AG/RES. 2866 (XLIV-O/14) Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach
Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach1
(Adopted at the fourth plenary session, held on June 5, 2014)
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
HAVING SEEN the “Annual Report of the Permanent Council to the General Assembly 2013-2014” (AG/doc.5470/14 add. 1), in particular the section on the activities of the Committee on Hemispheric Security (CSH);
REAFFIRMING the norms and principles of international law contained in the Charter of the Organization of American States and the Charter of the United Nations;
RECALLING the resolutions assigned to the CSH as detailed in the “List of Resolutions Assigned to the Committee on Hemispheric Security (1995-2013) and Other Resolutions Related to Security Issues (1991-1994)” (CP/CSH/INF.278/11 rev. 3);
REAFFIRMING that the programs, activities, and tasks set out in the resolutions on hemispheric security help further one of the essential purposes of the Organization enshrined in the Charter of the Organization of American States, to strengthen peace and security in the Hemisphere, in accordance with the legal system of each country, with full respect for international law and underscoring that cooperation among member states is fundamental for the attainment of that goal;
REAFFIRMING ALSO the provisions of the Declaration on Security in the Americas, adopted in Mexico City in October 2003, which provides that the “new concept of security in the Hemisphere is multidimensional in scope, includes traditional and new threats, concerns, and other challenges to the security of the states of the Hemisphere, incorporates the priorities of each state, contributes to the consolidation of peace, integral development, and social justice, and is based on democratic values, respect for and promotion and defense of human rights, solidarity, cooperation, and respect for national sovereignty”;
EXPRESSING ITS SATISFACTION at the commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Declaration on Security in the Americas, through a seminar held during the special meeting of the Permanent Council on October 28, 2013, which resulted in an interdisciplinary exercise that examined the evolution of the concept of multidimensional security, in particular the issue of security and social development;
RECOGNIZING the importance of the dialogue among participants that took place during the seminar and during the Permanent Council’s three preparatory meetings on the 10th anniversary of the Declaration on Security in the Americas, for the continued implementation of said Declaration;
REAFFIRMING the importance of adopting policies, programs, and actions to prevent and address violence, crime, and insecurity;
EMPHASIZING that the consolidation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone set forth in the Treaty of Tlatelolco constitutes a firm demonstration of the steadfast commitment of Latin America and the Caribbean to the cause of complete and verifiable nuclear disarmament and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, in keeping with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations;
REITERATING that the process of collecting data and information should be undertaken in accordance with domestic law and international conventions, and with full respect for human rights, and that the exchange of information between national public security institutions is key to strengthening international cooperation aimed at preventing, confronting, and investigating criminal activities that pose a threat to public security;2
DEEPLY CONCERNED at the negative impact that surveillance and/or interception of communications, including extraterritorial surveillance and/or interception of communications, as well as the collection of personal data, in particular, when carried out on a mass scale, may have on the exercise and enjoyment of human rights;3
RECALLING that the Declaration of Santiago (1995), the Declaration of San Salvador (1998), the Consensus of Miami, and resolution AG/RES. 2447 (XXXIX-O/09), “Confidence- and Security-Building in the Americas,” among other resolutions on confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs), are foundational pillars of the confidence- and security-building system in the Hemisphere and constitute a direct forerunner of those adopted subsequently at the regional and subregional levels;
UNDERSCORING that peace is in itself a value and a principle and is based on democracy, justice, respect for human rights, solidarity, security, and respect for international law;
REAFFIRMING that in the Declaration on Security in the Americas, adopted at the Special Conference on Security in October 2003, the member states considered “that zones of peace and cooperation contribute to peace, security, and cooperation in the Hemisphere” and declared their support for “the creation of zones of peace at the bilateral or subregional level by member states”;
UNDERSCORING the importance of the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC), and the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism;
HAVING SEEN the annual reports of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) (CP/doc.4987/14), the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE) (CP/doc.4980/14), and the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) (CP/doc.4971/14);
HAVING FULFILLED the mandate to consider relations between the Organization of American States (OAS) and the hemispheric defense meetings; the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB); and measures to promote cooperation, through the discussions of the CSH;
EXPRESSING ITS SATISFACTION with the holding of the Fourth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA-IV), in Medellín, Colombia on November 21 and 22, 2013; the fourteenth regular session of CICTE, on February 20-21, 2014; the Meeting of National Authorities on Transnational Organized Crime, on April 24 and 25, 2014; the fifty-fifth regular session of CICAD, from April 29 to May 1, 2014; and the fifteenth regular meeting of the Consultative Committee of CIFTA, on May 6, 2014;
UNDERSCORING the holding of the meeting of the Subsidiary Technical Working Group on Police Management, in Mexico City on October 8 and 9, 2013; the twelfth meeting of National Points of Contact to CICTE, on February 20, 2014; and the seventh meeting of the OAS Group of Experts to Prepare Model Legislation in the Areas to Which the CIFTA Refers, on May 5, 2014; and
BEARING IN MIND the results of the above-mentioned conferences and meetings,
I. ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE ON HEMISPHERIC SECURITY AND MEMBER STATES
- To reaffirm to the Permanent Council and to the General Secretariat the applicable mandates contained in past resolutions of the General Assembly on hemispheric security and mentioned in the preambular part of this resolution; and to urge member states to continue contributing to the attainment of the objectives established in said resolutions through the development and execution of activities, the submission of reports, the exchange of information, the adoption of measures and policies, and cooperation, support, and mutual assistance; and to instruct the General Secretariat to provide necessary support to those ends.
- To instruct the Permanent Council to continue, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security (CSH) and pursuant to the mandates in this resolution, participating in, holding consultations with, and sharing experiences and information with other regional and international forums.
- To recognize the central role of the CSH in security and defense matters in the framework of the Organization of American States (OAS), and to instruct the Permanent Council to continue, through the CSH, to promote and coordinate cooperation among the organs, agencies, and entities of the Organization.
Meetings of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA)
- To endorse the Recommendations of Medellín for Strengthening International Cooperation in the Area of Public Security (MISPA IV/doc.4/13 rev. 1) that emerged from the Fourth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas , held in Medellín, Colombia, on November 21 and 22, 2013, and to encourage member states to effectively apply and continue implementing the Commitment to Public Security in the Americas, the Consensus of Santo Domingo on Public Security, and the Port of Spain Recommendations for Police Management.
- To convene the first meeting of the Subsidiary Technical Working Group on International Cooperation, to be held in Colombia in the second half of 2014, in accordance with follow-up paragraph 5 on the Recommendations of Medellín for Strengthening International Cooperation in the Area of Public Security.
- To convene the second meeting of the Subsidiary Technical Working Group on Police Management, to be held in Peru in the first half of 2015 in accordance with follow-up paragraph 6 of the Recommendations of Medellín for Strengthening International Cooperation in the Area of Public Security.
- To request the General Secretariat to provide support to member states in implementing the Recommendations of Medellín for Strengthening International Cooperation in the Area of Public Security and, based on the pillars of the MISPA process, to create an online best practices database based on inputs voluntarily provided by the member states, including, inter alia, their replies to the first questionnaire on “National Practices and Experiences in Public Security in the Americas”; to develop a catalogue of training courses and technical assistance offered by member states and regional and international organizations, as well as nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, civil society, and other social actors, so as to foster mutual technical assistance and capacity building among the countries of the region; and to present said database and catalogue to the member states for consideration at the Fifth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the (MISPA V).
- To accept with thanks the offer of the Government of Peru to host MISPA V and to convene it in the second half of 2015. To that end, to instruct the Permanent Council to establish, through the CSH, a working group chaired by Peru to coordinate all the preparations for MISPA V.
- To thank the Government of Peru also for its offer to host the last preparatory meeting for MISPA V; and to request the Chair of MISPA V to submit to the Permanent Council, through the CSH, reports on progress made in the preparatory meetings for MISPA V.
- Bearing in mind the decision of MISPA IV concerning the “Instruction to the Secretary General of the Organization of American States regarding Cooperation with the American Police Community (AMERIPOL),” to request the Secretariat to report on the matter and to include additional aspects to be borne in mind, so that the member states can evaluate, within the framework of the CSH, possible options for an OAS technical cooperation mechanism or program on police matters.
Support for implementation at the hemispheric level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)
- To request the Permanent Council, through the CSH, to continue to assist member states with implementation of UN Security Council resolution 1540 (2004) by holding a meeting, inter alia, to disseminate lessons learned, share experiences, and identify specific areas and projects for which assistance is needed, while attempting to establish priorities from a hemispheric perspective; and to foster a more extensive exchange of information with other international, regional, and subregional organizations, regarding implementation of resolution 1540 (2004), including the United Nations Security Council 1540 Committee and, where appropriate, regional coordinators for 1540 implementation within the Hemisphere, thereby contributing to efforts being undertaken in the United Nations framework.
Future of the mission and functions of the instruments and components of the inter-American defense system
- To consider fulfilled the mandate in operative paragraph 11 of resolution AG/RES. 2809 (XLIII-O/13) concerning relations between the OAS and the hemispheric defense meetings, the Inter-American Defense Board, and measures to promote cooperation; and to take note of the report of the Chair of the Informal Working Group contained in document CP/CSH/INF.389/14 rev. 2.
Confidence- and security-building in the Americas4
- To reaffirm the right to privacy, whereby no one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home, work, or correspondence, and the right to protection against such interference under the law, as set forth in Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 11.2 of the American Convention on Human Rights (Pact of San José), Article 5 of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, and Article 3 of the Inter-American Democratic Charter.5
- To consolidate security and cooperation among member states through the full implementation of confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) in keeping with the provisions of the Declaration of Santiago on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, the Declaration of San Salvador on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, the Consensus of Miami, the Declaration on Security in the Americas, and General Assembly resolution AG/RES. 2447 (XXXIX-O/09), “Confidence- and Security-Building in the Americas,” among other resolutions on CSBMs.
- To urge all member states to furnish the General Secretariat, no later than July 15, with information on the application of CSBMs, utilizing the Consolidated List of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures for Reporting According to OAS Resolutions (CP/CSH-1043/08 rev. 1) and the Format for Reporting on the Application of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSH/FORO-IV/doc.7/10).
- To request the OAS General Secretariat to complete the implementation of the electronic template for the submission of online annual reports on CSBMs and to provide funding for this endeavor.
- To set February 12, 2015, at the headquarters of the OAS General Secretariat as the date and place of the Sixth Meeting of the Forum on Confidence and Security Building Measures in order, as set forth in AG/RES. 2809 (XLIII-O/13), to review and evaluate existing CSBMs and to discuss, consider, and propose additional measures.
- To analyze, at the aforesaid forum, the relevance of discussing new CSBMs, such as those identified in the Consensus of Miami: Declaration by the Experts on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures: Recommendations to the Summit-Mandated Special Conference on Security, and in the Catalogue of CSBMs, as well as those that respect international law, in particular human rights, related to adopting and adapting domestic legislation in processes for obtaining data and information, in order to prevent, address, and investigate criminal activities that threaten security, in light of the realities of the 21st century.
Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas
- To urge member states and the General Secretariat to continue implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action to Follow up on the Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas 2013-2015.
Support for the Central American Security Strategy
- To invite member states and instruct the General Secretariat to continue collaborating with the Central American Integration System (SICA) on implementation of the Central American Security Strategy.
Preventing violence and crime
- To instruct the General Secretariat, through its Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, to establish and coordinate, in consultation with the member states, an inter-American network for the prevention of violence and crime (network) to contribute to the efforts and capabilities of the member states, particularly in areas relating to participation by the population within the framework of citizen security and community organization. The network, which is to comprise representatives of member states, governmental, nongovernmental, international, and regional organizations, will be technical in nature and will consider, inter alia, mechanisms, programs, practices for fostering hemispheric coordination and cooperation in the area of violence and crime prevention. The aforementioned network will be composed with the agreement of the member states. The findings of its deliberations will be presented at the forty-fifth regular session of the OAS General Assembly.
- To instruct the General Secretariat to establish a specific fund and its rules of procedure to support activities designed to prevent violence and crime, including the inter-American network for the prevention of violence and crime. The fund will be open to voluntary contributions by member states, permanent observer states, and the international community. The Secretariat will report on the use and results of those funds based on the activities carried out through the Network.
- To include the subject of violence and crime prevention in the schedule of activities of the CSH for 2014-2015.
The Americas as an antipersonnel land mine-free zone6
- To renew its support for the efforts of affected member states to rid their territories of antipersonnel land mines, destroy their stockpiles, and convert the Americas into the world’s first antipersonnel land mine-free zone.
- To acknowledge the support demonstrated by 33 member states of the Hemisphere through their ratification of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (Ottawa Convention); to encourage governments to continue working or providing support in the area of mine action in accordance with the Ottawa Convention, their mine action plans, and available resources; and to urge states that have not yet done so to consider ratifying or acceding to the Ottawa Convention as soon as possible to ensure its full and effective implementation in the Americas and contribute to its universalization.
- To urge those States Parties that requested extensions under Article 5 of the Ottawa Convention to make every effort necessary to comply with their obligations within the periods established.
- To congratulate the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela on having been declared an anti-personnel mine-free territory at the thirteenth meeting of the States Parties to the Ottawa Convention, held in Geneva in December 2013, was declared thereby fulfilling the commitment it made one year ahead of the established deadline.
- To firmly condemn, in accordance with the principles and norms of international humanitarian law, the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices by non-state actors, especially illegal armed groups in Colombia and Peru, which acts put at grave risk the population of the affected countries; and to strongly urge non-state actors to observe the international norm established by the Ottawa Convention to facilitate progress in the Americas toward a mine-free world.
- To note its gratitude for the cooperation that the Program for Comprehensive Action against Antipersonnel Mines (AICMA) provides to member states in the demining process and in the delivery of medical care to victims. Similarly, to note its gratitude for the support given by the Assistance Mission for Mine Clearance in South America (MARMINAS) through its participation with observers and provision of training, and to recognize the high level of cooperation between Ecuador and Peru, which has enabled great progress in clearing the Amazonian jungle area of antipersonnel mines.
- To recognize that the bilateral humanitarian demining model and the management models established by Ecuador and Peru are an example of effective and efficient South-South cooperation with the potential to be replicated in other member states as the upshot of the appropriate implementation of an important confidence-building initiative that includes joint training efforts; exchange of information, expertise and experience acquired in the performance of their obligations under the Ottawa Convention; and the creation of the Peru-Ecuador Binational Humanitarian Demining Unit.
- To underline that Colombia, which ranks second in the world in terms of the number of new victims of the use of these devices by armed agents operating outside the law, hosted the “Global Conference on Assisting Landmine and other Explosive Remnants of War Survivors in the Context of Disability Rights and other Domains: Bridges between Worlds,” which took place in Medellin, Colombia, on April 3 and 4, 2014, was attended by a large number of participants from the region, and managed to advance awareness of victim assistance beyond the human rights approach embodied in the Ottawa Convention.
- To note that the United Nations General Assembly, by resolution 60/97, “Assistance in mine action,” has declared April 4 of every year to be International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action; and to invite states to mark the day in solidarity of the member states concerned, in particular of their populations.
- To renew its call for all states and other engaged parties to work together to promote, support, and advance the care, rehabilitation and social and economic reintegration of mine victims; on mine-risk education programs; and on the removal and destruction of anti-personnel mines deployed or stockpiled throughout the world.
- To urge all OAS member states that are parties to the Ottawa Convention to provide the OAS Secretary General with complete and timely information, as required under Article 7 of the Convention in order to promote transparency and compliance with the Convention.
- To urge the States Parties to the Ottawa Convention, interested states, the United Nations, other competent international organizations or institutions, regional organizations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and competent nongovernmental organizations to attend the Third Review Conference, to be held in Maputo, Mozambique, from June 23 to 27, 2014, in order to make a substantive contribution to the deliberations and to discuss the progress achieved in the implementation of the Cartagena Declaration, “A Shared Commitment to a Mine-Free World and the Cartagena Action Plan 2010–2014: Ending the Suffering Caused by Antipersonnel Mines,” as well as to renew their commitment to the Ottawa Convention.
Execution of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime and strengthening of hemispheric cooperation
- To request the Permanent Council to continue, through the CSH, its consideration of the issue of transnational organized crime and to determine the best way to advance analysis for addressing the issue.
- To include the issue of transnational organized crime in the Schedule of Activities of the CSH for 2014-2015.
- To request the General Secretariat, in particular the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security (SMS) and the Department of Legal Cooperation, to conduct a study on the efforts it makes and the structure it is using to deal with issues connected with combating transnational organized crime, identifying strengths and potential areas for improvement, as well as challenges and threats, in order to avoid the duplication of tasks and more effectively support member states and the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime. The study shall be presented to the CSH by the beginning of the first quarter of 2015.
- To convene a joint meeting of the CSH and the CAJP (spell out) in the first quarter 2015 to address the issue of combating transnational organized crime, with a view to examining internally the efforts of each committee and identifying synergies between them.
- To request the CSH—taking into account the study to be presented by the General Secretariat, the outcome of the joint meeting with the CAJP, and the results of the Meeting of National Authorities on Transnational Organized Crime, held on April 24 and 25, 2014, as contained in the report of the Secretariat (RANDOT/doc.3/14)—to evaluate existing structures and coordination mechanisms for addressing the issue efficiently and effectively, promoting greater cooperation, and implementing the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime.
- To instruct the General Secretariat to promote, in the framework of the CSH, a virtual meeting or teleconference on transnational organized crime among members of the OAS Directory of National Points of Contact, for the purposes of implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime.
- To urge member states to continue to use the OAS Hemispheric Network for Legal Cooperation on Criminal Matters to communicate, coordinate, and exchange information.
- To take note of the dialogue that took place at the Meeting of National Authorities on Transnational Organized Crime, which addressed, inter alia, matters relating to indices of violence and their links with other issues; the comprehensive nature of the problem; cooperation and coordination mechanisms between states, and financial and technological resources for training security forces.
- To invite member states, permanent observers, and international organizations to make voluntary contributions to the specific fund to implement the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime.
Hemispheric efforts to combat trafficking in persons
- To thank the Government of Brazil for its offer to host the Fourth Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons and to convene the aforementioned meeting in Brasilia, in the second half of 2014. To that end, to establish a working group to coordinate preparations for the Meeting of National Authorities under the leadership of Brazil, with support from the General Secretariat.
- To request the Permanent Council, through the CSH, to review and update, where it considers relevant, the 2010-2015 Work Plan against Trafficking in Persons in the Western Hemisphere, for consideration and approval by the national authorities at their fourth meeting.
- To welcome the “International Seminar on Strategic Coordination between Governments and Civil Society for the Integral Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Persons” held in Lima, Peru, on September 11 and 12, 2013, and to highlight the proposals put forward, inter alia, to consider drafting an inter-American declaration against trafficking in persons.
Follow-up to the Special Conference on Security
- To reaffirm its commitment to the Declaration on Security in the Americas, in particular to the multidimensional approach to security, recognizing the important contribution it has made to the hemispheric agenda as well as the need to continue its implementation, considering the areas identified at the seminar commemorating the 10th anniversary, which addressed the relationship between security and social development, in order to strengthen hemispheric cooperation, help reduce poverty, promote social inclusion, and encourage a preventive approach to counter threats to regional development.
- To request the Permanent Council to consider, among other things, the areas identified in the commemorative dialogue and included in the report submitted by Mexico (CP/INF.6816/13) and to systematically continue with the dialogue on the Declaration on Security in the Americas on the agenda of the CSH.
Special security concerns of the small island states of the Caribbean
- To express its pleasure with the satisfactory outcome of the meeting on the special security concerns of the small island states of the Caribbean, held with the theme “The Link between Security and Development in the Caribbean” in the CSH, at OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C., on March 27, 2014.
- To note that the Inter-American Defense Board met with representatives of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Security Working Group in keeping with the request made by the small island states of the Caribbean to conduct a study on the possible components of a cyber-defense strategy for those states and to present them with options for a cyber-defense system in keeping with the IADB Statutes.
- To encourage the General Secretariat of the OAS, through the SMS, to continue collaborating with the CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) on security-related issues.
- To instruct the Permanent Council and the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI) to continue advancing, within their respective areas of competence, those issues that have an impact on the security, sustainable integral development, and stability of the small island states of the Caribbean. In that regard, to continue convening the annual meeting on the special security concerns of the small island states of the Caribbean, re-emphasizing that their peculiar characteristics of small, fragile economies and scarce resources render these states particularly vulnerable and susceptible to the effects of the myriad forms of transnational organized crime and other insecurities.
Consolidation of the regime established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco)
- To call upon those states of the region that have not yet done so to sign or ratify the amendments to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco), adopted by the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) in resolutions 267 (E-V), 268 (XII), and 290 (E-VII).
- To note its pleasure that Antigua and Barbuda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; and Trinidad and Tobago have deposited their respective instruments of ratification of the amendments to the Treaty of Tlatelolco referred to in the previous paragraph.
- To recognize the Treaty of Tlatelolco, on the 47th anniversary of its entry into force, as demonstrating that the absence of nuclear weapons in the region strengthens security and confidence among the states of the Hemisphere and sets a clear example for other states that possess such weapons.
- To also welcome the revitalization, strengthening, and constructive dynamics of OPANAL over the last two years, which have enabled it to forge clear goals and a renewed and increased presence and participation in international forums concerned with the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation agenda.
- To encourage those states that have ratified the relevant protocols to the Treaty of Tlatelolco to review any reservations they have made thereon, in compliance with Action 9 of the Final Document of the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).
- To reiterate its interest in convening, as soon as possible, in consultation with the states of the region, a conference on the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction, on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among all the states of the region, and with the full support and engagement of the nuclear-weapon states, as a key step in attaining the elimination of weapons of mass destruction.
Disarmament and nonproliferation in the Hemisphere
- To foster agreement and greater confidence among states in the region, promote, as a priority objective, nuclear disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation, and contribute to complete and general disarmament toward propitiating greater trust among member states.
- To reiterate member states’ commitment to arms control, disarmament, and nonproliferation of all weapons of mass destruction and to the NPT, the Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (Chemical Weapons Convention), the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (Biological Weapons Convention), and the 1925 Geneva Protocol to the 1907 Hague Convention.
- To reiterate our resolve to achieve the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons and to call on the States Parties to the NPT to fully implement the obligations and commitments contained in the Treaty, particularly those relating to Articles I, II, IV, and VI, as well as the commitments adopted in the final documents of the 2000 and 2010 Review Conferences of the Parties to the NPT, which include specific measures to achieve nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament and to promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
- To take note of the work of the open-ended working group to develop proposals to take forward multilateral nuclear disarmament negotiations for the achievement and maintenance of a world without nuclear weapons, established pursuant to United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/56, “Taking forward multilateral nuclear disarmament negotiations,” and chaired in 2013 by Costa Rica.7
- To recall that the 2010 NPT Review Conference expressed its deep concern for the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and reaffirmed the need for states to comply at all times with the relevant international law, including international humanitarian law.
- To take note of the discussions conducted at the First and Second Conferences on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, held in Oslo, Norway (March 2013) and Nayarit, Mexico (February 2014), respectively, and to invite all member states to participate in the Third Conference on this subject to be held in Vienna, Austria, on December 8 and 9, 2014.
- To urge states to consider signing or ratifying the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) as soon as possible, particularly the states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty, so that it may enter into force as soon as possible. In this regard, to congratulate Indonesia for depositing its instrument of ratification in February 2012.
- To call on all states to comply fully with the Chemical Weapons Convention and to instruct the General Secretariat to explore the possibility of sharing experiences with the Technical Secretariat of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in the area of legislative implementation of international instruments; to collaborate, within its possibilities and when so requested, in any subregional cooperation programs the OPCW may establish in the Hemisphere; and to report to the CSH on its efforts.
- To call on all states to comply fully with the Biological Weapons Convention and to instruct the OAS General Secretariat to explore the possibility of sharing experiences with the Convention Implementation Support Unit and, as appropriate, with the Pan American Health Organization, in accordance with its mandate, in the area of the legislative implementation of international instruments and other areas complementary to said Convention, such as epidemiological monitoring and relevant scientific information, and to report to the CSH on its efforts.
Illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons in all their aspects
- To include the subject of illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons in all their aspects in the Schedule of Activities of the CSH for 2014-2015.
- To take into account that further provisions on illicit trafficking in firearms are contained in Section II of this resolution, “Legal Instruments,”, under the heading “Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA).”
Protecting Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Disasters
- To include the topic of protection and strengthening of critical infrastructure in the event of disasters in the Schedule of Activities of the CSH for 2014–2015.
II. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS
- To urge member states that have not already done so to give prompt consideration to ratifying or acceding to, as the case may be, the Inter-American Convention Against the illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA) and the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC).
- To request the Secretary General to present to the Permanent Council prior to the forty-fifth regular session of the General Assembly a report on the status of signatures and ratifications of, and accessions to, the CIFTA and the CITAAC.
- To invite member states to consider signing and/or ratifying the Arms Trade Treaty.8
Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA)
- To continue implementing the Course of Action 2012-2016 for the Operation and Implementation of the CIFTA, adopted by the Third Conference of the States Party to the CIFTA, held at OAS headquarters on May 14 and 15, 2012.
- To adopt the draft Model Legislation on Security Measures to Eliminate Loss or Diversion of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and other Related Materials and the draft Model Legislation on Recordkeeping, Confidentiality, and Exchange of Information related to the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and other Related Materials, both prepared by the OAS Group of Experts to Prepare Model Legislation in the Areas to which the CIFTA Refers and adopted by the CIFTA Consultative Committee at its fifteenth meeting on May 6, 2014. To congratulate the OAS Group of Experts to Prepare Model Legislation in the Areas to which the CIFTA Refers.
- To encourage member states, the Pro Tempore Secretariat, and the Technical Secretariat of the CIFTA to make use of the new information and communication technologies available within the General Secretariat to convene meetings of the OAS Group of Experts to Prepare Model Legislation in the Areas to Which the CIFTA Refers in order to review or update, as requested by the CIFTA Consultative Committee, model legislation already developed under the Convention.
- To request the General Secretariat to strengthen its ability to provide technical legislative assistance on topics related to the CIFTA, particularly through the SMS and the Secretariat for Legal Affairs.
- To convene the sixteenth regular meeting of the CIFTA Consultative Committee, in compliance with Article XXI of the Convention, as a one-day event at OAS headquarters during the first half of 2015, in order to consider, chiefly, the topic of legislative measures, as agreed on in the Course of Action, and to ask the Technical Secretariat of the CIFTA to support its preparation and follow-up.
- To take note with satisfaction of the proposal to consider the possibility of establishing the Inter-American Network of Oversight Agencies for Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials, and to support its consideration at the sixteenth regular meeting of the CIFTA Consultative Committee.
- To reiterate the importance of standardizing rules and procedures for the import, export, transportation, and transfer of firearms, ammunition, explosives, and other related materials; to ask the states parties to the Convention to convey to the Technical Secretariat of the CIFTA their comments on the document “Model Legislation for Strengthening Controls at Export Points”; and to request that the Technical Secretariat of the CIFTA, based on the comments made by the states parties, prepare a report for consideration at the Sixteenth Meeting of the CIFTA Consultative Committee.
- To support the initiative of the CIFTA Consultative Committee to participate through the Secretariat pro tempore in the Biennial Meeting of States on the Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons, to be convened at United Nations Headquarters in New York from June 16 to 20, 2014.
- To thank the Government of the United States of America for its support for the project “Promoting the Marking of Firearms in Latin America and the Caribbean,” and to entrust its follow-up to the General Secretariat.
- To convene the first meeting of the Working Group to analyze the document “OAS Firearms Standards: Marking and Record-keeping,” to last two days, during the second half of 2014.
- To request the organs and entities of the OAS to redouble their efforts, in order to create greater synergies for the implementation of the CIFTA and with the related processes, as applicable, that exist under the aegis of the United Nations: the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms (UNPOA), the International Tracing Instrument (ITI), the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), and the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, particularly its Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition; and to ask the Technical Secretariat of the CIFTA to attend the events connected with those international instruments and to report back to the Permanent Council through the CSH.
- To request the CIFTA Technical Secretariat to attend subregional events currently underway in the areas covered by the CIFTA in order to strengthen ties with subregional processes, and to report back to the Permanent Council, through the CSH, on the results of those efforts.
- To invite the States Parties to the CIFTA to promote, in the framework of international cooperation, exchange of information and experience with marking and tracing initiatives implemented in a number of member states, such as the Ballistics and Biometrics Laboratory, pursuant to the provisions of Article 2 of the Convention. Also to invite other member states to do so voluntarily if they wish.
- To request the CIFTA Technical Secretariat to prepare by the first quarter of 2015 a record of initiatives presented by member states in accordance with the previous paragraph, with a view to identifying best practices and sharing experience.
Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC)
- To reaffirm the commitment to the principles contained in the CITAAC and the commitment assumed in the Declaration of Punta del Este, adopted at the X Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas, to promote universal participation in and full implementation of said Convention.
- To request that the General Secretariat, through the SMS, prepare consolidated annual reports for 2013 and 2014.
- To urge States Parties to submit in a timely fashion annual reports and notifications in compliance with their obligations under Articles III and IV of the CITAAC, and to identify before July 1 of each year national points of contact to contribute to the preparation of notifications and annual reports.
- To request the General Secretariat to contact the non-member states of the Organization so that they may contribute to the objective of the CITAAC by providing information annually to the General Secretariat on their exports of conventional weapons to States Parties to the CITAAC, in accordance with Article V thereof.
- To set January 29, 2015, at the headquarters of the OAS General Secretariat as the date and place of the Second Conference of the States Parties to the Convention, in accordance with Article VIII of the CITAAC and AG/RES. 2809 (XLIII-O/13), and to request that the General Secretariat budget for the above conference and its two one-day preparatory meetings and that it support preparations for and follow-up on said conference.
III. OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE ORGANS, AGENCIES, AND ENTITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION (ARTICLE 91.F OF THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES)
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)
- To reaffirm that countering the world drug problem is a common and shared responsibility that must be addressed in a multilateral setting, that it requires an integral and balanced approach, and that it must be carried out in full conformity with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and other provisions of international law, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action on human rights and, in particular, with respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of states, for the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs of states, and for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, and on the basis of the principles of equal rights and mutual respect.
- To reaffirm that the world drug problem should be addressed in accordance with the provisions in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol; the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971; and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, which constitute the framework of the international drug control system.
- To invite member states to implement or strengthen, as appropriate, a public-health and human rights perspective in their demand-reduction public policies founded on a scientific evidence-based, integral, multidisciplinary, intersectoral approach, in accordance with to their individual situations, that incorporates prevention, early intervention, treatment, care, rehabilitation, recovery and social reintegration measures.
- To also invite member states to promote and put in practice prevention measures, including ones designed to counter social consequences associated with the world drug problem.
- To establish an “alternatives to incarceration” working group within the framework of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD; to instruct said group to prepare a technical report on existing non-custodial alternatives for drug-related offenses in accordance with the three international drug control conventions, taking into account national legislative frameworks and the contents of the Hemispheric Drug Strategy and Plan of Action 2011–2015; and to instruct it to present [a progress report to CICAD at its fifty-sixth regular session and its final report at its fifty-seventh regular session .
- To recommend that member states continue their efforts to adopt or improve comprehensive and balanced measures aimed at reducing the availability of the illicit supply of drugs.
- To encourage member states to consider, as part of their national policies, comprehensive and sustainable alternative-development programs and measures—including, where appropriate, preventive alternative development, aimed at eliminating the factors that cause poverty, social exclusion, and environmental degradation, in order, inter alia, to avert the involvement of vulnerable populations in activities connected with illicit drug production and trafficking.
To invite member states to continue a broad, transparent, inclusive and scientific-based discussion within the framework of the three international drug control conventions and other relevant international instruments, and encourage discussion on approaches to address the world drug problem in the Hemisphere to enable the exchange of best practices and lessons learned to serve as input for the special session of the United Nations General Assembly to be held in 2016.
To reaffirm the importance of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) as the inter-American instrument to evaluate drug control policies in the Hemisphere; to recognize the methodology introduced in the Sixth Evaluation Round of this mechanism to measure the progress of member states in attaining the objectives of the Hemispheric Drug Strategy of 2010, in accordance with the actions agreed upon in the Plan of Action 2011-2015; and to express thanks for the work of the general coordinators of the Governmental Expert Group (GEG) for the MEM’s Sixth Round and the experts that make up the GEG and the MEM Section of CICAD for their hard work. In this connection, to welcome the future accomplishment of the objectives of the GEG within the established timeframe and available resources.
To recognize the opportunity to strengthen the evaluation process to measure the impact of the Hemispheric Drug Strategy and its Plan of Action through, inter alia, the inclusion of indicators.
To invite member states to consider implementing within the legal framework of each member state the recommendations of the Group of Experts to Control Money Laundering, bearing in mind, inter alia, the following lines of action: strengthening the capacities of the authorities in charge of combating money laundering and related crimes; improvement of the efficiency of international cooperation in the area of asset recovery; development and/or strengthening of asset forfeiture systems, including asset investigation, the management of assets derived from crime and specialized units to address the issue; and advancing the study of methodological instruments to allow each country to develop its analysis of risk factors, in cooperation with specialized international organizations.
To take note of the discussions at the fifty-fifth regular session of CICAD on the special session of the OAS General Assembly to be held on September 19, 2014, in Guatemala, which will provide an opportunity to reflect on the world drug problem in the Americas in the context of international law, and instruct CICAD to provide inputs for said special session.
To take note of the “Conclusions of the Chair” (CICAD/doc.2069/13) on the fifty-fourth regular session of CICAD, held in Bogota, Colombia, from December 11 to 13, 2013, and of the “Conclusions of the Chair” (CICAD/doc.2113/14) on the fifty-fifth regular session of CICAD, held in Washington, D.C., from April 29 to May 1, 2014.
To endorse the Work Plan of the CICAD Executive Secretariat for 2014, in accordance with the CICAD Statutes and in fulfillment of the Hemispheric Drug Strategy and the Plan of Action 2011-2015, and entrust the Executive Secretariat to execute the corresponding actions and continue offering technical assistance to build capacities in member states, in accordance with this work plan.
To instruct the General Secretariat to continue offering the CICAD Executive Secretariat the necessary support and to encourage member states, permanent observers and other international donors to continue providing voluntary contributions to allow the Secretariat to continue executing its mandates.
Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE)
- To invite member states to cooperate with the General Secretariat in implementing the commitments contained in the CICTE Work Plan for 2014 adopted by the member states of CICTE at its fourteenth regular session, including cooperation in its work areas of cybersecurity, border controls, legislative assistance and combating terrorism financing, critical infrastructure protection, and international cooperation.
- To take note of the CICTE Chair’s initiative to seek ways to continue to improve the effectiveness of the meeting of National Points of Contact and the long-term financial sustainability of CICTE.
- To instruct the General Secretariat to continue providing the CICTE Secretariat with the necessary support to ensure continuity in the implementation of its mandates, including support for convening and holding the fifteenth regular session of CICTE, scheduled to be held at the headquarters of the Organization, in Washington, D.C., from March 18 to 20, 2015, and of the thirteenth meeting of National Points of Contact to CICTE, which will take place in conjunction with that regular session, as well as the three one-day meetings to be held on December 5, 2014; January 23, 2015; and February 20, 2015, at the headquarters of the Organization.
- To request the Chair of CICTE to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth regular session on the implementation of the mandates set out in the CICTE Work Plan.
- To foster civilian-military relationships within the IADB, urging member states to constitute joint delegations and encouraging the appointment of civilian and military experts to the Council of Delegates and the working groups of the IADB.
- To take note that the Inter-American Defense College achieved academic accreditation as a postgraduate institution and to invite member states to select civilian and military candidates to pursue their studies there.
- To invite member states, should they deem it appropriate, to consider continuing to provide the IADB with the necessary financial and human resources to support this institution.
- To request the IADB and the SMS to inform the CSH about their efforts to coordinate shared topics and to identify possible areas for improvement in military and defense issues.
To request that the IADB, in the framework of its Statutes:
- continue to foster cooperation among the various defense forums and agencies in the Hemisphere for exchanging experiences on matters within their areas of responsibility, and to report to the CSH;
- continue to participate, when applicable, in meetings and events on defense matters, and report to the CSH on its participation;
- continue to provide technical, consultative, and educational advisory services to member states upon request; and
- present reports, at the request of the CSH, on military and defense issues, particularly in relation to confidence- and security-building measures; the CITAAC; demining; stockpile management, security, and destruction; the institutional memory of the Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas; humanitarian assistance; and search-and-rescue activities in disasters.
- To request the IADB to convene a meeting of civilian and military officials in the first quarter of 2015 to consider the subject of white papers on defense.
- To instruct the IADB to prepare, with the interested member states, a proposal for technical assistance services for mine clearing and stockpile destruction activities, with a view to making that proposal available to the SMS through the AICMA and the Program of Assistance for Control of Arms and Destruction of Munitions in Central America (PACAM), for future cooperation projects, and to present the results for consideration by the Permanent Council through the CSH.
- To instruct the IADB to prepare a technical study on the handling, securing, and destruction of munitions and explosives and to present its findings to the Permanent Council through the Committee on Hemispheric Security.
IV. FOLLOW-UP AND REPORTING
- To instruct the SMS to submit in due course its 2014-2015 plan of activities for consultations or proper oversight by member states.
- To request the Permanent Council to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth regular session on the implementation of this resolution. Execution of the activities envisaged in this resolution will be subject to the availability of financial resources in the program-budget of the Organization and other resources.
 Bolivia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela call into question the continued validity of the organs of the inter-American system that are concerned with defense issues given their origins, nature, scope, objectives, and performance. The international context in which the entities concerned with defense issues in the Americas were conceived is long gone. The hemispheric relations that grew out of the Second World War and the Cold War were based on the now-defunct interventionist doctrine of national security and the principle of collective self-defense. In Latin America and the Caribbean, we have consolidated our democracies and the full operation of the principles of sovereignty, independence, and non-intervention in our internal affairs. Accordingly, our countries reject any attempt at intervention and interference by global hegemonic powers. The vision and execution of defense policy has moved beyond the militaristic, to submit to legally constituted civilian authority and to respect for the rule of law in all sectors of society, the very ones that consolidate the democratic institutional system in our states. For its part, the inter-American system has not kept pace with regional political development but has kept old structures that must, without delay, adapt to the changing times in the Hemisphere. We therefore demand that the IADB’s activities be strictly confined to the mandates provided for in Article 3 of the Statutes.
 The United States considers that while some issues at the OAS are cross-cutting, other issues are clearly the responsibilities of specific committees that have competence and expertise on certain subject matters. The issue of data privacy is one such matter. The issue is not a Committee on Hemispheric Security issue; rather, it belongs to the Committee on Juridical and Political Affairs (CAJP) or the Inter-American Telecommunication Commission (CITEL).
 The Government of Nicaragua considers that given the crosscutting nature of security in its different dimensions, an integral approach is required that permits the implementation of public policies aimed at developing preventive actions to address the diverse threats to security arising from crime in all its manifestations. With that approach, Nicaragua has been supporting various Central American and regional initiatives. Nevertheless, with respect to the various initiatives proposed by some countries to strengthen and consolidate the role of the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB), Nicaragua maintains that the historical context that gave rise to that entity no longer exists and that our states today find themselves in very different circumstances. In light of the above, the Government of Nicaragua does not agree that the Inter-American Defense Board should intervene in military or other matters that infringe the country’s sovereignty, independence, legal system, and institutions.
 The United States will continue to support OAS efforts to eliminate the humanitarian threat of all remaining landmines and declare countries “mine-impact-free.” Additionallythe United States’ comprehensive review of its antipersonnel landmine policy is ongoing.
 The United States did not support establishment of the Open-ended Working Group, and did not participate in its meetings. Such non-consensus efforts will not advance the cause of nuclear disarmament. The only practical and realistic path to the elimination of nuclear weapons lies in a step by step process that has reduced dramatically nuclear arsenals from their Cold War highs and which the United States seeks to build on through negotiations with Russia on further reductions and through support for FMCT, CTBT and Nuclear Weapon Free Zones.
 The Governments of Nicaragua and Bolivia are committed to preventing, combating and eradicating illicit trafficking in firearms. By virtue of their commitment to peace and citizen security, they have adopted various international instruments for combating and prevention of illicit trafficking in firearms.
Furthermore, the Government of Nicaragua has incorporated in its national system of laws the United Nations Programme of Action and the International Tracing Instrument through the Special Law for Control and Regulation of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Related Materials (Law 510), which has enabled it to implement a strict plan of control and registration of firearms in civilian possession and confiscation of weapons of war. The Nicaraguan nation is mindful of the humanitarian impact and of all the repercussions caused by this scourge in the Hemisphere, particularly in the Central American region, which is why it remains committed to multilateralism. However, Nicaragua is unable to accept the Arms Trade Treaty adopted by the United Nations for the following reasons:
- It does not include a ban on transfers of firearms to non-state actors, which seems to it very dangerous, given that by its non-prohibition it is led, perforce, to the assumption that it is permitted.
- The operative part of the treaty does not contain a clear affirmation of the sovereign right of states to procure, manufacture, export, import, and keep conventional weapons and their parts and components for their legitimate defense and security needs.
- There is no prohibition against the transfer of weapons to states that threaten the use of force or that commit crimes of aggression against other states and which have as their practice and policy the destabilization of other states as well as the threat and the use of force.
 The Republic of Ecuador formalized its withdrawal from the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) on March 11, 2014. For that reason the Republic of Ecuador is not a party to the consensusor to any commitment assumed by the states in connection with this topic.