AG/RES. 2273 (XXXVII-O/07) Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
(Adopted at the fourth plenary session, held on June 5, 2007)
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
Having seen the Annual Report of the Permanent Council to the General Assembly (AG/doc.4698/07 corr. 1), in particular the section on the Committee on Hemispheric Security;
RECALLING its resolutions AG/RES. 1747 (XXX-O/00), AG/RES. 1791 (XXXI-O/01), AG/RES. 1876 (XXXII-O/02), AG/RES. 1938 (XXXIII-O/03), AG/RES. 2008 (XXXIV-O/04), AG/RES. 2111 (XXXV-O/05), and AG/RES. 2186 (XXXVI-O/06), "Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty";
RECOGNIZING that the cessation of nuclear-weapon test explosions or any other nuclear explosions constitutes an effective nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation measure; and convinced that this is a meaningful step in the realization of a systematic and gradual process to achieve nuclear disarmament;
AFFIRMING that the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) constitutes the cornerstone of the nuclear nonproliferation regime;
BEARING IN MIND:
That paragraph 9 of the Joint Ministerial Statement in support of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), issued at United Nations headquarters on September 20, 2006, appeals to all states to make maximum efforts toward the early entry into force of the Treaty;
The commitment by nuclear-weapon member states to undertake effective measures aimed at nuclear disarmament, in accordance with Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and the unequivocal commitment to the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals to achieve this objective, adopted at the Sixth NPT Review Conference, in 2000; and
The valuable contribution of the CTBT to the consolidation and maintenance of international peace and security;
REAFFIRMING the need for universal adoption of the CTBT, negotiated within the United Nations framework;
NOTING that the CTBT has, thus far, been signed by 30 member states of the Organization of American States and ratified by 25 of them; and, in particular, that it has now been ratified by six of the eight states of the Hemisphere whose ratification is required for the Treaty to enter into force;
RECALLING that in the Declaration on Security in the Americas the states of the Hemisphere reaffirmed their commitment to arms control, disarmament, and the nonproliferation of all weapons of mass destruction;
TAKING NOTE of the seminar promoting ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in the Caribbean, held in Mexico City, from October 11 to 13, 2006; and
TAKING NOTE ALSO of the Twelfth Introductory Course on On-Site Inspections (IC-12), held in Brasilia from April 22 to 28, 2007, organized by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (OCTBT) and sponsored by the Ministry of Defense of Brazil, with the aim of strengthening the institutional capacity of countries of Latin America for full implementation of the Treaty,
1. To call upon those states of the Hemisphere that have not yet done so to implement the "Measures to Promote the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)," adopted in the framework of the Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held in New York, in September 2005.
2. To call upon the states of the Hemisphere also to make a positive contribution, through actions to bring about the prompt entry into force of the CTBT, to the preparations for the 2010 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference, for which the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee was held in Vienna, Austria, from April 30 to May 11, 2007.
3. To call upon all states of the Hemisphere to attend and participate fully in the next Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, scheduled to take place in Vienna, Austria, on September 17 and 18, 2007.
4. To call upon those states of the Hemisphere that have not yet done so, in particular the states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty, to sign and/or ratify the CTBT, as the case may be, so that it may enter into force as soon as possible.
5. To promote, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security, cooperation between the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the member states experiencing difficulties in ratifying the CTBT, in order to make progress in the number of ratifications required for this instrument to enter into force.
6. To encourage greater regional efforts to promote the signature and ratification of the CTBT by all states of the Hemisphere.
7. To call upon the states of the Hemisphere to refrain, even before the Treaty comes into force, from contravening the spirit of the obligations set forth therein, and to maintain, in particular, the moratorium on all kinds of nuclear tests, in accordance with the commitments undertaken during the NPT Review Conference held in 2000.
8. To invite all the states of the Hemisphere, particularly those with International Monitoring System facilities, to support and implement the CTBT's verification regime when the Treaty enters into force.
9. To entrust the Permanent Council with holding, through its Committee on Hemispheric Security, a special meeting, in the first half of 2008, to review the regional cooperation mechanisms of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO to promote the full force and effect of the CTBT and to forge national capabilities for applying it, and the possible benefits of civil and scientific applications of the technologies used in the Treaty's International Monitoring System, and to move forward toward its implementation once the CTBTO enters into force, as well as to review the new challenges to be faced by the nuclear test ban regime, with the participation of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL), the United Nations, the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO, and other international institutions with competence in this area.
10. To instruct the Permanent Council to carry out the activities mentioned in this resolution in accordance with the resources allocated in the program-budget of the Organization and other resources.
11. To request the Permanent Council to report to the General Assembly at its thirty-eighth regular session on the implementation of this resolution.
12. To request the Secretary General to forward this resolution to the United Nations Secretary-General, the Secretary General of OPANAL, and the Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO.
 The United States does not support the CTBT and does not intend to become a party to it. The United States will continue to work, as appropriate, with working groups of the CTBTO PrepCom and with its Provisional Technical Secretariat on the International Monitoring Systems (IMS) and IMS-related activities. The United States continues to observe its nuclear testing moratorium and has no plans to conduct a nuclear explosive test.