1995 - Public Diplomacy for the 21st Century


Commission Members:
Lewis Manilow, chairman
William J. Hybl, vice chair
Walter R. Roberts
Pamela J. Turner
Harold C. Pachios
Maria Elena Torano
Charles H. Dolan, Jr.

Commission Staff:
Bruce Gregory, Staff Director
Mary Thompson-Jones, Deputy Staff Director
Betty Hayes, administrative officer
Deanna deMember, staff assistant


This report wrote that the communications revolution, the spread of democracy and open markets, and the end of the Cold War have substantially changed the public diplomacy playing field. The report stated that public diplomacy needs to be reevaluated and that the new realities need to be addressed. The Commission recommended for budget earmarks to be abolished and to give USIA discretionary authority to shift up to 25 percent of its funds within any fiscal year. It also recommended for appropriate democratization funds for each Federal agency carrying out democratization programs. Finally, the report detailed some recommendations relating to training, personnel, evaluation measures, and organizational structure


The case has not been made for merging USIA into the Department of State. But there is a compelling case for widespread interagency assignments, redesigned public diplomacy training, "real time" public affairs coordination, and other approaches that put USIA's expertise at the service of the President and a wider government and NGO community.

Today, governments must win the support of people in other countries, as well as leaders, if policies are to succeed. They must cope with constituent pressures at home and with the consequences of public pressures on other governments. They must mobilize coalitions and support for policies in multilateral organizations. Because what they say at home will be instantly reported abroad, policy explanations must be consistent and persuasive to domestic and foreign audiences alike.

U.S. public diplomacy requires much greater flexibility. Separate appropriations for exchanges and broadcasting, plus 17 budget earmarks for exchange and other activities, create rigidities and give some programs special treatment.