Joint Statement of the Security Consultative Committee: Toward a More Robust Alliance and Greater Shared Responsibilities
Following is a joint statement issued October 3 in Tokyo, Japan by Secretary of State Kerry, Secretary of Defense Hagel, Minister for Foreign Affairs Kishida, and Minister of Defense Onodera.
On October 3, 2013, the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee (SCC) convened in Tokyo, with the participation of both the U.S. Secretaries of State and Defense and Japan’s Ministers for Foreign Affairs and of Defense. On the occasion of this historic meeting, the SCC reaffirmed the indispensable role our two countries play in the maintenance of international peace and security and reconfirmed our Alliance’s commitment to the security of Japan through the full range of U.S. military capabilities, including nuclear and conventional. The two sides also set forth a strategic vision that, reflecting our shared values of democracy, the rule of law, free and open markets, and respect for human rights, will effectively promote peace, security, stability, and economic prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.
At the SCC meeting, the Ministers exchanged views on the evolving security environment in the Asia-Pacific region and decided upon several steps to upgrade significantly the capability of the U.S.-Japan Alliance. Our strategic vision for a more robust Alliance and greater shared responsibilities is to be based on revising the 1997 Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation, expanding security and defense cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond, and approving new measures that support the realignment of U.S. forces in Japan. The United States also welcomed Japan’s determination to contribute more proactively to regional and global peace and security. The Ministers stressed the importance of multilateral cooperation with regional and international partners.
As the United States continues to implement its rebalance to the Asia-Pacific region it intends to strengthen military capabilities that allow our Alliance to respond to future global and regional security challenges, including in emerging strategic domains such as space and cyberspace. The Ministers stressed that the realignment of U.S. forces in Japan is to ensure that the U.S. presence maintains deterrence and provides for the capabilities to defend Japan and respond to regional contingencies, while remaining politically sustainable. In this context, the Ministers reiterated the ongoing mutual commitment to complete the agreements on the realignment of U.S. forces in Japan, including constructing the Futenma Replacement Facility (FRF) and relocating U.S. Marines to Guam, and welcomed the progress made in that regard.
Japan’s security policy continues to reflect its long-standing commitment to regional and global peace and stability, as well as its intention to make more proactive contributions to addressing the challenges faced by the international community. At the same time, Japan will continue coordinating closely with the United States to expand its role within the framework of the U.S.-Japan Alliance. Japan is also preparing to establish its National Security Council and to issue its National Security Strategy. In addition, it is re-examining the legal basis for its security including the matter of exercising its right of collective self-defense, expanding its defense budget, reviewing its National Defense Program Guidelines, strengthening its capability to defend its sovereign territory, and broadening regional contributions, including capacity-building efforts vis-à-vis Southeast Asian countries. The United States welcomed these efforts and reiterated its commitment to collaborate closely with Japan.
To accomplish our shared strategic vision for the Alliance against the backdrop of a complex regional security environment, the Ministers recognized that the Alliance is the cornerstone of peace and security in the region. Over the next decade, the Alliance intends to continue to address security challenges through close cooperation and a more interoperable and flexible force posture that enables side-by-side and agile contingency response and crisis management. The Ministers affirmed that the Alliance should remain well positioned to deal with a range of persistent and emerging threats to peace and security, as well as challenges to international norms. Among these are: North Korea’s nuclear and missile programs and humanitarian concerns; coercive and destabilizing behaviors in the maritime domain; disruptive activities in space and cyberspace; proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD); and man-made and natural disasters. As stated in the 2011 SCC Joint Statement, the Ministers continue to encourage China to play a responsible and constructive role in regional stability and prosperity, to adhere to international norms of behavior, as well as to improve openness and transparency in its military modernization with its rapid expanding military investments.
The United States and Japan resolve to be full partners in a more balanced and effective Alliance in which our two countries can jointly and ably rise to meet the regional and global challenges of the 21st century, by investing in cutting-edge capabilities, improving interoperability, modernizing force structure, and adapting Alliance roles and missions to meet contemporary and future security realities. To this end, our Alliance should emphasize improved cooperation and coordination, including on information security, equipment and technology, cyber security, and space security, in order to broaden and deepen cooperation across a wide range of Alliance issues.
II. Bilateral Security and Defense Cooperation
The Ministers pledged to continue deepening the Alliance and directed work on a robust agenda to ensure the Alliance’s credibility into the future. Among the tasks before us are revising the Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation, expanding our ballistic missile defense capabilities, improving cooperation on emerging strategic domains such as space and cyberspace, as well as strengthening information security and equipment acquisition collaboration, in order to broaden cooperation across a wide range of Alliance issues.
- Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation
Recognizing the implications of the evolving regional and global security environment, the Ministers directed the Subcommittee for Defense Cooperation (SDC) to draft recommended changes to the 1997 Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation, to ensure that the Alliance continues its vital role in deterring conflict and advancing peace and security. The Ministers identified several objectives for this revision, including:
o ensuring the Alliance's capacity to respond to an armed attack against Japan, as a core aspect of U.S.-Japan defense cooperation;
o expanding the scope of cooperation, to reflect the global nature of the U.S.-Japan Alliance, encompassing such areas as counter-terrorism, counter-piracy, peacekeeping, capacity building, humanitarian assistance/disaster relief, and equipment and technology enhancement;
o promoting deeper security cooperation with other regional partners to advance shared objectives and values;
o enhancing Alliance mechanisms for consultation and coordination to make them more flexible, timely, and responsive and to enable seamless bilateral cooperation in all situations;
o describing appropriate role-sharing of bilateral defense cooperation based on the enhancement of mutual capabilities;
o evaluating the concepts that guide bilateral defense cooperation in contingencies to ensure effective, efficient, and seamless Alliance response in a dynamic security environment that includes challenges in emerging strategic domains such as space and cyberspace; and
o exploring additional ways in which we can strengthen the Alliance in the future to meet shared objectives.
The Ministers directed that this task for the SDC be completed before the end of 2014.
- BMD Cooperation
The Ministers confirmed their commitment to enhance the ballistic missile defense (BMD) capabilities of both countries and welcomed recent progress in this area, including the SM-3 Block IIA cooperative development program. They confirmed their intention to designate the Air Self-Defense Force base at Kyogamisaki as the deployment site for a second AN/TPY-2 radar (X-band radar) system, consistent with the May 1, 2006, SCC Document: “United States-Japan Roadmap for Realignment Implementation.” The SCC members also affirmed the continuing goal of expanding bilateral cooperation in this area.
- Cooperation in Cyberspace
The first U.S-Japan Cyber Dialogue, held in May 2013,affirmed that the United States and Japan share common objectives in international cyber fora, especially the application of norms of responsible State behavior in cyberspace. The Ministers stressed the need for close coordination with the private sector in addressing challenges to the safe and secure use of cyberspace. In particular, the Ministers recognized the need to promote a whole-of-government approach to shared threats in cyberspace.
The Ministers welcomed the signing of a Terms of Reference for a new Cyber Defense Policy Working Group (CDPWG) charged with fostering increased cyber defense cooperation with the improvement of individual cyber capabilities and interoperability between the Self-Defense Forces and U.S. forces, which will also contribute to whole-of-government cybersecurity efforts.
- Cooperation in Space
The Ministers underscored the importance of utilizing capabilities for improved bilateral information collection and sharing related to space situational awareness(SSA) and space-based maritime domain awareness. Specifically, the Ministers welcomed the conclusion of the U.S.-Japan SSA Sharing Agreement and highlighted progress on efforts toward two-way sharing of SSA information. In this context, the Ministers welcomed the commitment of both countries to an early realization of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA) provision of SSA information to the United States.
The SCC members also expressed their desire to improve maritime domain awareness by leveraging satellite capabilities and look forward to future whole-of-government exercises and dialogues on this topic. The Ministers welcomed the establishment of the U.S.-Japan Comprehensive Dialogue on Space to coordinate strategic-level cooperation that promotes long-term sustainability, stability, safety, and security in space. The Ministers also affirmed continued support for multilateral efforts to develop an International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities.
- Joint Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Activities
The Ministers welcomed the establishment of a bilateral Defense ISR Working Group and reaffirmed its mission of encouraging closer Alliance interoperability and information sharing between the U.S. forces and the Self-Defense Forces. They welcomed further progress toward bilateral ISR operations during peace time and contingencies.
- Joint/Shared Use of Facilities
In order to improve the flexibility and resiliency of the Alliance, as well as to strengthen the Self-Defense Forces posture in areas, including Japan’s southwestern islands, the Ministers welcomed the efforts of the Joint/Shared Use Working Group. Progress in realizing the joint/shared use of U.S. and Japanese facilities and areas strengthens the Alliance’s deterrent capabilities while building a stronger relationship with local communities.
- Bilateral Planning
The Ministers welcomed progress on bilateral planning and reaffirmed efforts toward refining bilateral plans so that the U.S.-Japan Alliance can better defend Japan and respond to the range of regional challenges in an evolving security environment. Key components of this effort include strengthening bilateral whole-of-government mechanisms for peacetime and crisis coordination and improving contingency access by U.S. forces and the Self-Defense Forces to facilities in Japan.
- Defense Equipment and Technology Cooperation
The Ministers welcomed the new linkage established between bilateral discussions at the Systems and Technology Forum and dialogue on Roles, Missions, and Capabilities. This initiative addresses the evolving challenges of the regional and global security environment by enabling increased cooperation in the acquisition of defense systems with Alliance strategy and capability needs. Moreover, through collaboration such as the participation of Japanese industries in the production of the F-35 aircraft, bilateral cooperation on equipment and technology should deepen as Japan examines its Three Principles on Arms Exports and their related policy guidelines.
- Extended Deterrence Dialogue
The Ministers noted with satisfaction the meaningful outcome of bilateral Extended Deterrence Dialogues. This process reinforces the credibility of the U.S. defense commitment to Japan, including through discussions of nuclear and conventional capabilities, and helps to promote regional stability from a near- and long-term perspective. The Ministers also confirmed their Governments’ continued commitment to holding the dialogue on a regular basis.
- Information Security
Enhanced information security continues to reinforce the bilateral relationship of trust and enable broader information sharing between both countries in terms of quality and quantity. The Ministers confirmed the critical role that information security plays in Alliance cooperation and reflected on the considerable progress in strengthening policies, practices, and procedures related to the protection of classified information made through Bilateral Information Security Consultations. The SCC members particularly welcomed the serious efforts by Japan in establishing a legal framework for further ensuring information security and underscored the importance of closer collaboration. The ultimate aim is to enable our Governments to interact in real time to address opportunities and crises alike through a dynamic, secure exchange of information.
- Joint Training and Exercises
In order to enhance and improve effectiveness, interoperability, readiness, mobility, and sustainability of the operations of the U.S. forces and the Self-Defense Forces, and to strengthen deterrence of the U.S.-Japan Alliance, the Ministers welcomed progress in peacetime bilateral defense cooperation, such as the expansion of timely and effective bilateral training. Bilateral and multilateral exercises, both hosted by Japan and in areas outside of Japan, have improved interoperability and sharpened our ability to deter aggression, defend Japan, and maintain regional peace and security. The Ministers recognized the significant efforts to continue training of Okinawa-based U.S. forces at locations outside of Okinawa.
The Ministers decided to take advantage of the following opportunities to increase training outside of Okinawa, including in mainland Japan, while maintaining the deterrence capabilities of the Alliance:
o Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) drills;
o Flight training through frameworks such as the Aviation Training Relocation (ATR) program;
o Artillery Relocation Training, which is under consultation for improvement to better reflect current and future contingency environments;
o Other bilateral and trilateral/multilateral training with the partners in the Asia-Pacific region; and
o MV-22 Osprey, with its unique capabilities, to participate in various operations in mainland Japan and across the region, to reduce the amount of time located and training in Okinawa. In addition to the above mentioned exercises, the Ministers noted, for example, participation of MV-22 Ospreys in exercise FOREST LIGHT, and flight training by MV-22 Ospreys, such as low-level flight training, in-flight refueling training, and logistical support training
- Host Nation Support
The Ministers affirmed the continuing importance of the Host Nation Support (HNS) provided by Japan to the continued effectiveness of the Alliance for the defense of Japan and the maintenance of peace and security in the region.
III. Regional Engagement
The Ministers noted that in an increasingly integrated global economy, trilateral and multilateral cooperation is essential. They affirmed that in the next decade, the Alliance is to reinforce a system of international partnerships and multilateral cooperation that preserves and promotes a peaceful, prosperous, and secure Asia-Pacific region. The United States and Japan are committed to working together to increase security capacity regionally in Southeast Asia and globally. Our mutual cooperation is to expand over time, and we are committed to working in partnership with other like-minded countries to build sustainable patterns of cooperation.
- Regional Capacity Building
The SCC members resolved to build on early efforts to collaborate on partnership capacity building projects in the Asia Pacific region. Cooperating in these efforts is to help ensure regional stability by promoting regional partner security capacities and helping other nations develop their own defense and law enforcement capabilities. The Ministers welcomed the strategic use of Official Development Assistance by Japan, such as providing coastal patrol vessels and training for maritime safety to regional partners, and recognized the importance of such endeavors in promoting regional peace and stability.
- Maritime Security
The Ministers affirmed their intent to cooperate further in maritime security and counter-piracy to protect the freedom of navigation, ensure safe and secure sea lines of communication, and promote related customary international law and international agreements.
- Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief
Recalling the prompt and effective response by the United States and Japan to recent humanitarian and natural disasters worldwide, the Ministers encouraged efforts to extend bilateral cooperation as well as to promote trilateral and multilateral coordination in international humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HA/DR) and other operations as the circumstances allow, through joint exercises and mutual logistics support.
- Trilateral Cooperation
The Ministers affirmed the importance of security and defense cooperation among allies and partners in the region and noted in particular the success of the trilateral dialogues carried out regularly with Australia and the Republic of Korea. These trilateral dialogues advance our shared security interests, promote common values, and enhance the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region.
Trilateral cooperation seeks to improve regional security and defense capacities – including humanitarian and disaster relief – in order to support regional peace and stability, helps to promote the freedom of navigation and regional maritime security, and acts as a stabilizing regional presence by building confidence and encouraging transparency in the region. The Ministers urged an increase in the sharing of information among regional allies, including information on operations, plans, exercises, and capabilities, in order to bolster trilateral cooperative efforts further.
- Multilateral Cooperation
The Ministers noted the importance of working together, along with other regional partners, to strengthen institutions that promote economic and security cooperation based on internationally accepted rules and norms, including the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN) Regional Forum (ARF), and the ASEAN Defense Ministerial Meeting Plus (ADMM+).
IV. Realignment of U.S. forces in Japan
The Ministers confirmed that agreements on Realignment of U.S. forces in Japan should be implemented as soon as possible while ensuring operational capability, including training capability, throughout the process. The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to ensure the return of the facilities and areas as described in the April 2013 Consolidation Plan for Facilities and Areas in Okinawa. The Ministers reaffirmed that approximately 9,000 U.S. Marines are to be relocated from Okinawa to locations outside of Japan.
The Ministers reconfirmed that the realignment plan described in the 2012 SCC Joint Statement will realize a U.S. force posture in the region that is geographically distributed, operationally resilient, and politically sustainable. This realignment plan will provide the strength, flexibility, and deterrent capacity to respond effectively to future challenges and threats, while also mitigating the impact of U.S. forces on local communities.
• Realignment on Okinawa
The Ministers welcomed the progress on land returns based on the April 2013Consolidation Plan and stressed their determination to continue efforts toward implementation. In particular, they welcomed the completion of the land return of the north access road of Makiminato Service Area (Camp Kinser) in August 2013, and the Joint Committee agreements on an area near Gate 5 of Makiminato Service Area (Camp Kinser), the West Futenma Housing area, a portion of the warehouse area of the Facilities and Engineering Compound, and Shirahi River Area of Camp Zukeran (Camp Foster). These returns are ahead of schedule. Japan welcomed the proactive efforts taken by the United States as shown in the Consolidation Plan that resulted in the creation of an additional land return decision beyond those specified in the April 2012 SCC Joint Statement. The return of a portion of land along the Shirahi River on Camp Zukeran (Camp Foster) will enable the local community to develop better flood control measures in the area.
As an essential element of this effort, the Ministers confirmed that the plan to construct the Futenma Replacement Facility (FRF)at Camp Schwab-Henokosaki area and adjacent waters is the only solution that addresses operational, political, financial, and strategic concerns and avoids the continued use of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Futenma. The SCC members reaffirmed the strong commitment of both Governments to the plan and underscored their determination to achieve its completion, which would permit the long-desired return of MCAS Futenma to Japan. The United States welcomed recent developments including the submission of the request for approval of public water reclamation permit to Okinawa Prefecture by the Government of Japan in March 2013.
The Ministers directed the Joint Committee to reach an arrangement in principle for the partial lifting of restrictions for a portion of the Hotel-Hotel training area off of the east coast of Okinawa, as decided in previous SCC statements, by the end of November 2013. The two sides committed to continue to consult on other possible measures.
The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to strengthening cooperation to protect the environment and confirmed the importance of making further efforts in environmental matters. Bearing this in mind, the Ministers decided to reach a substantial understanding by the end of November 2013 on a framework for access to U.S. facilities and areas slated for return, for the purpose of facilitating local authorities’ planning of land use prior to its return.
Regarding MCAS Iwakuni, the Ministers confirmed that the bilateral consultations on the relocation of a KC-130 squadron from MCAS Futenma to MCAS Iwakuni would be accelerated and concluded as soon as possible. In addition, the SCC Members affirmed that the Maritime Self-Defense Force would continue to have a presence at MCAS Iwakuni. The Ministers also acknowledged that the relocation of elements of Carrier Air Wing Five (CVW-5) from Atsugi Air Facility to MCAS Iwakuni should be completed by around 2017.
The Ministers confirmed that the relocation of U.S. Marine Corps personnel from Okinawa to locations outside of Japan, including Guam, contributes to sustaining the forward presence of U.S. forces and facilitates the development of Guam as a strategic hub, while also mitigating the impact on Okinawa.
The Ministers announced the signing today of a Protocol to amend the 2009 Guam International Agreement, which forms the basis for the bilateral cooperation necessary to achieve these goals of the relocation.
The Ministers noted the significance of Japanese cash contributions to the development of training areas in Guam and the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, which benefit the Alliance by supporting the relocation of U.S. Marine Corps units to Guam and by enabling the shared use of these training areas by U.S. forces and the Self-Defense Forces. The Ministers directed that consultations on the terms and conditions of such use be initiated within this year.
The Ministers also completed work reflecting the breakdown of costs associated with developing facilities, including training areas, and infrastructure in Guam and the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands supporting the relocation of U.S. Marines.
The Ministers reconfirmed the relocation plan described in the 2012 SCC Joint Statement. Under the plan, U.S. Marine Corps units are to begin to relocate from Okinawa to Guam in the first half of the 2020s. The Ministers confirmed that this plan’s progress depends on various factors, such as measures taken by the two governments to secure appropriate funding. This plan also facilitates progress in implementing the April 2013 Consolidation Plan for Facilities and Areas in Okinawa.
- Advanced Capabilities
The Ministers confirmed that deployment of more advanced capabilities in Japan has strategic significance and further contributes to the security of Japan and the region. The United States intends to continue to modernize its capabilities. These advanced capabilities include, but are not limited to:
o The U.S. Marine Corps introductions of two squadrons of MV-22 aircraft as a replacement for the CH-46 helicopter.
o The first deployment of U.S. Navy P-8 maritime patrol aircraft outside of the United States beginning in December 2013 as part of the gradual phase-out of the P-3 aircraft.
o The U.S. Air Force plans, beginning in spring 2014, to begin to deploy Global Hawk unmanned aircraft rotationally.
o The U.S. Marine Corps is beginning to deploy the F-35B aircraft in 2017, the first time these aircraft will be forward-deployed outside of the United States.