U.S. Report on the Application of Confidence and Security Building Measures for 2004-2005

September 1, 2005


The United States Permanent Mission wishes to transmit to the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States its annual report on the application of the confidence and security building measures (CSBMs) contained in Consensus of Miami. This report is provided per AG/RES. 2113 (XXXV-O/05),"Transparency and Confidence- And Security-Building in the Americas." The U.S. report is enclosed.

Enclosure:

U.S. Report on CSBMs.


United States Permanent Mission to the Organization of American States, Washington, September 01, 2005

UNITED STATES REPORT ON THE APPLICATON OF CONFIDENCE AND SECURITY BUILDING MEASURES FOR 2004 AND 2005

1. Notification and observance of joint exercises and routine operations

USSOUTHCOM conducted 16 joint exercises with member states involving 5,675 US and 10,320 Partner Nation troops. Countries participating were: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, EI Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Suriname, and Uruguay. Additionally, Canada and the United States have been jointly exercising their military forces through NATO, the North American Aerospace Defense Command, and service to service agreements for decades. Agreements are in place for advance notice of exercises and operations.

2. Defense visit programs to defense installations and military academies

The USSOUTHCOM Traditional Commanders Activities support this measure through the Defense and Military Contacts Program that includes school visits and orientation visits to defense installations.

There were 42 visits during Fiscal Year 2004 (October 2003- September2004).

Examples are:

  • Ecuadorian National War Institute orientation visit: Services War College.
  • EI Salvador Armed Forces Command& General Staff visit; Ft. Knox, KY.
  • Argentine Naval War College students visit, Washington, DC and Norfolk, VA
  • Dominican Military Institute of Higher Studies Course/ Washington, DC orientation visit.

The U.S. Marine Corps hosted the "Marine Leaders of the Americas Conference" in Bogota, Colombia, for participants from throughout the Hemisphere.

Canadian and U.S. military personnel routinely visit each other's military installations and service academies through attaché and security assistance visitation programs.

3. Exchange of civilian and military personnel for both regular and advanced training

The USSOUTHCOM Traditional Commanders Activities help support this measure via the Defense and Military Contacts Program that includes subject matter expert exchanges and unit exchange programs. There were 115 subject matter expert exchanges in Fiscal Year 2004.

Examples are:

  • Staff Judge Advocate Legal Engagement Exchange -Bolivia
  • Aerospace Medicine Exchange -Argentina
  • Force Protection Subject Matter Exchange -Ecuador
  • Marksmanship Subject Matter Exchange -Jamaica

USSOUTHCOM conducted seven unit exchanges/small unit familiarization programs to enhance military training and professional growth. Five platoon exchanges were conducted with Paraguay, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and EI Salvador.

Canada and the U.S. enjoy a robust program for exchanging military personnel for instructor billets in formal, education and training.

4. Participate in the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, including the provision and exchange of information on national production of conventional arms

On an annual basis, the U.S. participates in the UN Register of Conventional Arms and transmits a copy of its submission to the OAS Secretary General, the Committee on Hemispheric Security, and Member States. Last year, the U.S. submitted this information in July 2004. The U.S. will shortly finalize its 2005 submission to the UN Register and will promptly transmit a copy to the OAS in September 2005.

5. Participate in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and exchange this information with others

On an annual basis, the U.S. participates in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and transmits a copy of its submission to the OAS Secretary General, the Committee on Hemispheric Security, and Member States. Last year, the U.S. submitted this information in July 2004. The U.S. will shortly finalize its 2005 submission to the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and will promptly transmit a copy to the OAS in September 2005.

6. Develop common standardized methodologies for measuring defense expenditures among neighboring states

The U.S. supports universal participation in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and, as a complementary measures, sub-regional and bilateral efforts to provide increased transparency regarding military expenditures.

7. Develop and exchange defense policy and doctrine papers (Defense White Papers)

The U.S. annually transmits to the OAS General Secretariat and Member States a copy of the Secretary of Defense's" Annual Report to the President and Congress," which details the size, structure, and capabilities of the U.S. Armed Forces, as well as information on their deployment, and major military programs. In2004, the U.S. actively supported and participated in a workshop in Nicaragua focusing on the development of a Nicaraguan National Defense Whitepaper.

8. Exchange information on the functions, procedures, and institutional organization of the defense department and armed forces

The USSOUTHCOM Traditional Commanders Activities support this measure via the Defense and Military Contacts Program that include conferences and subject matter expert exchanges relating to this theme.

Examples are:

  • Non -Commissioned Officers Professional Development Seminar: Suriname
  • Planning Conferences for Regional Marine Corps: Colombia.
  • Southern Cone Countries 1st Legislative Forum in Security and Defense of South America: Uruguay
  • Third Annual Hemispheric Conference on Building Blocks of a Free Society-Roles of the Military Police: Partner Nations invited to US
  • Nicaraguan White Paper Development Workshop II: Nicaragua
  • Caribbean and Latin American Conference on Professional Education: Dominican Republic

The U.S. and Canada have several venues for the exchange of information on every facet of security and defense, including the CANUS Permanent Joint Board on Defense, the CANUS Military Cooperation Committee, political-military talks co-sponsored by the Department of State and Department of External Affairs, service staff talks, and the CANUSBi-National Planning Group.

9. Invite the Chair of the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security to observe joint exercises in the Western Hemisphere

The U.S. Permanent Mission to the OAS is working with USSOUTHCOM to identify an opportunity to invite the Chair of the CHS to observe a joint exercise during the coming year.

10. Establish, use, and exchange common procedures among units deployed in border regions

The Bi-National Planning Group and Joint Task Force-North are working to develop tactics, techniques, procedures, plans, and protocols for cooperative exercises and operations in situational awareness, surveillance, warning, interdiction, and consequence management along the CANUS border, both inland and in common maritime areas.

11. Consider establishing, as appropriate, mutual confidence or security zones in border areas

No activity to report.

12. Encourage necessary coordination among all OAS bodies and specialized agencies

Not applicable.

13. Intensify cooperation in increasing security for transport by land, sea, and air

The Department of Defense USSOUTHCOM Cooperating National Information Exchange System (CNIES) is designed to improve maritime and air traffic awareness by providing participating partner nations with real-time data on potential trafficking targets of interest. Currently, Belize, Rica, Ecuador, EI Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago receive CNIES data.

Partner nation liaison officers at the Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S), Key West, Florida, are integral staff members in countering the illicit trafficking threat. JIATF-S provides them information which they share with their home governments to effect law enforcement interdiction. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, EI Salvador, France, Mexico, the Netherlands, Peru, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela provide liaison officers to JIATF-S.

The U.S. and Canada are cooperating in several military and interagency arenas and venues to increase security of key transportation nodes, including harbors, ports, airports, personnel and cargo border-crossing points or entry and bridges over waterways between the U.S. and Canada. U.S. Navy and Coast Guard are working with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Canadian Forces Navy to monitor and protect maritime approaches to both nations.

14. Intensify cooperation in the fight against terrorism, drug interdiction, preventing illicit small arms and light weapons trafficking, combating piracy, preventing smuggling, search and rescue operations, and the protection of natural resources and archaeological goods

Partner nation liaison officers at the Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S), Key West, Florida, are integral staff members in countering the illicit trafficking threat. JIATF-S provides them actionable information which they share with their home governments to effect law enforcement interdiction. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, EI Salvador, France, Mexico, the Netherlands, Peru, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela provide liaison officers to JIATF-S.

Joint Task Force-North, in cooperation with Department of Homeland Security agencies, is engaging Canada on border security enhancement along the CANUS land border to address all transnational threats, i.e., terrorism, arms, human, and drug smuggling. One example is an enhancement effort on land and air surveillance along the border. The U.S. Coast Guard is doing, the same with the RCMP along the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway. The U.S. Navy and Coast Guard have been conducting operations with Canadian Forces Navy for maritime security for years. Canada is a full participant with the U.S. in the Proliferation Security Initiative to prevent proliferation of WMD into and through the Canadian and U.S. maritime approaches and territorial waters. The U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and Canadian Forces Navy routinely cooperate in search and rescue at sea.

15. Establish national points of contact regarding natural disaster response, environmental security, transportation security, and critical infrastructure protection

The U.S.-Canada Bi-National Planning Group has been facilitating the development and cultivation of personal contacts and exchanges between subject matter experts in man-made and natural disaster consequence management and critical infrastructure protection through its work in developing a bi-national military Civil Assistance Plan.

16. Exchange information on security issues, such as the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and the nonproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, within the framework of the UN and OAS

The U.S. provides to the UN detailed information on measures it has taken in support of the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects and UN Security Council Resolution 1540. The U.S. also provides copies of these reports to the OAS.

17. Identify excess stocks of small arms and light weapons as well as seized small arms and light weapons and define programs for the destruction of said weapons to be witnessed by international representatives

The U.S. Department of State and Department of Defense administer programs to assist other states to better manage and secure their stocks of small arms and light weapons. The U.S. also assists other states with the destruction of excess arms.

18. Enhance multilateral cooperation regarding issues that are identified by the small island states as concerns, threats, and challenges to their security

Two USSOUTHCOM endeavors help to support this measure:

  • Enduring Friendship: a developing program to establish partnership of willing nations working together to identify, monitor, and intercept transnational maritime threats under international and domestic law. Initial participating countries are: Dominican Republic, Panama, Bahamas, and Jamaica.
  • Trade winds Exercise: a regional engagement with the Caribbean nations as a joint and combined training exercise focusing on transnational threats. The objective of the exercise is to improve maritime and ground forces response to transnational threats.

19. Consider the following actions for early implementation aimed at enhancing the security- building capabilities of the small island states:

Establish a virtual private network to facilitate regional sharing of criminal intelligence and other relevant databases in the fight against terrorism;

USSOUTHCOM's Partner Nations Network (PNN) provides this capability. It is an unclassified but protected multinational web, collaboration and e-mail portal.

Share critical information among border control authorities to strengthen border control capacity in the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism;

Create joint training programs to allowing existing entities to meet new challenges;

Two USSOUTHCOM endeavors help to support this measure:

  • Trade winds Exercise is a joint and combined regional training exercise engagement with the Caribbean nations that focuses on transnational threats.
  • Fuerza Alliadas Humanitarian Exercise promotes interoperability among the regional and inter-regional organizations to conduct unilateral/multilateral humanitarian relief and disaster response operations.

Joint strategic planning and cooperation in the fight against these common threats

Two USSOUTHCOM endeavors help to support this measure:

  • Enduring Friendship: a developing program to establish a partnership of willing nations working together to identify, monitor, and intercept transnational maritime threats under international and domestic law. Initial participating countries: Dominican Republic. Panama, Bahamas, and, Jamaica.
  • Tradewinds Exercise: a regional engagement with the Caribbean nations as a joint and combined training exercise focusing on transnational threats. Objective is to improve maritime and ground forces response to transnational threats.

The U.S. Department of State funded the creation of the Organization of American States Information System (OASIS) to promote the sharing of relevant security information among Member States. OASIS can be used at any time.

20. Exchange and share information on the special security concerns of small island states.

USSOUTHCOM shares information with the small island states via subject matter expert exchanges provided by the USSOUTHCOM Traditional Commander's Activities. A total of eleven such events were held with these countries during Fiscal Year 2004 (October 1, 2003 to September 31, 2004).

Joint Interagency Task Force-South provides regional and tactical intelligence and information support to small island states that are partners in counterdrug operations.

21. Hold high-level hemispheric meetings to follow up the Second High-level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States

Nothing to report.

22. Cooperate closely to implement commitments agreed to at the 1998Transportation Ministerial, active participation at the July 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conference on the safety of transport of radioactive material

The United States participated actively in the July 2003 IAEA Conference, as did a number of other states in the Hemisphere. The Conference found inter alia that the safety record of radioactive material transport is excellent, and that all parties involved should continue to cooperate in ensuring that the excellent safety record is maintained. In connection with the latter finding, it recommended that informal discussions should continue among concerned states with IAEA involvement. The IAEA Secretariat convened a Technical Meeting in January2004 to develop an Action Plan based on the results of the 2003 Conference. The Action Plan, approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in March 2004, endorsed the 2003 Conference's call for informal dialogue between coastal and shipping states under the aegis of the lAEA, and requested that the lAEA Secretariat arrange a Seminar (now scheduled for October 2005) to discuss "complex technical issues" relating to transport safety. Pursuant to the Action Plan, interested states have engaged in informal dialogue on at least three occasions during 2004 and 2005, the most substantive of which, involving representatives from capitals, took place at lAEA headquarters in Vienna on July 11,2005. The United States took an active part, together with shipping states, UK, France and Japan, in informal discussions with coastal states that included Chile and Peru from the Hemisphere, as well as New Zealand and Ireland. The United States expects to remain engaged on this topic, and looks forward to participating in the October 2005 Seminar in Vienna.

23. Hold high-level meetings involving the ministries of defense and foreign affairs at the bilateral, subregional, and regional levels

The Office of the Secretary of Defense held ministerial-level meetings with counterparts in Argentina and Colombia during Fiscal Year 2004.

The Joint Staff conducted bilateral military talks with counterparts in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico during Fiscal Year 2004. These talks facilitate military-to-military relationships and further the exchange of information concerning defense policy and doctrines.

Canada and the U.S. currently hold high-level bi-lateral meetings and discussions between the U.S. State and Defense Departments and their Canadian counterparts. Additionally, Canadian and U.S security and defense issues are routinely addressed in the semi-annual meetings of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense and the CANUS Military Cooperation Committee

24. Conduct combined exercises between armed forces and/or public security forces

USSOUTHCOM conducted 16 joint exercises with Partner Nations during Fiscal Year 2004 (1 October 2003 -30 September2004). OAS member states that participated were Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, EI Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Suriname, and Uruguay.

Canada and the U.S. have been jointly exercising their respective military forces for decades through NATO, the North American Aerospace Defense Command, and service-to-service agreements.

25. Submit a comprehensive inventory of CSBMs annually to the OAS

The U.S. has regularly submitted a comprehensive report on its application of CSBMs to the OAS.

26. Exchange information on the organization, structure, size, and composition of defense and security forces

USSOUTHCOM hosts four annual subregional security conferences. These conferences bring together the chiefs of defense to build consensus on security issues. Through these conferences, SOUTHCOM fosters frank and candid dialogue among the chiefs of defense in each subregion-the Caribbean basin, Central America, Andean Ridge, and Southern Cone regarding regional security threats and ways to increase regional security.

Canada and the U.S. routinely and automatically share information on armed forces organization, structure, size and composition of defense and security forces through open disclosure norms as NATO members and North American Aerospace Defense Command partners.

27. Strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among police, law enforcement, and military authorities of neighboring states

The Department Cooperating National Information Exchange System (CNIES) is designed to improve maritime and air traffic awareness by providing participating partner nations with real-time data on potential trafficking targets of interest. Currently, Belize, Rica, Ecuador, EI Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago receive CNIES data.

The U.S. and Canada are expanding cooperation through defense support to civil authorities for law enforcement organization in both Canada and the U.S., largely through the efforts of the Bi-National Planning Group's investigation and planning with non-military interagency partners and embedded liaison staff in USNORTHCOM's interagency coordination directorate.

28. Promote dialogue among hemispheric legislators within existing/or on Confidence-Building Measures, including the exchange of visits and the convening of meetings

U.S. and Canadian militaries encourage contact and cooperation between the U.S. Congress and Canadian Parliament through legislative liaisons embedded in military headquarters and commands. Many exchanges between Congress and Parliament on matters of defense and security have occurred over the past 50 years, including CSBMs within the NATO and European context.

29. Recommend the possibility of holding a conference of hemispheric civil society representatives on Confidence-Building Measures and on matters of peace and hemispheric security, including the exchange of visits, in accordance with the Summit of the Americas process

When the U.S. hosted the 2003 Miami Experts Meeting on CSBMs, it actively encouraged civil society participation. During the Experts Meeting, civil society held its own session on CSBMs.

30. Extend to diplomatic training institutes, military academies, research centers, and universities the seminars, courses, and studies envisioned in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador on Confidence- and Security- Building Measures

This measure is supported by activities at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and the Western Hemispheric Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC).

  • CHDS is an educational institution created by the Department of Defense as a center of education for the Western Hemisphere. Its mission is to conduct education, research, outreach, and knowledge-sharing activities on defense and security policy with civilian and military defense and security leaders. 735 students from throughout the Hemisphere attended CHDS programs during Fiscal Year 2004.
  • WHINSEC is a Department of Defense educcation and training activity operated by the Department of the Army for military, law enforcement, and civilian personnel of the Western Hemisphere within the context of the OAS Charter to foster mutual knowledge, transparency, confidence, and cooperation and promoting democratic values, respect for human rights, and knowledge and understanding of U.S. customs and traditions. The resident curriculum includes mandatory instruction on human rights, the rule of law, due process, civilian control of the military, and the role of the military in a democratic society.

31. Encourage exchanges and contacts between students, academics, and experts in defense and security studies

International Military Education& Training (IMET) funds ($13,436,000in Fiscal Year 2004) allow Partner Nations to attend over 100U.S. military schools. These schools provide the skills required to sustain, strengthen. and expand multilateral security cooperation in the Hemisphere. Through this program over 5,000militaryand civilian personnel attended U.S. military education and training institutions in Fiscal Year 2004. Further details on the U.S. Government's Foreign Military Training Programs are contained in the attached excerpt from the Joint Report of the Departments of Defense and State accompanying this document.

USNORTHCOM participates in academic exchanges focusing on bi-national military, defense, and security matters with Canada. Recent examples include forums at the University of Montreal and Quebec, Duke University, and the University of North Carolina. The command also manages a robust Personnel Exchange Program of exchange officers with Canada at respective schools and military units.

32. Use the OAS Information System (OASIS) for the exchange of defense and security information, data, and communications

The U.S. is prepared to use OASIS along with other OAS member states.

33. Exchange and share experience and ideas on transparency and CSBMs with other regional security fora, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and the African Union (AU)

In 2004, the U.S. promoted the participation of other regional security fora in the First Meeting of the OAS Forum on CSBMs.

34. Implement the relevant aspects of the program Education for Peace in the Hemisphere (OAS CP/RES. 769/00)

The U.S. supports this effort by funding a variety of seminars at the Inter-American Defense College.

35. Continue consultations and the exchange of ideas to advance the limitation and control of conventional weapons in the region

USSOUTHCOM Traditional Commanders Activities help support this measure via the Defense and Military Contacts Program that include conferences and subject matter expert exchanges. Examples of such exchanges include:

  • USAF Explosive Ordinance Disposal team travels to EI Salvador
  • 12thAir Force Police Subject Matter Expert Exchange with Bolivia

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Mine Action program, executed by USSOUTHCOM, is closely coordinated with OAS activities. There are current missions in Chile, Peru. and Ecuador; previous missions were in Honduras and Nicaragua.

36. Consider cooperative activities that develop regional peacekeeping skills and capacity through common training, combined exercises, and exchange of information on peacekeeping

Two USSOUTHCOM endeavors support this measure:

  • Peacekeeping (PKO) North exercises are multinational staff exercises with emphases on multinational and regional cooperation; establishing regional PKO capability by addressing the Conference of Central American Armed Forces PKO battalion formation concept; and developing consensus on force structures for the multinational PKO battalion/brigade.
  • Peacekeeping (PKO) South exercises are regionally-oriented command post exercises involving military and civilian agencies in South America and the United States. The exercises enhance military-to military contacts and promote regional cooperation and engagement.

37. Increase cooperation in accordance with the guidelines of the Inter-American Committee on Natural Disaster Reduction and to mitigate the consequences of such disasters

The U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Office of Federal Disaster Assistance (OFDA) spearheads extensive cooperation efforts to mitigate natural disasters.

OFDA's annual report can be found at: http://www.usaid.gov/ourwork/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/publications/annualreports/index.html