weihai and San Francisco and New York as the first partner cities to share best practices on waste management to reduce and prevent the flow of trash into the ocean. The two sides decided to initiate the partnership with the visit of a group of officials from Xiamen, Weihai and the Chinese Government to San Francisco and New York. The two sides decided to work together to enhance capacity to minimize, recycle, and manage waste to reduce its overall environmental impacts, lessen land-based sources of marine litter, and help align support by multilateral lenders to improve funding opportunities for waste minimization and management governance capacity and projects in cities of relevant APEC member economies. The United States and China plan to work on an integrated waste management plan for the city of Xiamen and Weihai that could serve as a model and help reduce land-based sources of pollution in the marine environment.
82. Marine Protected Areas: The United Stated and China reaffirmed their interest in cooperation to improve the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPA). The two sides decided to strengthen understanding and information sharing about Chinese and U.S. MPA efforts, and to exchange information and expertise on the specific issues of MPA scientific research, development, and management. The two sides decided to support their cooperation through future bilateral efforts, including the possible development of sister MPA partnerships between Hainan Sanya Coral Reef National Marine Protected Area and Panjin Yuanyanggou National Special Marine Protected Area in China and the National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa and the San Francisco Bay or San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complexes in the United States, pending further bilateral discussions.
83. Ocean Observation: The United States and China expressed interest in expanding ocean observing cooperation in the Indian, Southern and Pacific oceans to assist in understanding and monitoring changes in the climate and earth systems, which could include an acidifying ocean, rising sea levels, ecosystem sensitivity, and weather and climate extremes. The two sides plan to focus initially on exploring cooperative opportunities under the Draft Proposal for the Indian-Southern Oceans Climatic Observation, Reanalysis and Prediction (ISOCORE) as well as the Tropical Pacific Observing System. The two sides also decided to enhance cooperation on ocean acidification, particularly in the Arctic, consistent with The Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network and the Pacific Arctic Group. The two sides decided to continue discussing next steps for cooperation under the auspices of the U.S.-China Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and Fisheries Science and Technology.
84. Maritime Law Enforcement: The United States and China reaffirmed their commitment to promoting maritime professionalism and conduct at sea. In accordance with the outcome of President Xi Jinping's State Visit to the United States in 2015, the two sides decided to continue developing the rules of behavior on surface to surface encounters between the two coast guards. Both sides in principle support the development of a document of cooperation between the China Coast Guard and the United States Coast Guard.
85. Maritime Safety and Security: The United States and China reaffirmed their support for carrying forward bilateral exchanges between the relevant U.S. and Chinese maritime safety agencies. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and China Maritime Safety Administration (MSA) intend to continue conducting mutual senior-level and vessel visits as well as cooperation and exchanges in maritime radio navigation and satellite navigation. The USCG and MSA continue to explore joint enforcement of international dangerous cargo laws; develop a personnel and professional exchange program in the fields of seafarer management, navigation safety, aids to navigation, hazardous and noxious substances spill response, and search and rescue; and formulate a medium-term or long-term bilateral action plan on maritime safety.
86. Law of the Sea and Polar Issues: The United States and China held the seventh annual Dialogue on the Law of the Sea and Polar Issues in Xiamen on April 21-22, 2016. Experts from the foreign affairs and maritime agencies of the two countries exchanged views on a wide range of topics related to oceans, the law of the sea, and the polar regions. The United States plans to host the next Dialogue in 2017.
VI. Cooperation on Transportation
87. Aviation Cooperation Program: The United States and China decided to enhance bilateral cooperation in aviation. The two sides continued the 12th phase of the U.S.-China Aviation Cooperation Program (ACP) – a public-private partnership supported by the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA), U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) – that facilitates high-level dialogue between government and industry representatives of both countries' aviation sectors. The two sides plan to hold an Aviation Symposium June 19-21, 2016, co-sponsored by USTDA, FAA, and CAAC. The Symposium brings together U.S. and Chinese government and industry representatives, including members of the ACP, to discuss priority issues related to aviation safety, efficiency, and security, including air traffic management, airport development, and adopting new aviation technologies. In an effort to leverage USTDA-funded technical assistance to support the development of China's aviation sector, USTDA and CAAC also decided to pilot winter operations technologies at the Harbin International Airport in northeastern China.
88. Aviation Technical Assistance Workshops: The United States and China decided to continue their cooperation on best practices, standards, and policy development in the aviation industry through the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA)-funded Aviation Technical Assistance Workshops, the U.S.-China Aviation Cooperation Program (ACP) and the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC)-hosted workshops on managerial, technical, safety, efficiency, capacity, and operational aviation issues. The U.S.-China Aviation Biofuel and New Fuel Workshop, held in June 2015, brought together representatives from airlines, engine and aircraft manufacturers, fuels providers, regulators, and academia to discuss technical, commercial, and regulatory developments in aviation biofuel. The Supplier Management and Airworthiness Management Dialogue, held in January 2016, brought together U.S. and Chinese public and private aviation representatives to share experiences and best practices related to certification processes and enterprise management. To expand upon this cooperation, USTDA announced support for eight additional aviation workshops over the next two years.
89. Aviation Security: To further an effective and secure aviation system, and in recognition of the U.S.-China Tourism Year initiative, the United States and China decided to enhance their cooperation on aviation security. The two sides decided to work collaboratively on creating general annual work plans for security technical site visits prior to the calendar year that the visits are to be conducted. Such plans for visiting should include last point of departure (LPD), National Cargo Security Program (NCSP) and other possible areas of mutual interest. The two sides decided to work cooperatively to understand and comply with the terms of the NCSP Recognition in both countries. The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are planning to schedule assessments and inspections at LPD and upstream airports in each other's territories at mutually agreeable intervals. CAAC and TSA intend to work together to improve processes and utilize qualified screening detection methods to identify and implement better screening detection of non-metallic threats (IEDs). TSA and CAAC are to continue working to establish new LPDs for China and U.S. operators.
90. Transportation Forum: The U.S. DOT Department of Transportation (USDOT) and Ministry of Transport of China (MOT) continued to deepen cooperation to help ensure and advance safe, efficient and sustainable movement of people and goods. MOT hosted the seventh Transportation Forum in Suzhou, November 5, 2015, and USDOT hosted the eigth Transportation Forum in Los Angeles, California, June 1-3, 2016. The two sides continued their close cooperation through five working groups: (i) the New Technologies (Rail) Working Group decided to enhance rail safety by collaborating on saftey supervision and accident investigation techniques and analysis ; (ii) the Hazardous Materials Working Group decided to coordinate on standards for international commerce and the safe transport of hazardous materials; (iii) the Ports and Inland Waterways Initiative decided to enhance exchange and cooperation in greenhouse gas emissions at ports and by vessels ; explore the application of liquid natural gas in inland navigation; and address the safe and efficient transportation of waterborne dangerous goods; (iv) the Safety and Disaster Assistance Coordination Working Group decided to work to improve transportation safety and emergency response management and conduct technical collaborat ion via the platform of U.S. Transportation Research Board (TRB) ; and (v) the Urban Congestion Working Group decided to facilitate broader cooperation in prioritized development of urban public transport, including promoting the Race to Zero Emissions (R2ZE) bus challenge.
91. Freight Rail Reverse Trade Missions: The U.S. Trade & Development Agency and National Railways Administration (NRA) decided to support two Reverse Trade Missions (RTMs) for delegates from the NRA over the next two years. The RTMs are to familiarize Chinese railway officials and businesses with U.S. best practices, equipment, and technologies for freight railway capacity expansion. The RTMs are expected to include site visits and meetings with public and private sector experts in the areas of advanced technologies, services, and operational best practices for the freight rail sector.
VII. Cooperation on Science, Technology, Health, and Agriculture
92. Space Security: The United States and China welcomed the holding of the first Space Security Exchange (SSE) on May 10, 2016, in Washington, D.C. During the SSE, which was created under the auspices of the U.S.-China Security Dialogue, the two sides conducted an in-depth exchange of views on a wide range of bilateral and multilateral space security issues, including orbital debris. The two sides believe that, as two leading space faring nations and permanent members of the UN Security Council, the United States and China have shared interests, objectives, and responsibilities to safeguard space security and stability. The two sides are committed to working toward the same objective through intensified bilateral and multilateral cooperation to promote international space security; expanding consensus and exploring appropriate confidence building measures in this regard; and enhancing mutual trust. The two sides decided to hold the second round of the Space Security Exchange before the end of 2016.
93. Civil Space: The United States and China reaffirmed their commitment to advance civil space cooperation. The two sides held the first Civil Space Dialogue in September 2015; exchanged a list of priorities for Earth and space science activities; planned an expert workshop on orbital debris mitigation and satellite collision avoidance to ensure safe and sustainable outer space activities; and decided to hold second Civil Space Dialogue in the United States before the end of October 2016. In addition, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the China Meteorological Administration decided during their 19th Joint Working Group Meeting in August 2015 to pursue cooperation on space weather monitoring plans, forecasting, and services to address space weather events.
94. Public Health Capacity Building in Africa: The United States and China decided to accelerate cooperation with the African Union and African Union Member States for the launch of the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC). The two sides plan to provide support for infrastructure and capacity building to foster the success and sustainability of the Africa CDC and its associated Regional Collaboration Centers. The two sides also plan to continue their cooperation to build public health capacity in West African countries in support of their national plans including Sierra Leone and Liberia. This includes exploring joint cooperation with the Government of Sierra Leone to establish a national public health institution, building upon the Tropical Disease Research Center to be supported by China . The two sides also intend to explore cooperation to advance public health capacity priorities such as immunization, combating malaria, and promoting human resource capacity development in African countries. The two sides intend to develop and implement an action and communication plan to implement cooperation projects identified at the April 28 development meeting. The two sides plan to continue to support and contribute to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.
95. Global Health Security: The United States and China are committed to strengthening cooperation to improve global health security. The two sides commended each other's significant contribution to help affected African countries fight Ebola epidemics. The two sides decided to further strengthen their partnership to build capacity to prevent, detect and respond to infectious disease threats including but not limited to influenza, malaria, laboratory capacity, and antimicrobial resistance. They plan to enhance exchange and cooperation on health in Africa, and jointly support African countries to improve public health systems and advance implementation of the World Health Organization International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA). The National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC) and the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States (HHS) plan to jointly support the development of laboratory systems, scientific research, and conduct joint field epidemiology and training projects in African countries. The two countries also intend to enhance communication and coordination mechanisms to strengthen bilateral collaboration on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. The two sides intend to pursue these goals at the G-20 as appropriate.
96. Healthcare Reform: The United States and China decided to continue strengthening dialogue and exchange in healthcare reform. The sixth U.S.-China Health Summit is scheduled to be held in Xi'an, China, in September 2016, supported the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States (HHS) and by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC). The U.S. Trade & Development Agency and China's Health Human Resources Development Center decided to continue conducting workshops and training in support of the U.S.-China Healthcare Cooperation Program.
97. Smoke-Free Workplaces: The United States and China decided to continue promoting smoke-free workplaces and a smoke-free environment through a public-private-partnership. The two sides decided to further support and implement Phase II of the China-U.S. Smoke-Free Workplaces initiative (CUSW), and to conduct an evaluation of the project and a series of training workshops in Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen.
98. Health Science and Technology: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) discussed ways to further strengthen science and technology (S&T) cooperation in the field of health and biomedical research; reached consensus on S&T cooperation in major non-communicable and chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, nervous system disease, respiratory system disease; and explored the feasibility of development of research platforms, alliances, and networks that support U.S.-China health S&T innovation.
99. Climate Science and Greenhouse Gas Monitoring: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States (NOAA) and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) deepened their cooperation on climate science and greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring. The two sides decided to cooperate to e stablish an ensemble-based numerical model for predicting Intra-seasonal dynamical weather processes in the Eastern China monsoon zone. CMA plans to participate in the NOAA-organized North American Multi-Model Ensemble sub-seasonal forecast experiment in 2016-17. NOAA and CMA's Arid Meteorological Institute (IAM) decided to conduct cooperative research on drought monitoring; undertake prediction and impact studies; and establish near real time monitoring and prediction for pilot study areas in China and the United States. CMA experts participated in NOAA's Global Monitoring Conference to discuss cooperation on atmospheric GHG sampling techniques. NOAA experts plan to visit CMA to carry out joint research on the integration and improvement of techniques and methods for the quality control and integration of GHG data into numerical models.
100. Severe Weather Monitoring: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States and the China Meteorological Administration reaffirmed their commitment to expand cooperation on weather monitoring and forecasting. The two sides decided to pursue joint research to improve numerical prediction capability on rainfall associated with land-falling tropical cyclones.
101. Food Security: The United States and China reaffirmed the importance of jointly supporting developing countries to meet their food security and development goals through joint projects that achieve long-term, sustainable results, including exploring opportunities for cooperation on climate smart agriculture. The two sides decided to explore cooperation in Timor-Leste on aquaculture while promoting Timor-Leste's food security strategy aimed at reducing malnutrition, diversifying smallholder production activities, and increasing household income. The two sides intend to explore trilateral cooperation on food security in Africa and intend to jointly support the goals and objectives of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP).
102. Agriculture & Food Partnership: In support of the U.S.-China Agriculture & Food Partnership (AFP), the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA) hosted the U.S.-China Meat Product Safety Seminar on September 19, 2015 in coordination with the China Meat Association. The workshop helped introduce best practices in total food chain quality assurance to promote production and proper use of safe food for the meat industry. USTDA also announced its intention to host additional workshops in cold chain and other advanced agricultural technologies to support AFP in 2016.
103. Strategic Agricultural Science Cooperation: Based on the 2012 China-U.S. Strategic Plan on Cooperation in Agriculture, the MOU between the Ministry of Agriculture of China and the U.S. Department of Agriculture that was renewed in 2015, and in line with the philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared cooperation, on June 2, 2016, the United States and China held the inaugural meeting of the U.S.-China Executive Working Group for Strategic Cooperation to Advance Agricultural Science and Technology (EWG). During the EWG, China and the United States identified five priority areas to initiate science and technology research cooperation under the MOU: plant breeding and equitable germplasm exchange; animal disease prevention and control; agricultural processing; quality and safety of agricultural products throughout the production chain while ensuring a sustainable agricultural environment; and open data.
104. Public-Private Cooperation in Precision Agriculture: The United States and China decided in principle to encourage industry to discuss mutually beneficial science and technology research concerning precision agriculture technology and development.
105. Metrology and Standards Forum: The United States and China recognized the importance of cooperation in National Quality Infrastructure sectors such as standards, metrology, certification and accreditation. The two sides decided to continue promoting mutually beneficial cooperation in standards-related areas, and to implement the metrology cooperation agreement between their national metrology institutes.
VIII. Sub-National Cooperation
106. EcoPartnerships: The United States and China held the EcoPartnerships Signing ceremony during the 8th S&ED in the presence of Secretary of State John Kerry and State Councilor Yang Jiechi, and launched six new EcoPartnerships. A small exhibition and workshop were also held before the signing ceremony to share successful experiences and practices and advance bilateral cooperation on sustainable and low-carbon development. The two sides noted the role of the EcoPartnerships Program in catalyzing innovative subnational cooperation on climate change, energy, and environmental issues in the United States and China in support of the Ten Year Framework for Cooperation on Energy and Environment. The United States and China reaffirmed their intention to encourage sustainable and low-carbon development at the state and local levels and recognized the important roles that companies, universities, research institutes, and NGOs play in finding solutions to challenges through EcoPartnership activities.
107. The First Sub-National Legislatures Cooperation Forum: The U.S. State Legislative Leaders Foundation and the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries decided to co-host the First U.S.-China Sub-National Legislatures Cooperation Forum from June 24 to 26, 2016 in Honolulu, Hawaii. State and provincial legislative leaders and representatives from different sectors of the two countries plan to hold in-depth discussions on such topics as tourism legislation and cooperation.
108. Sister Cities Conference: Sister Cities International of the United States and the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries decided to co-host the Third U.S.-China Sister Cities Conference in Nanchang, China on November 19-20, 2016. At the conference, local government leaders and representatives from different sectors of the two countries plan to share experiences on sister-city exchanges and discuss plans for future cooperation.
IX. Bilateral Dialogues on Energy, Environment, Science, and Technology
109. Ten-Year Framework on Energy and Environmental Cooperation: The United States and China decided to continue to promote progress under the U.S.-China Ten-Year Framework for Cooperation on Energy and Environment (TYF) action plans, including clean water, clean air, clean and efficient electricity, nature reserves/protected areas and wetlands, green ports and vessels, and energy efficiency, and to continue to implement the EcoPartnerships program. The two sides held the 11 th TYF High-Level meeting on April 20, 2016, and discussed best practices for the analysis and utilization of “big data” related to the environment. The participants also recognized successes of their cooperation under the TYF in achieving outcomes of mutual and global benefit. These included conducting workshops on smart grids; promoting energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers; fostering energy efficiency in data centers; and hosting the 7th annual Energy Efficiency Forum in China. The participants decided to hold the next TYF meeting in early 2017.
110. Joint Working Group on Environmental Research: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency noted its plans to host the Ministry of Science and Technology of China for the third biennial meeting of the Joint Working Group on Environmental Research in the fall 2016. The two sides plan to review progress on projects, approve work plans, and finalize a progress report this year. The two sides are conducting experimental cookstove testing and comparing results to evaluate the draft ISO Test Protocol for clean cookstoves emissions and performance; developing a joint cookstoves research solicitation; researching sustainable development of water supplies; jointly hosting sessions at the 2016 International Association for Ecology Conference in Changshu, China; and planning a SmartWater workshop in the United States. Research methods and models are being developed that may be demonstrated in communities in China and the United States.
111. Joint Committee on Environmental Cooperation: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China held the Fifth Meeting of the Joint Committee on Environmental Cooperation in Washington D.C. on November 19, 2015. The two sides reviewed progress and approved work plans on collaboration on air; water; chemicals; soil; solid waste; mercury; green ports and vessels; and environmental laws, institutions, compliance, and enforcement. The two sides expanded cooperation on soil pollution prevention and control and discussed further cooperation on environmental monitoring capacity; data and analytics; green finance; and science-based decision-making.
112. Joint Working Group of the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and Fishery Science and Technology: The United States and China decided to hold the next Joint Working Group of the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and Fishery Science and Technology in Washington, D.C. in 2016. The two sides discussed the importance of developing an updated five year framework. The framework could encompass an expanded focus on ecosystem services, expanded participation by Chinese and U.S. agencies. The two sides welcomed opportunities for substantive exchanges in China such as the upcoming Protocol's Living Marine Resources Panel meeting and Clivar Open Science Conference on Charting the Course for Climate and Ocean Research. The two sides decided to pursue the establishment of a joint Scientific Experts Group to provide scientific advice on ecological science, services, and management, as well as the effects of climate change on the oceans.
113. Joint Commission Meeting on Science and Technology Cooperation: The United States and China decided to hold the 16th JCM in Beijing in 2016. Dr. Wan Gang, Minister of Science and Technology of China, and Dr. John Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and U.S. President's Assistant on Science and Technology, co-chair the meeting. The Chinese and U.S. interagency delegations may discuss select topics as priority areas of S&T of both countries, such as health science, basic research, greenhouse gas (GHG) measurement standards, oceans and fisheries, earthquake science and meteorological science. The two sides may also share best practices and explore cooperation models. The two sides decided the JCM leads on science, technology, and innovation policy discussions to address cross-cutting, multidisciplinary scientific priorities such as energy-water nexus or ecological observation.
114. Energy Efficiency Forum: The United States and China decided to hold the 7th China-U.S. Energy Efficiency Forum in China in 2016 (date to be confirmed). Participants plan to discuss policies, review cooperation in the fields of building and industrial energy efficiency, as well as energy efficiency financing and energy conservation standards, meanwhile evaluate cooperation opportunities between the governments and industry of the two countries. The U.S. Department of Energy and China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology decided to hold breakout sessions on topics including industrial energy efficiency, data center efficiency, motor and boiler system energy efficiency improvement, and the adoption of energy saving technologies. The two sides intend for the forum to include participation from research institutions, evaluation centers, and clean energy companies from both countries.
115. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)-Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Coordinating Committee Meeting: The United States and China decided to hold the Fifth Joint Coordination Committee Meeting in energy-related sciences between the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in June 2016. The two sides reviewed their collaboration on high energy physics, fusion energy, nuclear physics, basic energy sciences and other related areas, and discussed ways to improve cooperation mechanisms and expand cooperation areas.
116. Oil and Gas Industry Forum: In September 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Energy Administration of China held their annual U.S.-China Oil and Gas Industry Forum (OGIF). The forum encourages cooperation and dialogue on the technical, environmental, and regulatory practices of conventional and unconventional oil and natural gas development. Representatives from both countries continued shale gas cooperation to help China efficiently develop its domestic shale gas resources, and highlighted trade and investment opportunities in the United States and China's oil and natural gas sectors. The United States and China are expected to continue these efforts at the 2016 OGIF, which has been planned to be held in the United States. The 2017 OGIF is to be held in China.
117. Clean Coal Industry Forum: In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Energy Administration of China held their annual U.S.-China Clean Coal Industry Forum (CCIF) in Billings, Montana, where representatives from the two countries discussed issues including policies and regulations on the clean utilization of coal, coal conversion technologies, clean coal power generation and emission reduction technologies, carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). The two sides decided to hold the next CCIF in China.
118. Fossil Energy Protocol: The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China and Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States decided to continue work under the Protocol for Cooperation in the Field of Fossil Energy Technology Development and Utilization. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to hold the 2016 Fossil Energy Protocol Coordinators Meeting in the United States in the fall. The purpose of the meeting, co-chaired by MOST and DOE, is to review activities of the past year and identify new priorities, missions, and activities for future collaborations, including greater emphasis on carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), carbon dioxide transport, and enhanced oil recovery. Following the last FE Protocol meeting, the Office of Fossil Energy decided to strengthen research and development cooperation under the Protocol.
119. Data Security and User's Personal Information Protection Dialogue: The United States and China recognized the importance of network data security and user's personal information protection. China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) and the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) decided to continue engaging in policy dialogue by meeting in 2017 to discuss approaches to data security and user's personal information protection of the two countries.
120. Joint Working Group on U.S.-China Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation: The United States and China decided to hold the 14 th meeting of the Joint Working Group on China-U.S. Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation in Zhuhai, China in mid-August 2016. Chinese and U.S. experts focusing on priority areas of collaboration from the Protocol between the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the U.S. Department of Agriculture on Cooperation in Agricultural Science and Technology plan to attend the meeting, report on progress, and discuss future cooperation.