U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue Outcomes of the Strategic Track
At the Fifth Round of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) July 10-11, 2013, in Washington, D.C., Secretary of State John Kerry, special representative of President Barack Obama, and State Councilor Yang Jiechi, special representative of President Xi Jinping, chaired the Strategic Track, which included participation from senior officials from across both governments. The two sides held in-depth discussions on major bilateral, regional, and global issues and recommitted to the S&ED’s role in deepening strategic trust and expanding practical cooperation to build a new model of relations between the United States and China. The dialogue on the Strategic Track produced the following specific outcomes and areas for further cooperation. The United States and China:
I. Enhancing Bilateral Cooperation
1. High-level Exchanges: Recognizing the important role of high-level exchanges in the development of U.S.-China relations, decided to further strengthen such exchanges between the two countries. The two sides reviewed the achievements of high-level exchanges since the fourth round of the S&ED, and underscored the constructive and successful meeting of President Obama and President Xi at Sunnylands, California in June. The two sides noted that upcoming multilateral meetings in 2013 provide further opportunities for high-level engagement between the two countries.
2. Strategic Security Dialogue: Held the third round of the Strategic Security Dialogue (SSD) July 9, 2013, and had a constructive, in-depth and candid exchange of views on a range of security issues of strategic importance to both countries. The dialogue was co-chaired by Deputy Secretary of State William J. Burns for the United States and Executive Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Yesui for China, who were joined by Under Secretary of Defense for Policy James Miller, Deputy Chief of the PLA General Staff Lieutenant General Wang Guanzhong, and others from the relevant departments of the two countries. Commenting positively on the growing importance of the SSD and the establishment of a Cyber Working Group under the SSD, the two sides decided to engage in deeper and more sustained dialogue on these issues and to establish a stable and cooperative strategic security relationship. The two sides decided to hold an informal round of the SSD later this year.
3. Cyber Working Group: Welcomed the first meeting of the Cyber Working Group (CWG) under the SSD, and commented positively on the candid, in-depth, and constructive dialogue. The two sides had an in-depth discussion on issues of mutual concern and decided to take practical measures to enhance dialogue on international norms and principles in order to guide action in cyber space and to strengthen CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) to CERT coordination and cooperation. The two sides will also discuss additional cooperative measures in future meetings. Both sides recognized the CWG as the main platform for bilateral talks on cyber issues, agreed to have sustained dialogue on cyber issues, and agreed to hold the next meeting by the end of this year.
4. Military-to-Military Relations: Committed to strengthening the military-to-military relationship and to make efforts to raise the relationship to a new level, including by reaffirming the visit to the United States by China's Minister of National Defense in 2013 and a reciprocal visit to China by the U.S. Secretary of Defense at a mutually convenient date in 2014. Decided to actively explore a notification mechanism for major military activities and to continue discussions on the rules of behavior on military air and maritime activities, including at the next Military Maritime Consultative Agreement (MMCA) plenary.
5. Hotlines between the Special Representatives of the Presidents: Decided to establish a hotline between the Special Representatives of the Presidents, in order to facilitate communication.
6. Human Rights Dialogue: Affirmed their commitment to continuing constructive bilateral dialogue on human rights and decided to hold the next round of the Human Rights Dialogue July 30-31, 2013.
7. Legal Experts Dialogue: Affirmed that legal cooperation and exchanges are in the interest of both countries and decided to continue joint efforts to advance the rule of law in their countries. In this context, they decided to hold the next round of the Legal Experts Dialogue November 7-8, 2013.
8. Nonproliferation Cooperation: Affirmed their intention to enhance communication and cooperation on nonproliferation, arms control, and other major international security issues on the basis of mutual respect, equality, and mutual benefit. The two sides noted the improvements in our bilateral cooperation on nonproliferation in the past year. They acknowledged the importance of cooperation in preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile technologies as called for by United Nations Security Council resolutions and reiterated that this cooperation represents an important part of our overall bilateral relationship. Both sides called for developing a road map for strengthening future cooperation.
9. Security Dialogue: Since renewing the Security Dialogue (SD) last year, the two sides have held two rounds, most recently in June, where they discussed strategic security, multilateral arms control and regional issues. At the last round of the SD the two sides acknowledged the importance of regular dialogue on these issues, and decided to hold the next SD prior to next year’s S&ED.
10. Counter-Terrorism Consultation: Decided to hold the U.S.-China Counter-Terrorism Consultations at the vice ministerial level in due course.
11. Consular Dialogue: Held the Consular Dialogue May 16, 2013, in Washington, DC, and decided to hold the next round in 2014.
12. CNCERT/CC and US-CERT Consultation: Decided to hold consultations between the National Computer Network Emergency Response Technical Team/Coordination Center of China (CNCERT/CC) and the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) to enhance cooperation between the two entities.
13. Law Enforcement Cooperation: Decided to continue efforts to deepen and improve law enforcement cooperation to address issues of mutual concern, especially through the Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation (JLG). In accordance with discussions at the tenth plenary session of the JLG in Guangzhou in December 2012, the two sides decided to identify fugitives and asset recovery, counternarcotics, firearms smuggling, intellectual property rights, cyber crime, and child pornography as priority areas in the coming year; to work together on law enforcement responses; and to hold the eleventh plenary session of the JLG in Washington, D.C., in late 2013. The two sides also decided to increase cooperation on efforts to reduce demand for illicit drugs in the Asia-Pacific. The two sides decided to continue to discuss combating corruption, transnational bribery, and other illicit trade and business practices under the eighth meeting of the JLG under the Anti-Corruption Working Group that will be held in the second half of 2013. Both sides are to enhance communication in the field of anti-corruption under multilateral frameworks, such as G-20, UNCAC, and APEC. The United States announced its support for China’s hosting the 2014 APEC Anti-Corruption Working Group meeting and other relevant activities. Both sides reaffirm their G-20 commitments on tackling foreign bribery, denial of safe haven, and asset recovery.
14. Coordination between ICE and GACC: Decided to conduct enforcement cooperation between the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and the General Administration of China Customs (GACC) against cash smuggling, drug smuggling, and other contraband movement.
15. CBP-China Customs Container Security Initiative: The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the General Administration of China Customs (GACC) decided to enhance cooperation on U.S.-China Container Security Initiative (CSI). Both sides intend to discuss the issue of deployment of China Customs CSI officers at U.S. ports within the parameters of current Declarations of Principles.
16. Travel Documents Bio-Metrics: Affirmed the intention of DHS and the MPS Bureau of Exit-Entry Administration (BEEA) to continue the exchange of best practices in the use of biometrics in travel documents used at points of entry.
17. Joint Fisheries Enforcement: Marked 20 years of the U.S.-China partnership established in recognition of mutual concerns regarding the damaging exploitation of living marine resources through the use of high-seas drift nets. Since the partnership’s inception, 81 Chinese officers have sailed with the U.S. Coast Guard, and this highly successful cooperation has led to 18 interdictions and enforcement actions against vessels fishing in violation of the High-Seas Drift Net Fishing Moratorium. The U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service look forward to again welcoming enforcement officers from China Fishery Law Enforcement Command to join U.S. Coast Guard cutters in patrolling the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 2013. In addition, the two countries made good progress in taking joint measures to combat illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) conducts in the high seas of North Pacific.
18. Maritime Security Cooperation: Expressed support for carrying forward the U.S.-China Maritime Safety Dialogue by the United States Coast Guard and China Maritime Safety Administration. The two agencies, having held a working-level meeting on cooperation of maritime safety in April, decided to meet in September 2013 to discuss technical cooperation and exchanges in maritime radio navigation and satellite navigation, particularly in maritime application of Beidou and other global navigation satellite systems.
19. CBP-China Customs Action Plan on the Supply Chain Security: Have completed 200 joint validations in China, started discussions of the mutual recognition of the Authorized Economic Operator (AEO), and seek to conduct more joint validations before the end of 2013 in China, with the possibility of additional joint validations in 2014 and 2015. In addition, Customs and Border Protection and the General Administration of China Customs seek to align their respective Authorized Economic Operators (AEO) by conducting further analysis of the comparison of the minimum security criteria and on-site validation observations of both programs.
20. Joint Customs Training: Signed an Action Plan to facilitate the exchange of best practices, explore joint operational exercises, and strengthen customs-to-customs cooperation to identify and interdict illicit materials traveling via air and maritime cargo. The two sides noted the successful implementation of courses relating to seaport cargo interdiction and targeting and risk management, and intend to continue implementing the Action Plan and organizing the training courses based on the results of the joint evaluation.
21. China Garden: Reaffirmed their support for the National China Garden Foundation’s efforts to construct a China Garden at the U.S. National Arboretum. Both sides are striving to complete the China Garden project design, consultation, fund-raising, and bidding procedures as soon as possible. The construction of the China Garden will begin after these construction assessments have been completed and adequate funds have been raised. The two sides held a Joint Working Group during the 5th S&ED.
22. Breakout Sessions and Bilateral Meetings: Decided to establish International Economic Affairs consultation and Legal Advisers Consultation between the U.S. Department of State and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China. Decided to hold the next rounds of sub-dialogues on Policy Planning, Africa, Latin America, South Asia, and Central Asia on a timely basis and to enhance bilateral coordination and cooperation on regional and international issues. Held breakout sessions on the margins of this year’s S&ED on the subjects of peacekeeping, South Asia, Latin America, wildlife trafficking, customs, and other issues. Conducted a series of bilateral meetings between senior officials on a broad range of issues in the U.S.-China relationship.
II. Addressing Regional and Global Challenges
23. Regional and Global Issues: Decided to enhance communication and coordination on regional and global issues to jointly address common challenges and to safeguard peace and stability.
24. The Korean Peninsula: Held in-depth consultations on the situation on the Korean Peninsula and agreed on the fundamental importance of the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner—the goal of the Six-Party Talks, as outlined in the September 19, 2005, Joint Statement—and reiterated their joint commitment to implement the September 19, 2005, Joint Statement and to continue high-level discussions to achieve this shared goal and to achieve peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula. Both sides noted that all Six-Party members have an important role to play in making this goal a reality and underscored the importance of working together to ensure full implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 2094 and other relevant resolutions by all UN Member States. Both sides also called for the necessary steps by all parties that would create the conditions for resumption of the Six-Party Talks on denuclearization and other relevant issues.
25. Iran: On the Iranian nuclear issue, the two sides reiterated the understanding expressed in the 2011 U.S.-China Joint Statement and reaffirmed their commitment to seeking a comprehensive and long-term solution that would restore international confidence in the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear program, while respecting Iran’s right to the peaceful use of the nuclear energy consistent with its obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The two sides are agreed that Iran should fulfill its international obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and both sides called for full implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions 1696, 1737, 1747, 1803, 1835, and 1929. The United States and China reaffirmed their commitment to taking active part in the P5+1 negotiations with Iran and called on Iran to take concrete actions to satisfy the concerns of the international community through negotiations with the P5+1. Both sides commended their constructive cooperation on the Iranian nuclear issue and agreed to enhance such cooperation.
26. Syria: Held in-depth discussions on Syria. The United States and China reiterated their shared commitment to preparing for the Geneva Conference on Syria and to trying to resolve the crisis through political means in order to bring about a Syrian-led peaceful political transition that establishes a transitional governing body by mutual consent with full executive powers. The two sidesreaffirmed their opposition to the use or proliferation of chemical weapons. The United States and China expressed deep concern over the humanitarian situation and called for measures to alleviate the suffering of the Syrian people. Both sides urged all parties in Syria to protect civilians and avoid civilian casualties.
27. Afghanistan: Decided to expand coordination in advance of the 2014 drawdown in support of their shared interest in political stability and economic revitalization in Afghanistan. The two sides decided to continue in 2013 the joint diplomatic training program for Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials, which began in 2012, and to pursue other joint assistance projects in health. The two sides also intend to continue to work together in support of regional cooperation efforts such as the Istanbul Process, and the United States welcomed China’s decision to host the next ministerial meeting in 2014.
28. Sudan/South Sudan: Reaffirmed the importance of encouraging peace within and between Sudan and South Sudan and a productive dialogue between their governments on all bilateral issues, including full implementation of all relevant Security Council resolutions and all of the September 27, 2012, agreements. Decided to maintain communication and consultation on the issues concerning Sudan and South Sudan, coordinate actions on the basis of respecting related parties’ concerns, support the peaceful coexistence of the two countries, and safeguard safety and stability in the region, including through full implementation of the UN peacekeeping missions there.
29. Asia-Pacific: Acknowledged our common interests and challenges in the region and shared goal of maintaining peace, stability, and prosperity. The United States reaffirmed that it welcomes a strong, prosperous, and successful China that plays a greater role in world affairs. China welcomed the United States as an Asia-Pacific nation that contributes to peace, stability, and prosperity in the region. The two sides decided to work together to maintain peace, stability, and prosperity of the region. The two sides agreed that constructive U.S.-China relations are critical to both U.S. and Chinese policies in the Asia-Pacific. Both sides reaffirmed efforts to build a more stable, peaceful, and prosperous Asia-Pacific region and to enhance communication and coordination in the Asia-Pacific region to address pressing regional challenges. The two sides also discussed the latest developments in the Asia-Pacific Region. The two sides decided to enhance communication and coordination in the multilateral frameworks of the region, such as APEC, the East Asia Summit (EAS), and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). The two sides also decided to strengthen cooperation in the Pacific Islands. The Asia-Pacific Consultations met since the last round of the S&ED, and the two sides decided to hold the next round this autumn in China.
30. Middle East Dialogue: Reviewed progress during two rounds of the Middle East Dialogue since it was created at the last round of the S&ED. The United States and China decided to hold a third round in 2014.
31. Law of the Sea and Polar Issues: Held the fourth round of the Dialogue on Law of the Sea and Polar Issues in Alameda, California, April 8-9, 2013. The two sides decided to hold the fifth round in China in order to deepen cooperation on international oceans law and policy, the Arctic, and Antarctica.
32. Ross Sea: Affirmed their commitment to work together closely on the issue of establishing a marine protected area in the Ross Sea of Antarctica especially in the time prior to and during the Second Special Meeting of the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to be held July 15-16, 2013, in Bremerhaven, Germany.
33. Climate Change Working Group: Established the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group in April 2013, pursuant to the Joint Statement on Climate Change by the United States and China, to develop and implement significant proposals for bilateral cooperation on climate change between the two countries. Mr. Todd Stern, U.S. Special Envoy for Climate Change, and Mr. Xie Zhenhua, Vice Chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission, jointly led the Working Group. The Working Group presented the “Report of the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to the Strategic and Economic Dialogue” at a special joint session of the S&ED and was mandated to implement its recommended initiatives. The two sides decided to enhance actions to combat climate change through new pragmatic cooperation on heavy-duty and other vehicles; smart grids; carbon capture, utilization, and storage; collecting and managing greenhouse gas data; and energy efficiency in buildings and industry. The Working Group will also explore other possible areas for bilateral climate change cooperation and will continue to enhance our policy dialogue on the multilateral negotiation process as well as on domestic climate policy. The Working Group will carry forward the agreement of President Obama and President Xi Jinping on hydrofluorocarbons.
34. Development Cooperation: Building on cooperation in Afghanistan and Timor-Leste, the two sides decided to explore additional joint development projects in other third countries by first conducting joint feasibility studies on programs and projects requested by the recipient country and decided by all parties. Potential areas for future cooperation include regional integration, food and nutrition security, financial stability, and inclusive and sustainable economic growth in Africa, Latin America, and Asia.
35. Dialogue on Global Development: Decided to establish a Dialogue on Global Development, co-chaired by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Ministry of Commerce of China and with participation from relevant ministries and agencies on both sides. The dialogue is to provide a framework to exchange views on development issues, share lessons learned, and discuss cooperation, so as to maintain momentum toward our shared goals of poverty reduction, economic growth, and sustainable development. Under the framework, the two sides intend to assess existing development cooperation programs and projects between the United States and China and discuss possibilities for further cooperation. The two sides intend to discuss international development issues, including the inclusive Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation.
36. Anti-Malaria Cooperation: Decided to continue collaborating on malaria and drug-resistant malaria control strategy through technical dialogue and information sharing.
37. Peacekeeping: Exchanged views on current United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, reaffirmed their joint commitment to deepening dialogue on peacekeeping issues, and decided to establish peacekeeping exchanges between their relevant departments and ministries that would enhance their capabilities in this critical area.
III. Sub-national Cooperation
38. Building Sub-National Relationships: Decided to continue to enhance sub-national relations as envisioned in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Concerning the Establishment of the U.S.-China Governors Forum to Promote Sub-National Cooperation including the Governors Forum held in April 2013 in Beijing and Tianjin. There are over 200 sister-city/sister-state relationships between the United States and China, and both sides welcome new sub-national relationships that foster innovation, create new business opportunities, and expand people-to-people exchanges. Representatives from both countries participated in the China International Friendship Cities Conference held in September 2012 in Chengdu, where they witnessed the signing of the MOU between Sister Cities International (SCI) and the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CPAFFC). This MOU formalized the ongoing partnership to collaborate to create new sister-city and sister-state/province relationships between U.S. and Chinese communities to promote mutual understanding and prosperity in their respective communities. SCI and CPAFFC are working together to plan the U.S.-China Sister Cities Conference in 2014 in the United States.
39. EcoPartnerships: Held a signing ceremony, witnessed by Deputy Secretary of State William Burns and State Councilor Yang Jiechi, during the 5th S&ED and admitted six new EcoPartnerships. The two sides held a conference in December 2012 and launched a new website in 2013 focused on improving information sharing and transparency and facilitating cooperation among EcoPartners. By bringing together U.S. and Chinese local governments, research institutions, universities, corporations, and non-governmental organizations, EcoPartnerships spur innovation, investment, and cooperation on energy and environmental issues in both countries. Critical investment by and pragmatic cooperation among EcoPartners at the sub-national level translate the strategic goals of the Ten-Year Framework action plans into concrete achievements.
40. EcoPartnerships Workshop: Decided to hold an EcoPartnerships Workshop immediately after the 5th S&ED. The attendees will exchange experiences and practices in developing successful green cooperation projects and discuss how the EcoPartnerships program, as an effective platform of promoting pragmatic cooperation in energy and environment areas, should continue to make contributions to U.S.-China cooperation on green and low-carbon development.
41. Eco-City Project: Announced six pilot eco-cities. Based on an annex signed in 2011, DOE and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) jointly created this project to study and develop comparative eco-city guidelines and standards, determine technology and deployment needs, and assess the effects and best practices in sustainable urban development.
42. Mayors Training Program: Welcomed the fourth Chinese mayors delegation to the United States in June 2013. The second U.S. mayors delegation is scheduled to visit China in September 2013. This program, initiated in 2010 by and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (MOHURD) with support from the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), has brought mayors from both countries together on training trips in the United States and China to examine best practices in eco-city development and to promote exchange of ideas and promote deployment of green technologies.
IV. Cooperation on Energy
43. Energy Security: Reaffirmed the commitments made in the U.S.-China Joint Statement on Energy Security Cooperation, which noted the two countries, as the world’s largest producers and consumers of energy, share common interests and responsibilities to ensure energy security and face common challenges. The United States and China discussed ways to diversify their sources of supply and further develop domestic energy resources to meet growing demand needs. Both sides recognized our shared goal of working to strengthen global energy security. The United States and China commit to continuing to discuss Chinese concerns about energy security and energy demand. The United States and China pledged to strengthen cooperation and increased dialogue and exchange of information in several areas including stabilizing international energy markets, emergency responses, ensuring diversified energy supply, and a rational and efficient use of energy.
44. Energy Transparency: Welcome China’s decision to continue improving the timeliness, completeness, and reliability of energy data based on its G-20 commitments. China is to carry out studies on oil and natural gas geologic reserve data and publish the data. The United States and China decided to strengthen exchanges and communication, and expand cooperation in oil inventory policies, management, and technologies. China and the United States reaffirm their commitment to closer information sharing and cooperation to help avoid excessive price volatility and ensure the smooth functioning of global energy markets.
45. Legal and Regulatory Framework for Unconventional Oil and Gas: Welcome China’s intent to accelerate the development of the legal and regulatory framework covering unconventional oil and natural gas. The framework is expected to: (1) include better coordination among the relevant agencies; (2) include regulatory incentives to build natural gas infrastructure (e.g., treatment facilities and pipelines); (3) include measures to move toward market-based natural gas pricing to promote domestic production; (4) include stronger regulation over fugitive methane emissions during production and distribution of natural gas and water usage during production; and (5) welcome foreign companies to participate in China’s unconventional oil and gas industry following commercial principles. In order to speed China’s progress toward cleaner fuels and reduce emissions in power generation, the United States and China decided to actively promote technical and environmental protection cooperation in unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, including through a series of shale gas development technical workshops in China. The United States decided to inform China about the statutory process required by the Natural Gas Act which governs the evaluations of LNG export applications, to FTA countries and to non-FTA countries such as China. The NGA directs the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate LNG export applications to non-FTA countries. To date, two applications have received conditional approval to export LNG to non-FTA countries. The DOE is currently evaluating pending applications on a case-by-case basis.
46. Energy Policy Dialogue: Decided to elevate the Energy Policy Dialogue to ministerial level, to be chaired by the U.S. Secretary of Energy and the China Administrator of Energy. The new round of the Dialogue is to be held in China in the latter half of 2013.
47. Exchange Training Program: Signed an MOU for developing an action plan on a hundred-person exchange training program between the China National Energy Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy to expand information exchange and mutual learning in energy industry, especially in the cleaner utilization of fossil energy. Each country will have about 100 energy officials and industrial leaders participate in the program over the next four years (2014-2017).
48. Energy Regulation: Signed an MOU on Enhancing Energy Regulation Cooperation between the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Energy Administration to expand cooperation on electricity, oil, and gas issues.
49. U.S.-China Clean-Energy Research Center: Decided to actively provide necessary conditions under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) for the implementation of agreed programs, encourage enterprises of both countries to establish reasonable commercial activities so as to push forward the industrialized demonstration and application of research findings. Both the United States and China welcome a forward-looking Working Group on CERC financing.
50. Commodity Identification Training (CIT) events at the Radiation Detection Training Center (RDTC): Are cooperating through DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and GACC on a CIT course to combat the illicit trafficking of WMD-related equipment and components.
51. Cooperation on Nuclear Safety and Regulation: Decided to enhance cooperation on nuclear safety issues, including sustained regulatory and technical exchanges on the AP1000 nuclear reactor development. Specifically, the U.S. and Chinese nuclear regulators plan in the coming year to exchange personnel for extended rotations to deepen working-level relationships and share expertise on AP1000 construction and licensing. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and China’s National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) renewed the “Protocol between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the National Nuclear Safety Administration of the People’s Republic of China on Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters.” The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and China’s National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) renewed the “Protocol Between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the National Nuclear Safety Administration of the People’s Republic of China on Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters.
52. Cooperation in Preventing Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials: Signed the MOU Concerning Cooperation in Preventing Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials between the U.S. DOE and the General Administration of China Customs (GACC). Decided to deepen cooperation between DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration and GACC to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials; to collaborate on the technical aspects of equipping priority seaports with radiation detection equipment; to further cooperation and promote professionalism in the field of radiation detection training, the United States and China jointly established China Customs Radiation Detection Training Center (RDTC) by gradually enhancing the capabilities of the RDTC to provide workshops and training events for partners in Asia and other international partners.
53. U.S-China Civil Nuclear Energy R&D: Decided to continue cooperation under the Civil Nuclear Energy R&D Bilateral Action Plan and the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology (PUNT) framework and to more effectively integrate and streamline our collaboration. The next Action Plan Working Group Meeting is scheduled for August 2013. Beginning in 2014, Action Plan Steering Committee and annual PUNT Joint Coordinating Committee meetings will be synchronized.
54. U.S.-China Civil Nuclear Energy R&D: Decided to continue cooperation under Memorandum of Understanding between DOE and the Chinese Academy of Sciences to more effectively integrate and streamline our collaboration.
55. U.S.-China Cooperation on Nuclear Security: Welcome the positive progress made in the field of Nuclear Security, especially in the projects on U.S.-China Center of Excellence (COE) on Nuclear Security and conversion of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to lower enriched uranium fuel. Both sides look forward to holding a ground breaking ceremony on the COE, potentially in 2013, and continuing regular technical exchanges. The two countries decided to continue cooperation on the conversion of the MNSR in the China Institute of Atomic Energy, continue supporting the IAEA's efforts to minimize the use of HEU in civilian applications, and discuss collaboration on the conversion of MNSRs in other countries.
56. Solar Decathlon China: Announced final details for the 22 teams that will participate in the Solar Decathlon China competition in Datong, China, August 2-11, 2013. DOE, National Energy Administration (NEA), Applied Materials, and Peking University signed an agreement to introduce Solar Decathlon to China in 2011. Beyond its education emphasis, Solar Decathlon China serves as an opportunity to highlight advanced technologies and techniques that can be applied and scaled up in China.
57. Intelligent Transportation: To support reduced emissions from vehicles, announced the commencement of an intelligent transportation system pilot project and feasibility study for Panyu District Government in Guangzhou.
58. Aviation Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction: Announced an Aviation Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction (ECER) Initiative that would focus on addressing aviation emissions USTDA announced intentions to support the initiative through training.
59. Energy Cooperation Program: Announced a study tour hosted by, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), USTDA, the NEA, and the members of the Energy Cooperation Program. The study tour will provide the opportunity to discuss regulatory practices to encourage renewable energy and energy efficient technologies and would include site visits to see applicable technologies and demonstration projects.
V. Cooperation on Environmental Protection
60. Air Quality Action Plan: Following up on more than a decade of collaboration on air quality, decided to cooperate to accelerate longer-term sustainable improvements in air quality. This work builds on continuing collaboration to share strategies and information on power plant technologies, practices, and incentives to cost-effectively reduce multiple air pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USTDA, and Ministry of Environment Protection (MEP) are further enhancing the cooperation in regional air quality management by including treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) for controlling ozone and collaborating on a project to develop a model air quality plan that shares best practices of U.S. cities and states and fosters deployment of U.S. pollution control expertise and technologies in a selected province. In addition, EPA, USTDA, and MEP can enhance cooperation in air quality monitoring, early warning and forecast development of air quality models, and quality control and assurance of related monitoring technologies.
61. Water Quality Action Plan: Under the Ten-Year Framework, decided to cooperate on source-water lake protection with climate-ready drinking water adaptation considerations, and fostered a Sister-Lake Cooperation between the State of Minnesota and Hubei Province. The two sides decided to continue to promote exchanges in groundwater technology and services related to monitoring, remediation, standards development, and the nexus between water and energy, such as with shale gas. U.S. officials and industry experts plan to participate in this year’s Environment Industry Forum and are collaborating to improve groundwater quality through pilot projects in prevention and control measures, as well as improving policies and regulations.
62. Green Ports: Collaborated to expand the knowledge and capabilities of Chinese ports with respect to environmental protection and oil spill response. Jointly hosted the Sino-U.S. Maritime Oil Spill and Emergency Response Seminar and Expo in Qingdao June 4-6, 2013, and decided to support a study tour for Chinese transportation leaders on environmentally-friendly practices at U.S. ports.
63. Environmental Law and Institutions: Marked the establishment of the EPA-MEP MOU Annex 6 on Environmental Law and Institutions. The first Environmental Legislation seminar was held in Beijing November 17-18, 2011. The two sides co-hosted the second and third seminars in May and December of 2012, respectively, and have decided to hold a 4th Environmental Legislation seminar in late 2013. These seminars have been a strong collaboration mechanism for in-depth and effective communication on a range of issues. The sharing of experience between the two sides on environmental legislation has already become a crucial component of U.S.-China environmental cooperation.
64. Environmental Adjudication, Courts, and Related Institutions: Strengthened cooperation and collaboration in the field of environmental protection. Through a USAID-funded program, the U.S.-China Partnership for Environmental Law at Vermont Law School and the EPA collaborated with the National Judges College to train fifteen judges on environmental adjudication and to develop an environmental law curriculum that will be used to train judges from across China. The EPA also collaborated with Chinese judges on two environmental law study tours to the United States in 2012 and plans to collaborate with China Maritime Court Judges on a study tour in 2013.
65. Forest Management: Continue to cooperate on forest management activities, including by enhancing sustainable forest management through their respective engagements with intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations at the regional level. In April 2013, the U.S. Forest Service, the State Forestry Administration of China, and the Memphis Zoo hosted a Ten-Year Forest Health Assessment Workshop in Tai'an, China.
66. Wildlife Trafficking: Committed to combat the global illegal trade in wildlife by pursuing more effective cooperation mechanisms to combat the illegal trade in wildlife based on analyses of the global situation and assessments of existing mechanisms; strengthening enforcement at the national, regional, and global level, including through enhanced cooperation among law enforcement agencies; making efforts to eliminate illegal supply of and demand for illegally taken and traded wildlife and products; developing innovative technologies to advance such efforts; and strengthening international cooperation in wildlife conservation and protection by collaborating with other governments, including range states. Furthermore, decided to further explore the best platform to elaborate on the above mentioned activities.
67. Exchanges on Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Are agreed that the USTDA is to invite a delegation of Chinese officials from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), among other relevant Chinese agencies, to the United States to exchange views on policies and programs that improve fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles.
VI. Cooperation on Science, Technology, and Agriculture
68. Protocol on Marine Science: NOAA and the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS) affirmed their commitment to the Living Marine Resources Panel, including the upcoming meeting in February 2014 in Seattle, Washington, and ongoing projects including joint research on the Western Gray Whale, information exchange on alternative feeds research for aquaculture production and sea turtles research, scientist staff exchange on stock enhancement and sea ranching, and a workshop to exchange information on oil spill effects on living marine resources.
69. Joint Research on Severe Weather Monitoring: Enhance exchange and cooperation on the joint research and development of monitoring, warning and risk assessment technology for severe weather and climate, such as hurricane (typhoon), strong convective weather, droughts, high temperature, and heat waves, in order to jointly improve the ability to respond to severe weather and climate events.
70. NOAA-CMA Joint Research: Affirmed their mutual commitment to strengthening joint research between NOAA and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) through the U.S.-China Science and Technology Agreement.
71. ISOCORE: NOAA of the United States and the State Oceanic Administration (SOA) of China are developing the Scientific Plan of Indian-Southern Oceans Climatic Observation, Reanalysis, and Prediction (ISOCORE).
72. NOAA-CMA Greenhouse Gas Monitoring: Continue to strengthen joint research between NOAA and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) through the U.S.-China Science and Technology Agreement to develop accurate and reliable capabilities for observing and understanding the behavior of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
73. Exchanges in Agricultural Technology: Continue strengthening policy exchanges and coordination between the United States and China, promoting bilateral, pragmatic cooperation in agricultural issues, including actively working to implement the Biotechnology Pilot Program.
VII. Cooperation on Health
74. Clean Cookstoves: As partners of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves and pursuant to the corresponding National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)-United Nations Foundation (UNF) MOU signed in April 2013, the two sides decided to strengthen their cooperation in this area. To support the Alliance’s mission and reach its ambitious goals for large-scale global adoption of clean stoves and fuels for cooking and heating, China will further enhance its domestic efforts to adopt clean cookstoves and fuels under its current Five-Year Plan and support enterprises and institutes to develop safe, efficient, and clean products and technologies. The United States will collaborate with China via the Alliance to provide direct technical support to these activities. The two sides underline the importance of coordinating cookstoves efforts across relevant agencies on a broad set of topics and decided to discuss opportunities to coordinate research on clean cookstoves.
75. Cooperation on Responding to Infectious Diseases: The United States welcomes China’s continued transparency and cooperation regarding the H7N9 influenza situation. The United States and China have decided to continue to strengthen extensive and transparent scientific cooperation on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, including influenza, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, malaria, etc., with the purpose of protecting global health security. The two sides decided to sign a Protocol between the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States and the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China for Cooperation in the Science and Technology of Medicine and Public Health.
76. Public Healthcare Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Management: In response to recent pandemics and natural disasters, committed to continue their cooperation on public health emergency preparedness and response and healthcare management, including the two Chinese study tours to the United States in July and October 2013 funded by the USTDA.
77. Health Outcomes and Hospital Quality: In support of the Healthcare Cooperation Program, announced a USTDA grant to improve health outcomes and hospital quality management through a suite of information technology solutions for Chinese hospitals.
78. Smoke-Free Worksites: Successfully kicked off the U.S.-China Smoke-Free Worksites initiative, a public-private partnership that promotes smoke-free policies in the workplace, following the 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Diseases. Both countries are working to continue to promote, expand, and advance the interests of this effort within the private and public sectors. The two countries are to identify an appropriate, secretariat to recruit public and private resources; carry out the decisions of the CUSW Steering Committee; and facilitate the functions of this bilateral public-private partnership.
VIII. Bilateral Dialogues on Energy, Environment, Science, and Technology
79. Ten-Year Framework on Energy and Environment Cooperation: Continue to promote progress of the seven action plans under the U.S.-China Ten-Year Framework (TYF) on Energy and Environment Cooperation, i.e., clean water, clean air, clean and efficient transportation, clean and efficient electricity, nature reserves/protected areas, wetlands cooperation, and energy efficiency, and to further implement the EcoPartnerships program. Both sides decided to carry out a mid-term review on the TYF, add new priority cooperation areas, and increase the participation of local governments, enterprises, research institutes, and civil society in the TYF. The 9th Joint Working Group meeting is to be held later this year. Both sides continue their cooperation in drinking water safety, ground water protection, and lake water environmental management and plan to co-host a Drinking Water Safety Round Table; will carry out various forms of cooperation in the prevention and control of air pollution; co-hosted the 8th U.S.-China Regional Air Quality Management Conference and will continue this important conference; will continue to implement the second phase of the livable transportation project; continue to implement the exchange programs of conservation managers, students, and young professionals on nature reserves and refuges between the United States and China and facilitate the joint publication of Wetlands Journal Special Feature on Asia Wetlands in 2014; and continue to conduct exchanges and cooperation on energy efficiency and electricity.
80. Energy Industry Fora: Decided to hold the 13th Oil and Gas Industry Forum (OGIF) in Xian, China in fall 2013 and the third Renewable Energy Industry Forum in China in July 2013. Decided to hold the Advanced Biofuels Forum in China in October 2013.
81. Energy Efficiency Forum: Decided to hold the 4th U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum in the United States in September 2013 to assess progress to date and emerging high-potential opportunities for government and industry collaboration in the areas of industrial energy efficiency, consumer goods efficiency, building energy codes and labeling, and sustainable cities. Enterprises from both countries will also be invited to participate and conduct site visits before or after the Forum, exploring opportunities for technological and industrial cooperation.
82. Second Joint Coordinating Committee Meeting: Noted the results of the second Joint Coordinating Committee Meeting in energy sciences between DOE and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in May 2013. DOE and CAS discussed ongoing and potential collaborative projects. The two sides decided to continue the ongoing collaborations on high energy physics, nuclear physics, fusion energy, and basic energy sciences.
83. U.S.-China Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies: Held the 8th annual U.S.-China Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies (PUNT) Joint Committee Meeting in Beijing in April 2013. The two sides recognized the progress achieved in each PUNT working group, discussed new issue areas for potential cooperation, and affirmed the need for strengthened technical collaborations as nuclear power continues to play an important role in meeting global energy needs. The next PUNT meeting is to be held in the United States in spring 2014.
84. U.S.-China Fossil Energy Protocol Coordinators Meeting: Proposed to hold the 2013 U.S.-China Fossil Energy Protocol Coordinators Meeting in China later this year, to be co-chaired by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and Department of Energy of the United States, to review activities of the past year and to agree on new activities.
85. APEC Energy Ministers Meeting: Announced U.S. support for China hosting the 2014 APEC Energy Ministers Meeting and Energy Working Group meeting. The Unites States looks forward to working with China to develop and cosponsor selected relevant cooperative initiatives and projects to be put forward by China during its APEC year.
86. Bilateral Forum on Illegal Logging: Decided to hold the 5th meeting of the U.S.-China Bilateral Forum on Combating Illegal Logging and Associated Trade in July 2013 and further the cooperation under the Forum, including through the research program on wood legality verification options and strategies for China-U.S. trade in forest products and encouraging participation of the private sector and civil society in the Forum. The two sides also decided to further cooperate to combat illegal logging and associated trade with third countries and through regional processes, as appropriate.
87. Joint Working Group on Environmental Research: Announced joint cooperation in the following areas: infrastructure and sustainable development; surface water quality; air quality; and chemical screening under the MOU between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).
88. Joint Committee on Environmental Cooperation: Announced that the 4th Meeting of the Joint Committee on Environmental Cooperation is to be held in China in late 2013 by the EPA and the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
89. Marine Science Forum 2013: Decided to convene the 19th Joint Working Group Meeting on the Marine and Fishery Science and Technology Cooperation and the 3rd U.S.-China Marine Science Forum in early 2014.
90. Joint Committee Meeting on Science and Technology Cooperation: Welcomed continued efforts to enhance science and technology cooperation through the Joint Committee on Science and Technology Cooperation. Bilateral cooperation facilitated by the May 2012 Joint Committee Meeting (JCM) included joint research in areas of agriculture, clean energy, nuclear safety, environmental research, measurement science, and biodiversity. Under the auspices of the JCM, OSTP and MOST chaired a meeting of the Innovation Dialogue in July 2013 and reported the results to the S&ED. The dialogue provides a framework to discuss innovation policies of the U.S. and China and includes participation from relevant ministries and agencies on both sides, nongovernmental innovation policy experts, and private-sector representatives. Also under the JCM, MOST and the U.S. Department of State are to co-chair the 2013 working-level Executive Secretaries Meeting on Science and Technology Cooperation (ESM) in the United States in October 2013.
91. Agriculture Joint Working Group: Decided to hold the 11th USDA-MOST Joint Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation in the U.S. in August, 2013. The meeting is to be co-chaired by Dr. Woteki, Under Secretary and Chief Scientist of the Department of Agriculture of the United States (USDA) and Vice Minister Zhang Laiwu of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST). The two sides have decided to initiate collaborative projects in such priority areas as agricultural biotechnology, water saving technology, and gene bank technology and practices under the U.S.-China Agricultural Research Flagship Program.
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