U.S.-China Strategic & Economic Dialogue Outcomes of the Strategic Track
At the seventh round of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) June 22-24, 2015, in Washington, D.C., Secretary of State John Kerry, special representative of President Barack Obama, and State Councilor Yang Jiechi, special representative of President Xi Jinping, chaired the Strategic Track, which included participation from senior officials from across the two governments. The two sides held in-depth discussions on major bilateral, regional, and global issues. The dialogue on the Strategic Track produced the following specific outcomes and areas for further cooperation:
I. Enhancing Bilateral Cooperation
1. High-Level Exchanges: The United States and China highlighted the progress in U.S.-China relations in recent years, and decided to enhance practical cooperation and constructively manage differences, in order to promote the building of a new model of relations between China and the United States, in accordance with the consensus reached by the two heads of state. The two sides are to maintain high-level exchanges, and the leaders of the two countries are to maintain frequent and close communication. The two sides are to cooperate closely in preparing for a productive state visit by President Xi Jinping to the United States in September.
2. Military Relations: The two sides reaffirmed the shared goal of implementing the consensus reached by national and military leaders of the two sides to further U.S.-China military-to-military relations by promoting sustained and substantive dialogue and communication; deepening practical cooperation in areas of mutual interest, including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, UN peacekeeping, counter piracy, and military medicine; and enhancing risk-reduction; so as to promote mutual trust and avoid conflict. The two sides decided to carry out positive interaction in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond.
3. Confidence Building Measures: The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to actively implement the two Memoranda of Understanding on Confidence Building Measures (CBM) signed between the U.S. Department of Defense and the Ministry of National Defense of China in 2014, namely the “notification of major military activities confidence building measures mechanism” and “the rules of behavior for safety of air and maritime encounters.” Having evaluated positively the important progress made in the two CBMs since the beginning of this year, the two sides decided to carry out consultations for developing additional items to the Notification CBM, and strive to agree on an annex on Air-to-Air encounters as part of the Rules of Behavior CBM before September 2015.
4. Strategic Security Dialogue: The United States and China held the fifth round of the Strategic Security Dialogue (SSD) on June 22, 2015, which included candid, constructive discussions between the two sides on strategic security issues. The dialogue was co-chaired by Deputy Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken for the United States and Executive Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Yesui for China, who were joined by Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Christine Wormuth, PLA Deputy Chief of General Staff Admiral Sun Jianguo, and other senior defense and civilian officials from the two countries. The two sides noted the dialogue was beneficial to enhancing mutual understanding and trust on strategic security issues and decided to continue in-depth, sustained, and open communication, with the goal of further consolidating a stable and cooperative strategic security relationship between China and the United States. The two sides also decided to hold an inter-sessional meeting of the SSD prior to January 2016 and to hold the next SSD on the eve of the next S&ED.
5. Nonproliferation: The United States and China continued to seek ways to address each other’s concerns and manage divergence regarding the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction-related technologies. The two sides decided to work to further develop their practical cooperation and regular, two-way communication on the basis of mutual respect and equality.
6. Anti-Corruption: The United States and China decided to continue cooperation to enhance and promote anti-corruption initiatives under multilateral frameworks such as UNCAC, G20, and APEC. China welcomed the U.S. commitment to partner with China, particularly during China’s G20 presidency in 2016, in leading G20 efforts in fighting transnational corruption in 2015-2016, including through the implementation of the G20 principles in this area. The two sides reaffirmed their G20 commitments, including those relating to foreign bribery; the denial of safe haven; asset recovery; and public sector transparency and integrity. The two sides are to continue working through the U.S.-China Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation's Working Group on Anti-Corruption (JLG ACWG) as the principal mechanism for bilateral anti-corruption cooperation, with priorities on preventing official corruption, detecting embezzled public funds, denying safe haven for criminals and their proceeds of crime, asset recovery, and anti-transnational bribery. The two sides are to plan the 10th China-U.S. JLG ACWG Meeting in fall 2015. The United States commended China’s leadership in 2014 in APEC, including the endorsement by the Leaders of the Beijing Declaration on Fighting Corruption, supported the work of the ACT-NET Office. China is to consider joining the OECD Working Group on Bribery as a Participant in the near future. The United States and China decided to continue to publicize their laws on foreign bribery, and to investigate credible allegations of transnational corruption under their respective laws.
7. Law Enforcement: The United States and China decided to continue efforts to deepen and strengthen law enforcement cooperation to address issues of mutual concern utilizing the Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation (JLG) as the primary mechanism. In accordance with discussions at the 12th plenary session of the JLG, the two sides decided that the JLG Co-Chairs and working groups are to maintain communication throughout the year. The two sides are to work together to implement the consensus reached at the 12th JLG. It was noted that the 13th plenary session of the JLG is to be held in fall 2015 in the United States.
8. Legal Advisers Consultation:The United States and China decided to hold the second annual Legal Advisers Consultation between the Director General of the Department of Treaty and Law of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China and the Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State. The consultation is to be held in Beijing in October 2015.
9. Disability Rights: The United States and China decided to continue their productive engagement on disability rights issues and identified opportunities to expand cooperation. The two sides held the inaugural U.S.-China Coordination Meeting on Disability on April 14-15 in Washington and decided to hold the second Coordination Meeting on Disability on a mutually-determined date in April 2016 in Beijing, China. The two sides discussed physical accessibility standards, teacher training, and employment models, and they announced plans to have a U.S. expert on higher education travel to China in advance of the 2016 meeting to discuss these issues.
10. Consular Issues: The United States and China built on the momentum from the most recent Consular Dialogue in April to work to strengthen bilateral consular activities across multiple fronts. The two sides have implemented reciprocal 10-year validity tourism/business visas and 5-year validity student visas facilitating people-to-people exchange. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to identifying suitable properties for establishing new consular facilities in Shanghai, Chicago, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. The Chinese Ministry of Public Security’s Bureau of Exit and Entry Administration and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement signed a MOU in March 2015 to invite Chinese experts to travel to the U.S. to assist in verification of the identities of illegal immigrants.
11. Emergency Management: The United States and China decided to continue and expand their cooperation on emergency management. China Earthquake Administration and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) decided to continue their joint earthquake emergency response exercises to help developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region with capacity building in search and rescue. The joint exercise in 2015 was held in Mongolia in June. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and Chinese emergency management agencies sustained cooperation with continued support from the USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) and The Asia Foundation. FEMA and the National Earthquake Response Support Service of China Earthquake Administration started collaboration on building community-based disaster management in China. In August 2015, FEMA, with funding from USAID/OFDA, is to deliver an adapted Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) training session in Chengdu, China for forty-five (45) representatives from various governmental and non-governmental organizations.
12. Transportation Safety and Disaster Response: The United States and China decided to further their cooperation on transportation safety through collaboration between China’s Ministry of Transport, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Department of Commerce. This cooperation builds on the technical exchanges between the transport authorities and private industry of the two countries, including the “3rd Annual Sino-U.S. Transportation Safety and Disaster Response Seminar and Expo – Typhoon Response” in China in 2015.
13. Disaster Response Capacity: The United States and China decided to strengthen their cooperation on disaster responses, including through enhanced coordination within the international humanitarian architecture. To advance this coordination, the United States and China decided to jointly fund a program intended to improve the capacity of key Chinese foundations’ understanding of international humanitarian work; conduct training for executives and staff on leadership, coordination mechanisms, and disaster management knowledge and skills; build selected Chinese foundations’ capacity in delivering international humanitarian assistance; and foster networking and exchanges with existing international humanitarian consortia and platforms. The two sides welcomed China’s membership in the Asia Floods Network (AFN), a partnership between the U.S. Agency for International Development Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Geological Survey.
14. Container Security Initiative Expansion: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) / Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the General Administration of China Customs (GACC) increased cooperation on the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and decided to expand the program to additional Chinese ports. CBP and GACC further intend to expand CSI to address all types of customs violations, increase the number of inspections conducted by China Customs and observed by CBP, and begin the process to post GACC officers at the Port of Long Beach in California. DHS/CBP and GACC signed a revised Declaration of Principles establishing this expansion at the 2015 S&ED.
15. C-TPAT and AEO Mutual Recognition: S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the General Administration of China Customs (GACC) decided to continue work on the Addendum to the Action Plan Implementing the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Cooperation on Supply Chain Security and Facilitation between GACC and CBP. CBP and GACC have completed 387 joint validations in China and are to proceed with further discussions of a mutual recognition arrangement between each country’s respective Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) programs. CBP and GACC seek to conduct additional joint validations in 2015 to align their respective AEO programs and are to conclude the mutual recognition arrangement once the requirements of the program are met.
16. Joint Customs Training between GACC and CBP: S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the General Administration of China Customs (GACC) recognized engagements under the Joint Training Program as valuable in increasing understanding of the two sides’ processes and operations. The two sides intend to continue developing this program of engagements to become more operationally focused. The Joint Working Group, established in the Letter of Intent between the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, CBP, and GACC on May 8, 2012, is to convene at an agreed upon time in the United States to: review progress on implementing the first Joint Training Program action plan, address any incomplete actions, and identify objectives for the second action plan.
17. Enforcement Cooperation between GACC, ICE, and DEA: The General Administration of China Customs (GACC), the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) decided to continue joint efforts in combating cross-border drug trafficking. The two sides are to continue cooperation on intelligence exchange and investigation assistance against the smuggling of arms and ammunition, and CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and its products, and undertake joint operations as appropriate. The two sides propose greater participation in the U.S.-China Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation to coordinate such efforts.
18. Dual Use Commodity Identification Training: The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration and the General Administration of China Customs (GACC) continued cooperation to develop a national course for dual use commodity identification training (CIT) to strengthen the ability of GACC enforcement officials to combat illicit trafficking of WMD-related materials, equipment, components, and technology through dual-use commodity familiarization, identification, and targeting. The two sides held several dual use CIT-training events over the past year, including a CIT-instructor training (IT) workshop in August 2014 and a dual use CIT with XRF workshop in March 2015 at China Customs Radiation Detection Training Center.
19. Illicit Nuclear and Radioactive Materials Trafficking: The General Administration of China Customs (GACC) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) decided to continue implementing their July 2013 Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation in Preventing Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials. The two sides co-hosted their first Asia-Pacific Workshop in January 2014, which focused on topics critical to the operation, maintenance, training, and management of radiation detection systems, and culminated in a demonstration of the training capabilities of China Customs Radiation Detection Training Center (RDTC) in Qinhuangdao. The two sides decided to hold additional trainings on radiation detection and export control in 2015 at the RDTC, and to enhance experts exchanges on radiation detection and export control. The two sides are to continue the technical cooperation on the application of radiation detection equipment at the Ports of Yangshan, Shanghai and Dongjiang, Tianjin.
20. Preventing Illicit Trafficking Working Group: According to the Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation in Preventing Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and other Radioactive Materials signed in 2013 between the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the General Administration of China Customs, the two sides established a working group of preventing illicit trafficking and finalized its charter in November 20, 2014. The two sides are to hold the first meeting of this working group in the United States in the second half of 2015.
21. China Garden: The United States and China decided their respective China Garden Project working groups should continue working together to improve project design. The two sides decided to strive to start construction of the China Garden by October 30, 2016, and complete the construction and final assessment by October 30, 2018.
22. Sub-Dialogues, Breakout Sessions, and Bilateral Meetings: The United States and China decided to hold the next round of sub-dialogues on Africa, Latin America, South Asia, and Central Asia on a timely basis, and to enhance bilateral coordination and explore areas of cooperation on regional and international issues. The two sides held breakout sessions and meetings on the margins of this year’s S&ED on the subjects of UN/multilateral affairs, Sudan and South Sudan, wildlife trafficking, greening ports and vessels, and marine protected areas. The two sides conducted a series of bilateral meetings between senior officials on a broad range of issues in the U.S.-China relationship.
II. Addressing Regional and Global Challenges
23. The Korean Peninsula: The United States and China reaffirmed the importance of realizing the verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner – the goal of the Six-Party Talks as outlined in the September 19, 2005 Joint Statement – as well as safeguarding the peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula. The two sides further reaffirmed the importance of full implementation of the 2005 Joint Statement. The two sides remained committed to implementing the relevant UN Security Council Resolutions. The two sides called on relevant parties to make joint efforts and take the necessary actions to create the conditions for a resumption of the Six-Party Talks.
24. Afghanistan: The United States and China acknowledged they are important stakeholders in supporting Afghanistan. A peaceful, stable, and unified Afghanistan serves the interests of Afghanistan as well as the interests of the United States, China, and countries in the region. The United States and China acknowledged their close communication and coordination on Afghan issues. The two sides decided to maintain communication and cooperation with one another on Afghanistan to support peaceful reconstruction in Afghanistan, support an “Afghan led, Afghan owned” reconciliation process, and promote trilateral dialogue among the United States, China, and Afghanistan. The two sides jointly renewed their call on the Taliban to enter into direct talks with the Government of Afghanistan. The United States expressed appreciation for China’s chairmanship of the Heart of Asia process in 2014, and the two sides decided to work together to support Pakistan’s chairmanship of the process in 2015. The two sides decided to hold the fourth joint diplomatic training program for Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials, and to launch two new joint training programs for Afghan medical workers and veterinary technicians before the end of the year.
25. Iran: The United States and China emphasized that they share common interests in peacefully resolving the Iranian nuclear issue through diplomatic means while maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East. The two sides commended highly the positive progress in the P5+1 nuclear negotiations led by the European Union. The two sides reiterated their commitment to work for the early attainment of a mutually-agreed long-term comprehensive understanding that ensures the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear program. The two sides are to continue their constructive cooperation on the Iranian nuclear issue on the basis of mutual respect, equality, and mutual benefit.
26. Syria: The United States and China exchanged detailed views on the current situation in Syria and reaffirmed their joint commitment to resolve the Syrian issue through political means on the basis of the Geneva Communiqué. The sides expressed their support for UN Envoy Staffan de Mistura’s efforts to reduce violence and reinvigorate efforts towards a political solution that accommodates the interests of all parties through dialogue and consultation. The two sides expressed concern that toxic chemicals have been used as a weapon in Syria even after the Security Council passed Resolution 2118, reaffirmed their opposition to the proliferation or use of any chemical weapon, and expressed their support for the OPCW’s work in Syria. The two sides expressed deep concern over the humanitarian situation, noted the significant funding gaps the UN faces, and committed to continue their significant support for Syrian refugees and internally displaced persons. The two sides called on the international community to step up humanitarian assistance in accordance with United Nations guiding principles.
27. Iraq: In support of a common interest in a stable Iraq, the United States and China emphasized the importance of political reconciliation and compromise between the major ethno-sectarian groups within Iraq. The two sides affirmed that the expansion of Iraq’s oil and natural gas production and export benefit both the stability and development of the global energy markets and the lasting peace of Iraq. Together with Iraq, the United States and China are to discuss areas of potential cooperation on energy. The two sides expressed deep concern over the humanitarian situation and continued to provide humanitarian assistance for Iraqi refugees and internally displaced persons.
28. Counterterrorism: The United States and China condemn all forms of terrorism and concur on the global threat posed by terrorist organizations. Chinese government officials and industry experts accepted the U.S. invitation to meet to discuss best practices on stemming the illicit flow of chemical precursors and dual-use bomb components used by terrorists worldwide in improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The two sides decided to hold the second round of the U.S.-China Counterterrorism Dialogue at the vice-minister level the week of August 3 in Beijing. At the Counterterrorism Dialogue, the two sides are to seek to enhance counterterrorism cooperation on a wide range of issues, including on how to address the transnational flow of foreign terrorist fighters, crack down on terrorist funding networks, and increase information exchange on terrorist threats.
29. Sudan/South Sudan: The United States and China called for the parties to the South Sudan conflict to adhere to their commitments to respect the Cessation of Hostilities agreement, to finalize a comprehensive peace agreement, and to begin the formation of a transitional government of national unity. The international community, including the UN and the African Union (AU), should encourage the International Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) member states to work more closely together to reach a framework for peace in South Sudan. In this regard the two sides noted the May 22 statement by the AU Peace and Security Council. The two sides affirmed that once a peace agreement has been reached, international support will be needed to ensure thorough implementation. The international community should continue to support the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) in carrying out its mandate to protect civilians, monitor and investigate human rights abuses, and support the delivery of humanitarian assistance, and in the monitoring and reporting efforts of the Monitoring and Verification Mechanism. All parties should cease their efforts to obstruct the work of UNMISS and allow it to fully implement its mandates. The international community should continue the provision of humanitarian assistance to the people of South Sudan and provide further support for displaced persons, including South Sudanese seeking refuge in neighboring countries. The two sides noted the importance of preserving South Sudan’s vital infrastructure, and called on all parties to protect infrastructure that will be critical to the future well-being of the country once a peace agreement has been reached. The two sides reaffirmed that Sudan and South Sudan should be encouraged to develop friendly relations and called for Sudan and South Sudan to implement relevant Security Council resolutions. The two sides pledged to continue to maintain communication and consultation on all matters related to Sudan and South Sudan and take coordinated actions to support peace in Sudan and South Sudan and peaceful relations between the two states.
30. Humanitarian Assistance: Recognizing the urgent humanitarian needs in Africa, the United States and China decided to continue contributions to humanitarian assistance in Africa. The two sides called on the international community to increase assistance and provide greater support for refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict victims in Africa. The two sides decided to hold further discussions on how best to address these needs, in consultation with the recipient countries.
31. Asia-Pacific: The United States and China acknowledged their common interests and challenges in the region. The two sides decided to work together and with other countries to maintain peace, stability, and prosperity in the region. The two sides decided to enhance communication and coordination in the multilateral frameworks of the region, such as the East Asia Summit and the ASEAN Regional Forum. They decided to undertake, in one of these forums over the next year, a joint project in each of the areas of oil spill response, space security, and earthquake emergency response. They supported ASEAN’s centrality in regional architecture. The two sides welcomed and decided to continue consultations through bilateral exchanges at all levels and through relevant mechanisms on regional affairs.
32. Wildlife Trafficking: The United States and China affirmed their intention to implement wildlife trafficking commitments under the 2014 China-United States Leaders’ Meeting outcome, the 2014 APEC Leaders’ Declaration and APEC Joint Ministerial Statement, and the 2014 East Asia Summit Declaration on Combating Wildlife Trafficking. The two sides pledged to take steps to further restrict imports and domestic trade in elephant ivory; increase cooperative efforts to address wildlife trafficking including totoaba and sea turtles; strive to identify and address illegal wildlife trade routes and supply chains; reduce market forces that drive poaching and illegal trade of wildlife; strengthen domestic and global law enforcement efforts; combat online sales of illegally traded wildlife; and continue efforts to apply the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime to support international law enforcement cooperation to address wildlife crime, including the enforcement of criminal penalties sufficient to deter future wildlife trafficking. The two sides are to aim their efforts to raise public awareness, and work with other governments, international governmental organizations, civil society, the private sector, and local communities, to make a maximum impact on stemming illegal wildlife trade.
33. The United Nations: The United States and China stressed the importance of commemorating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations and reaffirming commitment to the Charter of the United Nations. The two sides expressed support for the United Nations playing an important role in international affairs as the most universal multilateral organization, and explored effective ways to maintain international peace and security through multilateralism. The two sides exchanged views on the need to work constructively on the financial sustainability of the UN.
34. UN Peacekeeping: The two sides exchanged views on United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations and reaffirmed their joint commitment to deepen their dialogue on these issues, including through exchanges at the expert level, on a rotating basis, composed of military, police and civilian experts from contributing departments. The two sides decided to take the review by the High-level Independent Panel on UN Peace Operations and the Strategic Guidance Framework for Police Peacekeeping as an opportunity to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of peacekeeping operations. Each side has decided to hold the first round of the peacekeeping technical experts meeting before the end of 2015, following the first military-to-military peacekeeping technical experts meeting in May 2015.
35. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: The United States and China reiterated their commitment to work together to establish a global nuclear liability regime that includes China, the United States, and other countries that might be affected by a nuclear accident, with an initial emphasis on treaty relations among countries in Southeast Asia and the Pacific and the current parties to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). The United States and China decided to hold a workshop on nuclear liability issues, including the CSC, in Beijing in the fall of 2015.
36. Consultation on International Economic Affairs: The United States and China highlighted the achievements of the first round of the consultation on international economic affairs between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China and the U.S. Department of State held in Beijing in 2014. The two sides decided to hold the second round of the consultation in the United States in 2015 to strengthen coordination on issues such as the world economic situation, G20, APEC, and global development cooperation, including Post-2015 Development Agenda and its implementation.
37. Development Agenda: The two sides reaffirmed their support for the ongoing process to develop the Post-2015 Agenda and to achieving an agenda that is universal in nature and applicable to all countries. The two sides reaffirmed their strong support for the Third International Conference for Financing for Development.
38. Development Cooperation: Under the prerequisite of raised, agreed and led by the recipient countries, and building on cooperation in Afghanistan and Timor Leste, the two sides decided to assess their cooperation and identify successful approaches for future joint development projects in the above two countries or others. They determined that conducting joint feasibility studies on programs and projects requested by the recipient country, and decided by all parties, is a necessary first step when pursuing future projects.
III. Cooperation on Climate Change and Energy
39. Commitment to Achieving an Ambitious 2015 Agreement: Building on the momentum of the November 2014 Joint Announcement on Climate Change by President Barack Obama and President Xi Jinping, the United States and China committed to working closely together, and with other countries, to address major impediments to reaching a successful ambitious global climate agreement in Paris this December. The two sides decided to maintain and strengthen regular high-level dialogue on issues in the international climate negotiations through the Enhanced Policy Dialogue. The two sides welcomed countries to come forward with ambitious contributions.
40. Progress on Cooperative Projects Announced in the November 2014 Joint Announcement: The two sides welcomed the concrete steps taken to implement the new and expanded bilateral initiatives launched as part of the November 2014 Joint Announcement on Climate Change. These steps include committing to a five-year extension of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC), conducting the Phase II work in collaboration with CERC’s private partners, and carrying forward the process to form a new CERC energy water track; preparatory work including technical workshop, site visits, cooperation information exchange among governments, companies and institutes towards the identification of the site of a large commercial-scale carbon capture use and storage (CCUS) demonstration project in China with a view to announcing the selection of CCUS demonstration site by the time of President Xi's next visit to the United States, and a collaboration to demonstrate the utilization of CO2 to bring deep geological brines to the surface at high pressure; the holding of a domestic hydrofluorocarbons control policy dialogue in March 2015; holding the Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities Summit this fall in Los Angeles; and the successful completion of the April 2015 Green Good Trade Mission led by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Ministry of Commerce of China.
41. Climate Change Working Group: The two sides strengthened and enhanced the Climate Change Working Group (CCWG), a key mechanism for enabling regular dialogue and constructive cooperation in support of our respective pre- and post-2020 climate action. The two sides established a new Domestic Policy Dialogue, and decided to explore additional areas, including expanded collaboration on zero emission vehicles, in advance of President Xi’s state visit in September. The two sides released the annual CCWG report documenting progress to date and future goals.
42. Enhanced Policy Dialogue on Climate Change and Creation of New Domestic Policy Dialogue: The two sides met regularly over the past year for the Enhanced Policy Dialogue under the Climate Change Working Group (CCWG). The Enhanced Policy Dialogue facilitates the sharing of information regarding our respective post-2020 plans to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and was an important enabler of the successful November 2014 Joint Announcement on Climate Change. The two sides held another meeting of the Enhanced Policy Dialogue on the margins of the S&ED in June 2015 and decided to hold the next meetings on the margins of bilateral and international meetings, in preparation for a successful global climate agreement in Paris. In parallel, to support further constructive dialogue on our respective domestic actions towards achieving our pre- and post-2020 targets and low-carbon economies, the two sides established a new Domestic Policy Dialogue under the Enhanced Policy Dialogue to share information on domestic policy goals, plans, challenges, and successes. The first two meetings of the Domestic Policy Dialogue were held in May and June 2015, with additional meetings planned for August 2015 and at the winter CCWG intersessional meeting.
43. Phasing Down Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): In agreements made in 2013 and 2014, President Obama and President Xi decided to work domestically, bilaterally, and with other countries to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs. The two sides are making progress on these agreements. Domestically, the United States is identifying and approving climate-friendly alternatives to high-GWP HFCs and proposed prohibiting the use of certain high-GWP HFCs in specific applications, such as in motor vehicle air conditioning. China has implemented HFC-23 byproduct controls from all emitting chemical production facilities. All HCFC-22 facilities are required to build and operate HFC-23 incineration facilities with significant financial support from the Chinese government. The two sides welcome the progress already made on practical bilateral cooperation on HFCs and decided to further explore opportunities with their industries. The two sides exchanged views on multilateral process on HFCs, deciding to work together and with other countries through multilateral approaches that include using the expertise and institutions of the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs, while continuing to include HFCs within the scope of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol provisions for accounting and reporting of emissions. The two sides continued to emphasize the importance of the Montreal Protocol, including as a next step through the establishment of an open-ended contact group to consider all relevant issues, including financial and technology support to Article 5 developing countries, cost effectiveness, safety of substitutes, environmental benefits and an amendment. The United States decided to work on addressing the concerns of Article 5 countries on an HFCs phase down under the Montreal Protocol. The two sides decided to further exchange views on domestic, bilateral, and multilateral issues prior to or during important meetings, including through face to face meeting on HFCs.
44. CCWG Heavy-Duty and Other Vehicles: With the support of numerous technical and policy exchanges under the Climate Change Working Group, the two sides made significant domestic policy and programmatic progress in the key working areas of the Heavy-Duty and Other Vehicles initiative. On fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission standards, the United States is currently developing new greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles for post-2018 model years. These standards were proposed in June 2015, and are to be finalized by the end of 2016. China is developing new fuel consumption standards for light- and heavy-duty commercial vehicles for 2020 model years and thereafter, to be finalized by the end of 2015 and the end of 2016 respectively. On tailpipe emissions and fuel quality standards, China has accelerated its schedule to implement ultra-low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel nationwide one year, to the end of 2016. To take advantage of high quality fuel availability, China is currently developing the China 6/VI emission standards for light- and heavy-duty vehicles, to be finalized by the end of 2017. China has additionally established an improved compliance program for heavy- and light-duty vehicles in 2015. On green freight, the United States has expanded the SmartWay Program to include barge freight in the United States starting in 2015, and is to add air freight in 2016. China has enhanced the Green Freight Initiative to include green freight efficiency standards, a 20 company pilot project, and green driving pocket book. Finally, the two sides decided to launch a new U.S.-China Race to Zero Emissions bus initiative to commence in fall 2015.
45. Electric Vehicles Workshop: In support of U.S.-China cooperation on electric vehicles and the U.S.-China Innovation Dialogue, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China co-hosted an Electric Vehicles Workshop to engage public and private sector representatives in discussions on standards and technology in June 2015.
46. CCWG Smart Grids: The United States and China welcomed the progress made on the four collaborative demonstration projects launched under the Climate Change Working Group Smart Grid initiative. Notable progress achieved to date includes over 60% energy usage savings and over 80% reduction in electricity costs from the zero net energy homes with smart grid technologies in the U.S. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, and the development of functionalities and application scenarios for four subprojects in the China-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. The two sides held a 3rd workshop in Westminster, CA in March 2015 to further technical exchanges on the demonstration projects and continue development of cost/benefit analysis methodologies which will eventually be applied to evaluate the benefits of the four demonstration projects. The two sides also recommended practices regarding three new smart grid integration technologies: high penetration of distributed renewable energy, data analytics for large volumes of data from connected devices, and microgrids. The next workshop in the series will be held in Beijing, China with a project site visit in Tianjin in fall 2015, and is to include additional discussions of technical assistance activities and smart grid standards, as well as an expanded industry session. The two sides further decided to place greater emphasis on industry engagement and technical assistance, aiming to expand institutional capacities for smart grids in the two countries. Additionally, the US Trade & Development Agency will sponsor a second study tour on smart grid in 2015 following the success of the first study tour that took place in October 2014 and brought delegates from the National Energy Administration and other relevant electric utilities.
47. Smart Grid Big Data Pilot Project and Exchange Program: The United States and China decided to enhance their cooperation on grid modernization. The United States and China decided to support the China Electricity Council and the State Grid Corporation of China as they conduct a feasibility study and pilot project on big data analytics for the electricity grid, with support from the U.S. Trade & Development Agency. This project is to demonstrate the use of big data analytics to provide run-time tracking and optimization of power distribution, consumption, and outage management on the smart grid.
48. CCWG Carbon Capture Use and Storage (CCUS): The U.S. and Chinese participants in the four counter-facing CCUS projects selected in 2014 under the Climate Change Working Group continued to discuss project development tasks. Over the past year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored two CCUS technical, policy, and regulatory workshops, one each in the United States and China, to exchange information. The U.S. workshop included meetings between the Chinese delegation and U.S. companies seeking business opportunities in China, along with visits to several CO2-enhanced oil recovery field sites as part of the U.S. Trade and Development Agency-sponsored CCUS study tour, which took place February 1-7, 2015. The 2nd CCWG/CCUS Workshop was held on April 20, 2015, in Beijing, which provided an opportunity to highlight achievements to date under the initial four CCUS projects and to propose several new counter-facing projects. These new projects are currently being discussed by potential partners from the United States and China to develop specific tasks and actions. To advance these proposals, DOE is supporting pre-feasibility assessments and project development activities by several of the potential U.S. partners. The National Development and Reform Commission of China and DOE selected two new CCUS projects for formal recognition at the S&ED.
49. CCWG Energy Efficiency in Building and Industry: In furtherance of improving Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), the two sides hosted a Symposium in Beijing in January 2015 to gather input on jointly developed resources, including a market opportunity analysis, policy recommendations, resource toolkit, and pilot project opportunity analysis. Companies that met at the event launched a new industry-led working group of U.S. and Chinese organizations to promote joint projects and expand the $12 billion Chinese EPC market and $7.6 billion U.S. EPC market. Innovative EPC pilot projects that meet jointly determined energy efficiency criteria are to be recognized during a signing ceremony at the 6th Energy Efficiency Forum in September 2015. Through the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC), China, the United States, Australia, and Japan reached consensus on the methodology for assessing the top ten best energy efficient technologies and best practices. The participants are to develop TOP TENS lists based on the methodology, with results expected by September 2015.
50. Energy Efficiency Standards: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine decided to work with the enterprises from the two countries on voluntary Chinese energy efficiency standards for boiler systems. China and United States decided to enhance exchanges on energy efficiency standards for data centers.
51. CCWG Collecting and Managing Greenhouse Gas Emission Data: The United States and China completed successful capacity building activities on greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring and reporting methodologies, data verification, and electronic registry development. China released 14 sector-specific GHG reporting guidelines in 2014 and plans to complete an additional nine in 2015. Design of a Chinese national GHG reporting system is underway. The United States successfully collected its fifth consecutive year of GHG data from over 8,000 facilities and suppliers across 41 industrial sectors, including emissions of carbon dioxide and high-global warming potential gases such as methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorinated compounds; these data have played a central role in U.S. climate change efforts to improve the U.S. GHG Inventory, develop and implement a U.S. Methane Strategy, and support climate policy. The United States and China intend to further enhance capacity building cooperation in developing China’s GHG guidelines, data reporting system, data management, and data quality control procedures related to key industrial sectors and GHGs. The two sides are to identify a pilot project in China where China’s GHG accounting methodologies and U.S. lessons can be applied to identify opportunities for reductions.
52. CCWG Climate Change and Forests: The two sides welcomed and approved the implementation plan for the Climate Change and Forests Initiative under the Climate Change Working Group and decided to cooperate through four workstreams. Under “Workstream 1: Policy dialogue on forests and land use under the global UNFCCC climate change negotiations”, the two sides held a first dialogue in May 2015 and exchanged views on agenda items under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) of the UNFCCC to increase the understanding of respective positions and facilitate negotiations. The implementation plan also identified joint activities under “Workstream 2: Technical cooperation in measuring, reporting, and monitoring of forestry-related greenhouse gases,” with a focus on estimating and reporting forestry-related greenhouse gases, “Workstream 3: Technical and policy cooperation in synergies of forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change,” and “Workstream 4: Forests, climate, finance and investment.” Activities under the latter three workstreams are to be started in the second half of 2015 with a series of teleconferences, technical workshops, and visits designed to share experiences and help identify best practices in forest-related topics. The two sides are to further explore engagement on commodities, forests and greenhouse gas emissions.
53. CCWG Study on Boiler Efficiency and Fuel Switching: Recognizing that industrial boilers are an important consumer of energy and source of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, the United States and China decided to expand industrial energy efficiency collaboration to foster deeper retrofits of key energy consuming systems, and analyze the costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of fuel switching in industrial steam and process heating systems. The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and the Department of State decided to release and execute the June 2015 policy implementation roadmap, which was developed under the aegis of the Climate Change Working Group by the joint bilateral technical team, in the two selected pilot cities of Ningbo and Xi’an with stakeholders, including the NDRC, provincial leaders, grid companies, private companies, and financing institutions. The two sides decided to explore the use of U.S. technology in one or both of the pilot cities as part of the execution of the aforementioned implementation roadmap. As an early step, the two sides plan to organize a visit by U.S. experts to Chinese stakeholders, including Chinese city managers, for deep exchange on relevant technologies, policy innovations, and market mechanisms, if funding on the two sides permits. The United States would also welcome a visit of Chinese stakeholders to the United States as the mid-point in the execution of the implementation roadmap and arrange meetings with relevant experts, if funding on the two sides permits.
54. CCWG Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities: The two sides decided to develop two tracks of the Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities initiative of the CCWG. In the first track, the two sides decided to hold the first Climate-Smart / Low-Carbon Cities Summit this fall in Los Angeles and in 2016 in China. The two sides plan to invite subnational leaders and delegations from each country for a conference featuring a high-level plenary at which leaders declare their resolve, ambition, and actions; working-level technical exchanges to share experience and best practices; and an exhibition to engage the private sector. In the second track on Smart Infrastructure for Urbanization, the two sides reached an initial consensus for cooperation in the following fields: Climate Smart Cities in Pilot and Demonstration Projects, Global Team Cities Challenge, and smart cities R&D and demonstration. The two sides will continue discussions on potential new topics.
55. Smart Cities/Smart Growth Business Development Mission: S. Department of Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker and U.S. Department of Energy Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall, in collaboration with the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and National Energy Administration, co-led a successful Smart Cities/Smart Growth Business Development Mission to China April 12-17, 2015. The mission focused on green infrastructure, energy efficiency, green buildings, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental sectors, and highlighted the benefits of sustainable urbanization technologies to support China’s air quality and climate goals.
56. Cooperation on Green Ports and Vessels: The two sides recognized the importance of ports and vessels in the transport of goods between our countries. Ports and vessels, however, also produce significant emissions of air pollutants, greenhouse gases, and black carbon. A significant body of experience, best practices, and technologies are available to mitigate emissions and their impact on air quality and climate. Given the opportunity to work together to expand the environmental benefits from such practices, the two sides decided to launch a new initiative on green ports and vessels.
57. Breakout Session on Greening Ports and Vessels: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency hosted a breakout session with the U.S. Department of Transportation, Shanghai Municipal Transport Commission, Shenzhen Human Settlements and Environment Commission, and the Port of Los Angeles. Participants shared experience on air quality impacts from marine ports and vessels and discussed national, provincial, and port authority priorities to engage stakeholders to cost effectively reduce emissions. The two sides decided to expand collaboration to reduce emissions and achieve environmental benefits to both China and the United States.
58. Clean Energy Research Center: Building on the successful five-year operation of the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC), the two countries jointly decided to continue and expand the CERC into a second five-year phase, from 2016 through 2020. The two countries are to jointly fund the CERC at the level of at least US$200 million. Priority research tracks are to include Advanced Coal Technology (including carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS)), clean vehicles, building energy efficiency, and the energy and water nexus. The new track on energy and water, announced by the two presidents in November 2014, is to be led by the U.S. Department of Energy and China’s Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). MOST is to mobilize experienced research institutes and large energy enterprises to establish the Chinese industry-university-research consortium on energy and water in this year. The United States is likewise forming a consortium through an outstanding competitive solicitation.
59. Decentralized Energy Combined Heating Power: In support of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA) and China’s National Energy Administration decided to continue their cooperation on distributed energy combined heat and power (DECHP) at the central and regional levels in China. A workshop and study funded by USTDA allowed the stakeholders from the two countries to discuss policies, standards, market access, best practices, and technological solutions.
60. Renewable Energy Partnership: The United States and China decided to continue concrete renewable energy cooperation under the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership (USCREP) initiative announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009. Eleven projects are currently being implemented pursuant to the initiative on topics such as concentrating solar power, photovoltaic (PV) quality assurance, PV financing, renewable energy grid integration, and New Energy Cities.
61. Energy Security: Recognizing the prominent role of energy use in climate change and sustainable economic growth, the United States and China decided to implement our respective U.S.-China climate commitments in part through our domestic and international energy policies. The two sides recognized the shared goal of working to strengthen global energy security. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to engage in energy security discussions and recognized that as the world’s largest producers and consumers of energy, they shared common interests and responsibilities to ensure energy security and face common challenges. The United States and China decided to meet in the near future to discuss our mutual concerns about energy security and meeting our energy demand in a sustainable manner. The United States and China reaffirm their commitment to strengthen cooperation and increased dialogue and exchange of information across the range of our policy engagements in several areas including stabilizing international energy markets, ensuring diversified energy supply, renewable energy, and the sustainable and efficient use of energy.
62. Unconventional Gas Engagement: In May 2014, the Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) and the U.S. Department of State jointly held the Unconventional Gas Sustainable Development Workshop in Beijing to exchange experience in sustainable unconventional gas development and best practices in conducting bid rounds and setting contractual terms. At the invitation of the Department of State, MLR regulatory experts visited the United States in September for a study tour focused on regulatory, environmental, and resources management issues associated with shale gas development. U.S. federal, state, and local regulatory experts led the discussions, and the program featured site visits to active well pads in Texas. The two sides plan to further explore various ways of their engagement in 2015 in order to contribute to sustainable unconventional gas development in China.
63. U.S.-China Shale Gas Training Program, Phase II: The United States and China decided to jointly deliver a second series of workshops in China on the technological, commercial, and regulatory aspects of shale gas development. Similar to the successful first phase held in 2013-2014, this public-private program is being coordinated among the U.S. Trade & Development Agency, China’s National Energy Administration, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, and the U.S. Departments of Energy, State, and Commerce. The training is to feature experts from government and industry, providing a forum for members of the Chinese and U.S. shale gas sectors to discuss current challenges and opportunities, sharing best practices and tested solutions.
64. Exchange Training Program: The National Energy Administration of China and the U.S. Department of Energy continued the development of the hundred-person exchange training program to expand information exchange and mutual learning in the energy industry, especially in the cleaner utilization of fossil energy. A U.S. delegation is to travel to China in August 2015.
65. Nuclear Security Center of Excellence and Reactor Conversion: The United States and China welcomed the positive progress made in the field of nuclear security, especially on the projects of the Nuclear Security Center of Excellence (COE) and conversion of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The two sides noted the significant progress on construction of the COE since the October 2013 ground-breaking ceremony, and look forward to the COE’s completion in 2015. China and the United States plan to continue regular technical exchanges after the COE is built. The two sides commended the progress made to complete the conversion of the MNSR, noting that the LEU fuel has been fabricated and tested, the Safety Analysis Report is under final review, the HEU fuel is planned to be removed in September 2015 , and the final conversion is expected in December 2015 . China and the United States continue to work cooperatively with the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the conversion of Ghana’s MNSR to LEU fuel and return the HEU fuel to China. China and the United States are prepared to work with the IAEA to support future MNSR conversions.
66. Civil Nuclear Energy R&D: The United States and China decide to continue cooperation on civil nuclear energy research and development. The two sides decided to continue cooperation under the Bilateral Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperative Action Plan between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Administration of China. In September 2014, a Statement of Intent was signed for conducting a Joint Irradiation Project at the China Experimental Fast Reactor. The two sides are working on the preparation of the irradiation experiments. The 7th Joint Action Plan Working Groups Coordination Meeting is tentatively scheduled to take place in August in China. The United States and China also decided to continue cooperation between DOE and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) under the Memorandum of Understanding for Nuclear Energy Sciences and Technologies (NEST). The next DOE-CAS executive committee meeting is tentatively scheduled for September 2015 in China.
67. Nuclear Power Cooperation: The United States and China acknowledged the great importance of the world’s first batch of AP1000 projects under construction in Sanmen and Haiyang, China and encouraged our respective companies to resolve any outstanding issues in order to bring Sanmen Reactor No.1 into commercial operation in a safe and timely manner.
68. Nuclear Safety Cooperation: The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of China and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) continued their cooperation on nuclear safety through sustained regulatory and technical exchanges on the AP1000 nuclear reactor development, emphasizing the AP1000 commissioning; design modification and Fukushima lessons learned; and training on the software application and inspector exchange program. USNRC and NNSA inspectors worked together at the AP1000 sites in China and on AP1000 vendor inspections. In 2015, the NNSA and USNRC plan to continue sharing expertise on AP1000 commissioning licensing; strengthening personnel exchanges; and sharing experience on issues relating to reactor operation safety and information dissemination and public communication.
IV. Cooperation on Environmental Protection
69. Air Quality: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) collaborated on a range of air quality issues and advanced capacity on regional air quality planning; pollution prevention and multi-pollutant control of emissions from refineries, cement, petrochemical, coal-fired power, iron and steel; emissions from vehicles and vessels; and mercury emissions controls. EPA and MEP are discussing hosting the 2015 Regional Air Quality Management Conference on volatile organic compounds; a workshop on outcomes/lessons learned from the Jiangsu Province project for Chinese provinces and cities; sharing best practices on mercury emissions; and promoting implementation of the action plan for heavy-duty diesel vehicles, including ultra-low sulfur fuel, advanced emission and fuel efficiency standards, strong compliance programs, and green freight programs.
70. Exchanging Ideas to Combat Air Pollution: In order to share best practices on solutions to combat air pollution and further support the regional air emission technical assistance program supported by the United States Trade & Development Agency (USTDA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), USTDA and MEP decided to bring representatives from Jiangsu’s Environmental Protection Bureau on a study tour in fall 2015 to showcase U.S. technologies and best practices in air quality management.
71. Low NOx Boiler Emission Reduction Feasibility Study and Pilot Project: The United States Trade & Development Agency and the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau decided to work together to conduct a feasibility study and pilot project to demonstrate low nitrogen oxides (NOx) burner technologies to meet stricter NOx emission requirements for gas-fired boilers in Beijing.
72. Water Quality: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China continued their robust cooperation in 2015 as highlighted by the sharing of legal frameworks, technical expertise, and finance mechanisms for surface and groundwater protection and restoration, and holding a high-level exchange on water economic policies, water security, green investment, and water sustainability. The two sides plan to exchange expertise on the water-energy nexus and continue advancing cooperation on water environment management; national-provincial-municipal water governance; research; pollution control strategies and innovative technologies; expand the groundwater remediation pilot project and technical exchange and training.
73. Management of Chemicals: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China decided to continue exchanging expertise on the environmental management of chemicals and consider expanding discussions to include endocrine disrupting compounds. Web conferences are planned on environmental management of long-chain perfluorinated chemicals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), with a focus on risk management actions, uses, alternatives, and research. The two sides plan to support implementation of the Minamata Convention, sharing expertise to refine strategies, policies, regulations, management practices, and technologies to address the health and environmental effects of mercury. Exchanges may focus on mercury-added products, the impact of mercury on soil and water, mercury emissions control from coal-fired power plants, coal-fired industrial boilers, waste incineration, cement production, and non-ferrous metals.
74. Management of Waste and Contaminated Sites: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) continued sharing contaminated site assessment and remediation reference materials. The shared materials informed the publications Introduction to U.S. Superfund and Case Studies of Contaminated Sites in China and EPA’s Citizen’s Guide Series to Cleanup Technologies. The materials also supported MEP’s issuance of technical guidelines on site investigation, site monitoring, risk assessment, and soil remediation. The two sides met in June 2015 to continue cooperation on building and strengthening capacity in management frameworks and technologies for contaminated sites—especially on clean-up policies and case studies; hazardous waste generation and disposal permitting systems; and recycled e-waste management and verification.
75. Enforcement of Environmental Laws: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China continued to advance best practices in environmental compliance and enforcement with national, provincial, and municipal officials. The two sides held high-level discussions on new technologies/approaches and next generation compliance and enforcement; oversight of local enforcement; and implementation of penalty authorities under China’s Environmental Framework Law. The two sides are exploring a potential visit to China by the EPA Assistant Administrator for Enforcement and Compliance Assurance in advance of the Joint Committee on Environmental Cooperation to focus on next generation compliance and enforcement, participation in the International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement workshop on air enforcement and climate change.
76. Environmental Laws and Institutions: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) shared information and best practices on revisions to China’s framework Environmental Protection and Air Pollution Prevention and Control Laws and supporting regulations. China’s 2014 revisions to its Environmental Protection Law include provisions discussed by the two sides, such as authorities for environmental public interest litigation, public disclosure of pollutant discharges, suspension of new pollution source approvals in non-attainment areas, and enhanced penalties for violations, such as daily penalty, detention and criminal penalty. EPA hosted officials from China’s Supreme People’s Court on legal experience and approaches to water protection and pollution control. EPA and MEP intend to continue collaboration on environmental law and adjudication, regional air quality planning and pollution control, and pollutant permitting. Experience has proved that the professional communication between MEP and EPA has promoted the progress of environmental laws and adjudication.
77. Environment and Development: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China supported and attended the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED) Environment and Development Think Tank Symposium June 22, 2015 in Washington, D.C. The symposium was held to support the development of CCICED as a new type of think tank and promote experience sharing on environment and development. Think tanks and research institutes from the United States and China participated in the symposium and discussed the functions, operational models and development trends of think tanks, and how to strengthen cooperation to promote the realization of post-2015 sustainable development goals.
78. Combating Illegal Logging and Associated Trade: The State Forestry Administration of China, the U.S. Department of State, and the Office of the United States Trade Representative held the 6th meeting of the China-U.S. Bilateral Forum on Combating Illegal Logging and Associated Trade on March 18, 2015. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to support regional and global efforts to combat illegal logging and associated trade. In particular, the United States and China decided to continue the regular exchange and sharing of information through the Bilateral Forum, and to strengthen dialogue and engagement under regional and multilateral fora such as the APEC Experts Group on Illegal Logging and Associated Trade, in order to improve understanding of and promote practical cooperation on topics such as the implementation of the U.S. Lacey Act, timber legality verification, private sector dialogue, and customs data exchange. To maximize the effectiveness of our efforts, the two sides are to continue taking a whole-of-government approach by coordinating with and involving all relevant ministries and agencies, and by working with civil society and private sector partners.
79. Forest Health Management: The Chinese State Forestry Administration (SFA) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) focused their robust forestry partnership on climate change adaptation and mitigation. They reinforced their interest in continued collaboration at the forest management unit (FMU), and are to begin the process of selecting two forest health pilot sites across China. The two sides are to further explore pairing research laboratories on forest biological control. They reinforced their support for the UN FAO Asia Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFISN) by conducting research in southwest China and Vietnam on the shot hole borer, a destructive forest pest. In partnership with the Memphis Zoo, SFA and USFS decided to address wildlife habitat improvement through pilot research on forest corridors and forest health restoration. The two sides decided to hold a Forest Health Management Seminar, at an appropriate time, and to promote personnel exchange and technical cooperation on forest health management.
80. Regional Cooperation on Forests: The two sides decided to continue joint efforts in the region through relevant activities in APFNet, and other relevant organizations, to promote high-level commitment and cooperation to advance forest conservation, restoration and sustainable forest management, and to facilitate progress towards the APEC 2020 forest cover goal.
81. Parks Management: Reaffirmed their mutual commitment to cooperation in parks management. The National Park Service (NPS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Park Agency (NPA) of the Chinese Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) reviewed their progress on activities under their 2014-2016 Action Plan, which reflects cooperation on seven sister parks, the World Heritage Convention, and new efforts concerning the establishment of a national parks system via the Paulson Institute. NPS and NPA decided to continue their efforts to establish sister park relationships between U.S. and Chinese parks and to promote the development and use of online resources to enhance work and training exchanges, and to facilitate cooperation and information sharing.
82. Nature Conservation: In accordance with Annex 12 of the U.S.-China Nature Conservation Protocol (i.e., the 2014-2016 work plan), the United States and China are to continue to strengthen cooperation and exchange on nature reserve management, wetland conservation and sustainable use, environmental education and public services, implementation of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and fisheries.
V. Maritime Cooperation
83. Global Oceans Cooperation: The United States and China reaffirmed their commitments toward the protection and conservation of the world’s oceans, including the Pacific Ocean. The two sides expressed their support for the agendas of the 2014 Our Ocean and APEC Ocean-Related Ministerial conferences that addressed global challenges of sustaining fisheries, ocean acidification, and marine pollution, and pledged to practically implement these goals nationally, bilaterally, and with the international community. We pledged to support coastal and marine ecosystem conservation, disaster resilience, food security, marine science, and technology innovation. They also expressed their intention to strengthen cooperation on the Blue Economy concept, including by sharing information and experiences through APEC and other forums. The two sides plan to send senior officials to the October 2015 Our Ocean conference in Chile.
84. Bilateral Dialogue on Fisheries: Recognizing our mutual interest in healthy oceans and sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, and our important roles as major fishing nations, the two sides decided to establish a formal U.S.-China fisheries dialogue to discuss issues of mutual interest related to the science and management of fisheries and aquaculture. The two sides intend to expand collaboration on combatting illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, with the joint participation of all relevant government entities. The next meeting is to take place in the last half of 2015 and subsequent meetings are to take place as needed.
85. Combating Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing: The United States and China decided to work together to combat illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Recognizing the Port State Measures Agreement as a step forward in combating IUU fishing, the two sides committed to strengthen collaboration between fisheries law enforcement officials and enhance and support better implementation of port State measures. The two sides decided to increase our cooperation in various international organizations, including Regional Fisheries Management Organizations, to develop and use robust and pragmatic tools for combating IUU.
86. Marine Litter Prevention and Reduction: The United States and China decided to implement public awareness campaigns on the extent and effects of marine litter; share experiences and best practices to improve waste management to reduce and prevent marine litter; and establish mechanisms at national and local levels to monitor and mitigate the impacts of existing marine debris. In support of these goals, China joined relevant activities initiated by the United States and others in supporting the 2011 Honolulu Commitment of 2011 regarding marine debris prevention and reduction. The United States and China plan to participate actively in the Global Partnership on Marine Litter, including the next meeting in early 2016, of which the United States is to chair. In particular, the United States and China decided to explore a sister city concept that builds on existing domestic programs to jointly implement improvements for waste collection, management, and recycling practices that reduce and prevent the outflow of litter into the marine environment. The United States and China decided to consider sharing best practices with developing countries. The United States and China plan to make progress in developing the details of cooperation in these areas this year and by the next S&ED.
87. Maritime Safety and Security: The United States and China expressed support for carrying forward bilateral exchanges between the relevant U.S. and Chinese maritime safety agencies. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), China Coast Guard, and China Maritime Safety Administration (MSA) intend to conduct mutual senior-level and vessel visits in 2015 to share ideas and best practices and to promote deeper understanding and cooperation. The USCG and MSA plan to continue cooperation and exchanges in maritime radio navigation and satellite navigation, such as the May 2014 visit by the USCG Navigation Center delegation to MSA headquarters. The USCG and MSA continue to explore joint enforcement of international dangerous cargo laws; develop a personnel and professional exchange program in the fields of seafarer management, navigation safety, aids to navigation, hazardous and noxious substances spill response, and search and rescue; and formulate a medium-term or long-term bilateral action plan on maritime safety.
88. Maritime Law Enforcement: The U.S. and China Coast Guards renewed for five years the MOU on Effective Cooperation and Implementation of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/215 of December 20, 1991, which enforces the UN High Seas Drift-Net Fishing Moratorium through a U.S.-China Coast Guard shiprider program. The two sides announced their intention to begin discussions leading to a reciprocal arrangement where U.S. Coast Guard officers can embark upon China Coast Guard ships in to enforce this ban in the same geographic region. The U.S. and China Coast Guards support maritime professionalism and conduct at sea in accordance with international law and standards, and continued dialogue on how to cooperate on these topics through the North Pacific Coast Guard Forum (NPCGF).
89. Marine Protected Areas: The two sides decided to work together to improve the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPA). They celebrated China’s announcement to increase its protected area coverage in the marine environment to 5 percent and the recent U.S. six-fold expansion of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument. In support of this goal, the two sides are to strengthen understanding and information exchange about Chinese and U.S. MPA programs, initiatives, science, and management topics. The United States hosted a dialogue in June 2015 to share information on such matters, and to review existing cooperation and identify potential future opportunities for technical and other types of cooperation toward improved effectiveness of our respective MPAs.
90. Antarctica: The United States and China recognized the importance of working on establishing a marine protected area in the Ross Sea of Antarctica. The two sides plan to maintain communication and coordination, in consultation with other parties, on the details of the proposal to establish such an MPA before and during the Thirty-Fourth Meeting of the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to be held October 19-30, 2015 in Hobart, Australia.
91. Law of the Sea and Polar Issues: The United States hosted the sixth annual U.S.-China Dialogue on the Law of the Sea and Polar Issues in Seattle on April 8-9, 2015. Experts from foreign affairs and maritime agencies of the two countries exchanged views on a wide range of topics related to oceans, the law of the sea, and the polar regions. The United States and China are deepening bilateral dialogue on these issues. China plans to host the next Dialogue in 2016.
92. South China Sea Tsunami Warning: The United States and China reaffirmed their support for China’s proposed South China Sea (SCS) Tsunami Advisory Center, as approved by the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System. The advisory center is to share sensing, forecasting, and modeling data with all relevant member states in the Asia-Pacific and the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System Member States, including the United States and coastal states of the SCS. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center based in Hawaii is to continue sharing its expertise with the planned SCS Tsunami Advisory Center through the SCS Sub-Regional Working Group Task Team on Establishment of a SCS Tsunami Advisory Center.
93. Green Ports: The United States and China decided to conduct a green port pilot project in China. With support from the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA) and in coordination with the China Waterborne Transport Research Institute, the pilot project is to demonstrate the positive environmental impacts of using an advanced green port communications and IT system at the Port of Qinhuangdao, with the objective of replicating this system at other Chinese ports.
94. Enhanced Cooperation on Climate-Related Ocean Issues: The State Oceanic Administration (SOA) of China and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States decided to hold a scoping workshop to further discuss the Draft Proposal for the Indian-Southern Oceans Climatic Observation, Reanalysis and Prediction (ISOCORE) to develop a Science Plan. The proposed program is to include ocean and climate observations, model development, data management and services, and focused studies on scientific issues in the Indian and Southern Oceans. Ocean acidification, carbon cycle, decadal and multi-decadal oscillations, and the role of ocean in climate prediction and predictability are key issues that may also be addressed. In addition, China and the United States decided to enhance cooperation for monitoring and assessment of ocean acidification in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. The two sides are to explore opportunities for expanding the coverage of the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network and associated data information products, including through joint capacity-building efforts for expanding coverage in the Arctic and Southern Oceans.
VI. Cooperation on Health
95. Post-Ebola: The United States and China commended each other's substantial contributions and close coordination to help affected African countries fight the Ebola epidemic. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to continue build health systems in West Africa and across the continent, recognizing the leadership of the United Nations and WHO, in support of national development plans of the countries of the region. The two sides are to endeavor to continue enhancing exchange and cooperation on combating Ebola. The two sides are to collaborate on regional and multilateral efforts to strengthen health systems in Africa, including by supporting the goals of the Global Health Security Agenda and exploring the possibility of technical cooperation on the African CDC.
96. Infectious Disease Response: The United States and China committed to strengthen and further support our partnership on the prevention and detection of, and response to, infectious disease threats, including through the renewal of the U.S.-China Memorandum of Understanding for the Collaborative Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases. The National Health and Family Planning Commission of China and the Department of U.S. Health and Human Services are to continue participating in the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), and work with relevant countries and organizations to advocate the prioritization of global health security across sectors and regions. The two sides are committed to further collaborate on fighting against Ebola, working together on global health issues and in helping African and other countries improve their public health systems, to advance targets of the Global Health Security Agenda and the International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization.
97. Clean Cookstoves: The two sides decided to further strengthen their cooperation on clean cooking and with the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (Alliance). At the November 2014 Cookstoves Future Summit, the United States announced anticipated support of up to $200 million through 2020 to further clean cookstoves research and initiatives globally and China made a significant commitment to promoting the use of clean cooking stoves and fuels for at least 40 million rural households by 2020 as its contribution to the Alliance’s goal of 100 million families adopting clean cookstoves and fuel by 2020. China and the Alliance decided to continue efforts under the framework of the MOU between National Development and Reform Commission of China and the United Nations Foundation, including: collaboration on a pilot phase for national cookstoves activities in China, including the launch of six new pilot projects; South-South collaboration related to transfer of Chinese cookstove technology to Alliance focus countries in Africa; co-hosting a China National Stakeholder Conference in Summer 2015 to present the results of actions and progress to date; and hosting an international research meeting in late 2015 on the contribution of household emissions to ambient air pollution. The two sides reiterated their commitment to their partnership with the Alliance to support and advance the international process under the International Organization of Standards (ISO) to develop standards for clean, safe, and efficient cooking stoves and fuels, as well as the development of cookstove testing centers in China. The United States reiterated its commitment to provide technical assistance toward cookstoves efforts undertaken by China in cooperation with the Alliance with regard to health, climate, and air quality.
98. Smoke-Free Workplaces: The United States and China decided to further support and implement China-U.S. Smoke-Free Workplaces initiative (CUSW). In phase II, the Steering and working committees are to meet to develop Phase II activities, which is to include a series of training workshops for local physical and health professionals in Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen.
99. U.S.-China Healthcare Cooperation Program Workshops: In support of the U.S-China Healthcare Cooperation Program, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency decided to fund a second phase of workshops focused on healthcare technologies to be held over the next two years at various regional health bureaus, hospitals, and healthcare institutions in coordination with China’s Health Human Resources Development Center and the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Health and Human Services.
100. Healthcare Reform: The United States and China decided to continue strengthening dialogue and exchange in healthcare reform, and to continue sharing experiences concerning the general practitioner system, medical insurance, medical information technology, hospital management, and related issues. The fifth China-U.S. Health Summit is scheduled to be held in Harvard University in October 2015 with the support of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China and the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States. The U.S. Trade & Development Agency decided to work with China’s Health Human Resources Development Center on the China-U.S. Healthcare Cooperation Program, and support China's participation in training on the integration of medical teaching and research and medical resources management to be held in the United States.
VII. Cooperation on Science, Technology, and Agriculture
101. Space: The United States and China decided to establish regular bilateral government-to-government consultations on civil space cooperation. The first U.S.-China Civil Space Cooperation Dialogue is to take place in China before the end of October Separate from the Civil Space Cooperation Dialogue, the two sides also decided to have exchanges on space security matters under the framework of the U.S.-China Security Dialogue before the next meeting of the Security Dialogue.
102. Satellite Collision Avoidance: The United States and China reaffirmed that orbital collision avoidance serves the common interest of the two sides in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. The two sides noted that the process for safely resolving an orbital close approach requires further consultation, with a view to building upon existing cooperation between the two sides in order to ensure timely resolution to reduce the probability of accidental collisions. The two sides further decided to continue bilateral government-to-government consultations on satellite collision avoidance and the long-term sustainability of outer space activities as part of the U.S.-China Civil Space Cooperation Dialogue.
103. Joint Research on Severe Weather Monitoring: The United States and China decided to enhance data and information exchange and cooperation on joint research and development of monitoring, warning, and risk assessment technologies for severe weather and climate, such as hurricanes (typhoons), strong convective weather events, droughts, high temperatures, and heat waves. These efforts are intended to der jointly improve the two sides’ ability to respond to severe weather and climate events.
104. NOAA-CMA Joint Research and Greenhouse Gas Monitoring: The United States and China decided to strengthen joint research between the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) through the China-U.S. Science and Technology Agreement. These efforts are intended to improve the continuity of networks and enhance capabilities for observing and understanding the behavior of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
105. Climate Science and Climate Services: The United States and China enhanced cooperation and research in the areas of climate science and climate services, including extended-range forecasts, drought monitoring outlooks, El Nino-Southern Oscillation monitoring, outlooks of tropical atmosphere Madden-Julian Oscillation and monsoon monitoring. The two sides decided to enhance bilateral cooperation in climate services under the Global Framework for Climate Services.
106. Operational Forecast and Service of Space Weather: The United States and China enhanced cooperation and exchange in space weather monitoring programs, forecasts and services.
VIII. Sub-National Cooperation
107. U.S.-China Governors Forum: The United States and China welcomed the announcement that the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and the California State Government are to co-host the Third China-U.S. Governors Forum in California. The two sides are to provide support for the event, in which leaders from Chinese provinces and U.S. states are invited to the forum to exchange views on several topics, including trade expansion, economic development, education, environmental protection, climate change, and people-to-people exchanges.
108. China-U.S. Sister Cities Conference: The United States and China welcomed their countries subnational cooperation through the Sister Cities Conference. The Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and Sister Cities International is to co-host the Second China-U.S. Sister Cities Conference in Chicago on October 22-24, 2015. Local government leaders and representatives from different sectors of the two countries are to share experience on sister-city program and discuss plans for future cooperation.
109. EcoPartnerships: The two sides launched six new EcoPartnerships and held a signing ceremony of the EcoPartnerships program during the seventh S&ED. Both sides noted the role of the EcoPartnerships Program in catalyzing innovative subnational cooperation on climate change, energy, and environmental issues in the United States and China in support of the Ten Year Framework for Cooperation on Energy and Environment. The two sides also held an EcoPartnerships Workshop before the seventh S&ED to exchange lessons learned and best practices in addressing challenges and creating opportunities through EcoPartnerships activities.
110. Eco-Cities Collaboration: The city of Weifang signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in December 2014 outlining its aim to serve as a hub for piloting Eco-Cities concepts over the next five years to accelerate energy efficiency in cities and reduce emissions. A March 2015 seminar involving the U.S. Department of Energy, the Chinese Society for Urban Studies, the U.S.–China Energy Cooperation Program, and seven Chinese Eco-Cities, identified similar opportunities for high-impact technology demonstrations that are to be conducted in the immediate future.
IX. Bilateral Dialogues on Energy, Environment, Science, and Technology
111. Ten-Year Framework on Energy and Environment Cooperation (TYF): The two sides decided to continue to promote cooperation under the six remaining TYF action plans and to further implement the EcoPartnerships program. The two sides’ senior policy and technical experts convened for the 2015 Joint Working Group meeting in Beijing, March 19-20 to review progress and explore new areas for collaboration. The two sides recognized the success of their cooperation under TYF in achieving important outcomes in areas of significance for the two countries and the global community, including: the Jiangsu Province model air quality action plan, seminars and training on groundwater investigation and technology, wetlands studies, visits between experts to improve wildlife refuge management, initiation of new efficiency standards cooperation on data centers and industrial boiler systems, a smart grid technology conference, and continued sharing of best practices on energy regulations. In support of the Clean and Efficient Transportation Action Plan, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration and the National Development and Reform Commission Comprehensive Transportation Institute concluded their “Livability” project, which compiled and shared each country’s laws and policies for promoting transportation choice and accessibility and also integrated smart transport solutions into community goals. The two sides commended the success of the Transportation Action Plan over the past five years and decided to sunset the Action Plan under the TYF. Overall, the participants engaged in a dynamic, substantive exchange, and explored emerging issues linked to sustainable development in cities. The two sides decided to hold the next TYF meeting by early 2016.
112. The Clean, Efficient, and Secure Electricity Production Plan under the TYF: Building on the successful Smart Grid Technical Conference held in 2012, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the National Energy Administration of China (NEA) decided to continue cooperation on energy industry management policy, including working to develop possible options for partnering with the U.S. Trade & Development Agency (USTDA) on study tours or workshops specifically dedicated to learning more about energy regulatory policies in the two countries. FERC and NEA further decided to share information about regulatory experiences and practices in a series of digital video conference discussions beginning with topics such as power industry planning, electricity pricing, electricity markets, renewable energy integration, distributed energy development, regulations for network technologies and smart grid.
113. Joint Working Group on Environmental Research: Vice Minister Wang Weizhong of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, and Acting Assistant Administrator Lek Kadeli of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, chaired the second biennial meeting of the Joint Working Group on Environmental Research in Beijing in August 2014. The two sides reviewed the existing research project collaborations and added a research project to advance the development of unified cookstoves testing methods, in line with the efforts of the Global Alliance on Clean Cookstoves. The two sides are holding an international seminar on vehicle emissions control in Beijing, and intend to produce a progress report.
114. Joint Committee on Environmental Cooperation: The United States and China announced plans for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to host the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China for the fifth meeting of the U.S.-China Joint Committee on Environmental Cooperation in the United States in the fall of 2015. At the meeting, the Ministers plan to review 2013-2015 collaboration accomplishments, approve 2015-2017 work plans, discuss new/emerging priorities and opportunities, and renew their Memorandum of Understanding on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Field of Environment. The two sides’ collaboration focuses on enhancing environmental laws, institutional capacity on law implementation and enforcement, and capacity in environmental protection related to air, water, persistent organic pollutants, toxics substances, and hazardous and solid waste.
115. Executive Secretaries Meeting on Science and Technology Cooperation: The United States and China welcomed continued efforts to enhance cooperation through an Executive Secretaries Meeting (ESM) on Science and Technology Cooperation to be held in the fall in China. The meeting is led by the Ministry of Science and Technology’s Department of International Cooperation and the Department of State’s Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. The two sides decided the 2015 ESM may consider items such as young scientist exchanges; innovation at the food, water, and energy nexus; clean cookstoves cooperation; smart cities/smart infrastructure for urbanization. The two sides plan to hold a telephone conference prior to the ESM to assess progress since the 2014 Joint Committee Meeting (JCM) to deliver on JCM and S&ED deliverables.
116. Oil and Gas Industry Forum: In recognition of their common interest in the safe, reliable, and environmentally responsible development of unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, the United States and China continued to actively encourage cooperation and dialogue on the technical, environmental protection, and regulatory framework and practices of unconventional resource development, through workshops and exchanges. To this end, in 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy and National Energy Administration of China held their annual U.S.-China Oil and Gas Industry Forum (OGIF) in the United States, where representatives from the two countries continued shale gas cooperation to help China efficiently develop its domestic shale gas resources, and highlighted trade and investment opportunities in the United States and China's oil and natural gas sectors. The United States and China are to continue these efforts at the 2015 OGIF, which is to be held in China.
117. Fossil Energy Protocol: The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to hold the 2015 Fossil Energy Protocol Coordinators Meeting in China in October, co-chaired by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and Department of Energy of the United States, where the two sides are to review activities of the past year and identify new priorities, missions, and activities for future collaborations, including greater emphasis on carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), CO2 transport, and enhanced oil recovery.
118. Energy Efficiency Forum: The United States and China reaffirmed their plans to hold the sixth Energy Efficiency Forum in Washington, D.C. in September 2015. Participants are to assess progress and emerging opportunities for collaboration on industrial facilities, buildings, standards, and clean energy finance. Breakout session tracks are to convene to discuss a wide range of energy efficiency topics, including the Industrial Energy Efficiency track which is to exchange views on energy efficient plants, energy-saving technology evaluation and encourage continued research and promotion of energy-saving technologies or industrial boilers, and other products. A high-profile signing ceremony is to be conducted to recognize new formal energy efficiency-related relationships between U.S. and Chinese organizations, such as joint energy savings performance contracting projects.
119. Renewable Energy Industries Forum: The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Energy Administration of China held the fourth Renewable Energy Industries Forum in June 2015. Participants assessed progress and emerging opportunities for collaboration on policy planning, solar financing and quality assurance, renewable energy integration with the grid, and New Energy Cities. A high-profile signing ceremony was conducted to recognize new commercial and research partnerships between U.S. and Chinese organizations. Insights gained from the forum are informing the projects pursued under the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership (USCREP) initiative.
120. DOE-CAS Fourth Joint Committee Meeting: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) decided to meet July 21 in Washington, D.C. and discuss cooperation in the areas of high energy physics, nuclear physics, fusion energy sciences, and basic energy sciences. Highlights are to include the results from a joint DOE-CAS workshop in x-ray optics and detectors and several joint workshops on superconductors and related quantum materials.
121. Steering Committee Meeting of the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC): The U.S. Department of Energy and China’s Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) held the 7th CERC Steering Committee meeting in the United States on June 1, 2015. The meeting was co-chaired by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and MOST Minister Wan Gang. The two sides exchanged views on collaboration in the three technical tracks of advanced coal technology, clean vehicles, and building energy efficiency. They also discussed the second phase, including the new technical track of energy and water.
122. The 2nd International Solar Decathlon China: The U.S. Department of Energy, the National Energy Administration of China, and the China Overseas Development Association decided to sign a Memorandum of Understanding for the 2nd International Solar Decathlon China.
123. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies: In May 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the National Energy Administration of China (NEA) held the tenth annual U.S.-China Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies Joint Coordinating Committee (PUNT JCC) meetings in China. The two sides exchanged views on the role of nuclear power in meeting respective national energy needs, reviewed the progress achieved in each of the five PUNT working groups, discussed challenges and opportunities for strengthening bilateral technical collaborations in the areas of nuclear energy technology, nuclear safeguards and security, environment and waste management, nuclear emergency management, and radioactive source security. The two sides further decided to establish a new Working Group between DOE/NNSA and NEA focusing on public and stakeholder outreach to promote awareness and strengthen public understanding of how nuclear energy is being developed in a safe, secure, and peaceful manner. The United States and China decided to continue civil nuclear safety activities focusing on Probabilistic Safety Assessments through the Nuclear Energy Technology Working Group under the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology framework. The next PUNT JCC Meeting is tentatively planned for 2016 in the United States.
124. NOAA-SOA Joint Working Group Meeting and Marine Science Forum: The State Oceanic Administration (SOA) of China and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States planned to convene the 19th Joint Working Group Meeting on Marine and Fishery Science and Technology Cooperation in Fall 2015, following the ISOCORE Scoping Meeting.
125. MOST-USDA Joint Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation: The Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) decided to hold the 13th MOST-USDA Joint Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation in California, September 2-4, 2015. Zhang Laiwu, Vice Minister of MOST, and Catherine Woteki, Under Secretary and Chief Scientist of USDA, are to co-chair the meeting. The two sides are to review progress and discuss plans for future cooperation.
126. China-U.S. Peer Review and Project Management Workshop: To exchange experiences and ideas about the grants management and peer review procedures, efficient and effective ways of evaluating biomedical sciences, as well as collaborations between the agencies, the United States and China held a workshop in Beijing, China on April 15, 2015.
127. Seminar on Earthquake and Volcano Studies: The China Earthquake Administration, United States Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, and National Institute of Standards and Technology are to jointly hold the U.S. China Seminar on Earthquake and Volcano Studies in Washington, D.C. in the second half of 2015, in order to improve earthquake and volcano research capabilities.