AG/RES. 2809 (XLIII-O/13) Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach

Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
June 6, 2013


(Adopted at the fourth plenary session, held on June 6, 2013)

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

HAVING SEEN the Annual Report of the Permanent Council to the General Assembly (AG/doc.5358/13 add. 1) as it relates to the activities of the Committee on Hemispheric Security (CSH);

RECALLING the resolutions assigned to the CSH as detailed in the document “List of Resolutions Assigned to the Committee on Hemispheric Security (1995-2012)” (CP/CSH/INF.278/11 rev. 2);

REAFFIRMING that the programs, activities, and tasks set out in the resolutions on hemispheric security help further one of the essential purposes of the Organization enshrined in the Charter of the Organization of American States, to strengthen peace and security in the Hemisphere, in accordance with the legal system of each country and respecting international law, and that cooperation among member states is fundamental for the attainment of that goal;

REAFFIRMING ALSO the provisions of the Declaration on Security in the Americas, adopted in Mexico City in October 2003, which provides that the “new concept of security in the Hemisphere is multidimensional in scope, includes traditional and new threats, concerns, and other challenges to the security of the states of the Hemisphere, incorporates the priorities of each state, contributes to the consolidation of peace, integral development, and social justice, and is based on democratic values, respect for and promotion and defense of human rights, solidarity, cooperation, and respect for national sovereignty”;

WELCOMING the commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Declaration on Security in the Americas in 2013, the preparations being made for it at meetings of the Permanent Council, and the protocolary ceremony to be conducted in Mexico in October 2013;

REAFFIRMING the importance of adopting policies, programs, and actions to prevent and address violence, crime, and insecurity;

REAFFIRMING ALSO the norms and principles of international law in the Charter of the Organization of American States and the Charter of the United Nations;

EMPHASIZING that the consolidation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone set forth in the Treaty of Tlatelolco constitutes a firm demonstration of the steadfast commitment of Latin America and the Caribbean to the cause of complete and verifiable nuclear disarmament and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, in keeping with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations;

UNDERSCORING the importance of the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC), and the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism;

NOTING WITH SATISFACTION that the Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines deposited its instrument of ratification of the CIFTA on August 17, 2012, an important demonstration of its commitment to combating firearms trafficking at the hemispheric level;

HAVING SEEN the reports of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) (CP/doc.4862/13 rev. 2), the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE) (CP/doc.4848/13), and the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) (CP/doc.4853/13);

WELCOMING WITH SATISFACTION resolution CP/RES. 1014 (1915/13), which convenes the Fourth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA-IV), to be held in Medellín, Colombia, on November 21 and 22, 2013;

EXPRESSING SATISFACTION at the Third Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons, held in Guatemala City, Guatemala, on October 15 and 16, 2012; the fifty-second regular session of CICAD, held in San Jose, Costa Rica, from November 28 to 30, 2012; the fifth meeting of the Forum on Confidence- and Security-building Measures, held on February 28, 2013; the meeting of National Points of Contact of the CITAAC, held on March 1, 2013; the eleventh meeting of National Points of Contact to CICTE, held on March 7, 2013; the thirteenth regular session of CICTE, held on March 8, 2013; the fourth meeting of the Technical Group on Transnational Organized Crime, held on March 11, 2013; the sixth meeting of the OAS Group of Experts to Prepare Model Legislation in the Areas to Which the CIFTA Refers, held on April 24, 2013; the fourteenth regular meeting of the Consultative Committee of CIFTA, held on April 25, 2013; and the fifty-third regular session of CICAD, held from May 20 to 22, 2013; and

BEARING IN MIND the results of the above-mentioned conferences and meetings,

RESOLVES:

I. ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE ON HEMISPHERIC SECURITY AND MEMBER STATES

1. To reaffirm to the Permanent Council and to the General Secretariat the applicable mandates contained in past resolutions of the General Assembly on hemispheric security and mentioned in the preambular part of this resolution; and to urge member states to continue contributing to the attainment of the objectives established in said resolutions through the development and execution of activities, the submission of reports, the exchange of information, the adoption of measures and policies, and cooperation, support, and mutual assistance; and to instruct the General Secretariat to provide necessary support to those ends.

2. To instruct the Permanent Council to continue, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security (CSH) and pursuant to the mandates in this resolution, participating in, holding consultations with, and sharing experiences and information with other regional and international forums.

3. To recognize the central role of the CSH in security and defense matters in the framework of the Organization of American States (OAS), and to instruct the Permanent Council to continue, through the CSH, to promote and coordinate cooperation among the organs, agencies, and entities of the Organization.

Execution of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime and strengthening of hemispheric cooperation

4. To declare that the Technical Group on Transnational Organized Crime established by resolution CP/RES. 908 (1567/06) has completed its work.

5. To convene in the first half of 2014 a two-day meeting of national authorities on transnational organized crime to address execution of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime and effective cooperation among member states.

6. To establish a specific fund to implement the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime in accordance with Chapter IV, paragraph 2 of the Hemispheric Plan of Action, under the administration of the General Secretariat and open to voluntary contributions from member states as well as from permanent observers and international organizations.

7. To ask the OAS General Secretariat to provide its full support in for implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime, cooperation among the member states, and the meeting of national authorities mentioned in operative paragraph 5 of this resolution, and to urge the Secretary General to consider, among other measures, the internal reorganization of the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security and the Secretariat for Legal Affairs in order to more effectively support member states and the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime.

8. To invite member states to use the Hemispheric Network for Legal Cooperation on Criminal Matters among our countries to share relevant information on transnational organized crime and to invite the international community to contribute financially to the Network.

9. To request the Permanent Council to continue, through the CSH, its consideration of the issue of transnational organized crime and to determine the best way to advance analysis of future structures to address the issue.

Future of the mission and functions of the instruments and components of the inter-American defense system

10. To take into account the dialogue of the CSH held pursuant to resolution AG/RES. 2632 (XLI-O/11), the recommendations of the Ninth and Tenth Conferences of Ministers of Defense of the Americas, and resolution AG/RES. 2735 (XLII-O/12).

11. To instruct the Permanent Council to follow up the outcomes of this dialogue, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security, by considering in the 2013-2014 term relations between the OAS and the hemispheric defense meetings, the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB), and measures to promote cooperation. New topics may be included in the future.

Confidence- and security-building in the Americas

12. To continue to encourage and implement confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) in keeping with the provisions of the Declaration of San Salvador on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, the Declaration of San Salvador and Santiago on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, the Consensus of Miami, and the Declaration on Security in the Americas, urging all member states to furnish the General Secretariat, by July 15 of each year at the latest, with information on the application of CSBMs, utilizing the Consolidated List of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures for Reporting according to OAS Resolutions (CP/CSH-1043/08 rev. 1) and the Format for Reporting on the Application of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSH/FORO-IV/doc.7/10).

13. To endorse the Chairman’s Conclusions (CSH/FORO-V/doc.9/13) from the fifth meeting of the Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures held in Washington, D.C., on February 28, 2013,

14. To request the OAS General Secretariat, in consultations with the IADB[1]/ and other OAS entities that it deems appropriate, to develop an electronic template for online annual reporting of CSBMs undertaken by member states using the abovementioned Consolidated List.

15. To request the OAS General Secretariat to continue improving access to OAS websites and those of its entities devoted to CSBMs, and updating the catalogue of member states’ reports on CSBMs to include the years 1992 to 1995.

16. To convene the sixth meeting of the Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures in 2015 to review and evaluate existing CSBMs and to discuss, consider, and propose additional measures.

Hemispheric efforts to combat trafficking in persons

17. To endorse the “Conclusions of the Third Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons” (RTP-III/doc.7/12), in particular:

a. the extension until the year 2015 of the Work Plan against Trafficking in Persons in the Western Hemisphere (CP/CSH-1155/09 rev. 11) as a frame of reference to guide the actions of the member states and of the General Secretariat in its efforts to assist member states in preventing and criminalizing trafficking in persons and in assisting and protecting the victims of trafficking;

b. to convene the Fourth Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons in the first half of 2015, with a view to reviewing and evaluating the Work Plan against Trafficking in Persons in the Western Hemisphere; and

c. to request the General Secretariat to assist with the preparation of and follow-up to the aforementioned meeting.

Follow-up to the Special Conference on Security

18. To instruct the Permanent Council to continue with the dialogue planned for its thematic meetings for the commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Declaration on Security in the Americas, promoting the participation of member states, scholars, specialized entities, and civil society, with a view to analyzing progress in its implementation. In addition, to invite member states to take part in the protocolary ceremony to be hosted by the Government of Mexico in October 2013 to mark that anniversary.

Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas

19. To instruct the General Secretariat to continue providing technical assistance and training to the member states that so request for the implementation of the Work Plan of the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security to Guide the Implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action to Follow up on the Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas 2013-2015.

20. To invite member states, permanent observers, and the international community to make voluntary contributions for carrying out the above Work Plan.

21. To include follow-up on the implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action to Follow up on the Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas on the CSH’ calendar of activities for the 2014-2015 term.

22. To include violence and crime prevention as an item on the CSH agenda for the 2013-2014 term.

23. To instruct the General Secretariat to continue supporting member states’ initiatives to prevent and comprehensively address different forms and specific manifestations of violence and to keep the CSH informed about all proposed and ongoing initiatives.

24. To request that the General Secretariat promote violence and crime prevention measures to accompany law enforcement efforts, and that it provide, when so requested by member states, technical and legal assistance to train and raise the awareness of government authorities, within the framework of domestic laws, in preventing and combating all manifestations of violence and crime with a gender perspective.

The Americas as an antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone [2]/

25. To renew its support for the efforts of member states to rid their territories of antipersonnel land mines, destroy their stockpiles, and convert the Americas into the world’s first antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone.

26. To acknowledge the support demonstrated by 33 member states of the Hemisphere through their ratification of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (Ottawa Convention); to encourage governments to continue working in the area of mine action in accordance with the Ottawa Convention, their mine action plans, and available resources; and to urge states that have not yet done so to ratify or consider acceding to the Ottawa Convention as soon as possible to ensure its full and effective implementation.

27. To urge those States Parties that requested extensions under Article 5 of the Ottawa Convention to make every effort necessary to comply with their obligations within the periods established.

28. To urge the member states, permanent observers, international organizations, and the international community to consider strengthening their technical and financial support for the Program for Comprehensive Action against Antipersonnel Mines (AICMA) and demining programs carried out by member states in their respective territories, and to continue cooperating on projects to assist comprehensive action against antipersonnel mines, including humanitarian demining, victim assistance, mine-risk and prevention education, and socioeconomic reclamation of demined areas to contribute to the development of communities.

29. To firmly condemn, in accordance with the principles and norms of international humanitarian law, the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices by non-state actors, especially illegal armed groups in Colombia and Peru, which acts put at grave risk the population of the affected countries; and to strongly call upon non-state actors to observe the international norm established by the Ottawa Convention to facilitate progress toward a mine-free world.

30. To invite all States Parties to the Ottawa Convention to fulfill the commitments assumed in the Cartagena Declaration: A Shared Commitment for a Mine-free World; to implement the Cartagena Action Plan 2010-2014: Ending the suffering caused by anti-personnel mines; and to participate in the Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties to the Ottawa Convention, to be held in Geneva, Switzerland, from December 2 to 6, 2013.

31. To acknowledge the support of the AICMA for the accreditation and monitoring of civil society organizations that wish to engage in humanitarian demining activities in Colombia; and to recognize the efforts made by Colombia to further develop rules and regulations to allow activities of this type to be carried out in tandem with the work being done by the Humanitarian Demining Battalion.

32. To recognize and express support for the work of Colombia and Ecuador as co-chairs of the Ottawa Convention Standing Committees on Victim Assistance and on Resources, Cooperation, and Assistance, respectively.

33. To promote, within the framework of the domestic laws of each state, the social inclusion of victims of antipersonnel mines through the creation of educational and employment opportunities, by the public and private sectors of the Hemisphere.

34. To underscore and acknowledge the model of South-South cooperation that Peru and Ecuador have been implementing in the humanitarian demining process on their common land border. Also, to note with satisfaction the formulation and adoption of a Binational Humanitarian Demining Manual and the establishment of a Binational Humanitarian Demining Unit, which will be made available to the United Nations to be used in peacekeeping operations.

35. To note its gratitude for the cooperation that the AICMA provides to member states in the demining process as well as in the delivery of medical care to victims. Similarly, to note its gratitude for the support given by the Assistance Mission for Mine Clearance in South America (MARMINAS) through its participation with observers and provision of training.

Meetings of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas

36. To request the Permanent Council to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth regular session on the Fourth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas.

Special Security Concerns of the Small Island States of the Caribbean

37. To express satisfaction with the successful outcome of the Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of the Small Island States of the Caribbean held within the framework of the CSH in Washington, D.C., on April 22, 2013.

38. To acknowledge the recommendations put forward by the Caribbean member states in the document “Background and Recommendations for Advancing Cyber-Security in the Caribbean” (CP/CSH-1500/13), which was presented at the above meeting of the CSH.

39. To instruct the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) to accede to the request of the small island states of the Caribbean to conduct a study on the possible components of a cyber-defense strategy for the small island states of the Caribbean that request it and to present to those member states options for a cyber-defense system in keeping with the IADB Statutes.2/

40. To encourage the General Secretariat, through the SMS, to continue collaborating with the CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) on security-related issues.

41. To instruct the Permanent Council to continue making progress on those issues that have an impact on the security of the small island states of the Caribbean. In that regard, to continue convening the annual meeting on the special security concerns of the small island states of the Caribbean, re-emphasizing that their peculiar characteristics as small, fragile economies with scarce resources render these states particularly vulnerable and susceptible to the effects of the myriad forms of transnational organized crime and other insecurities.

II. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

42. To urge member states that have not already done so to give prompt consideration to ratifying or acceding to, as the case may be, the Inter-American Convention Against the illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA) and the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC).

43. To request the Secretary General to present to the Permanent Council prior to the forty-fourth regular session of the General Assembly a report on the status of signatures and ratifications of, and accessions to, the CIFTA and the CITAAC.

44. To take note of the recent adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty and to invite member states to consider its signature and ratification.[3]/ [4]/

Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA)

45. To encourage the States Parties to the CIFTA to implement the Course of Action 2012-2016 for the Operation and Implementation of the CIFTA adopted by the Third Conference of States Parties to the CIFTA, held at the headquarters of the General Secretariat of the OAS on May 14 and 15, 2012.

46. To encourage the General Secretariat to create synergies in actions adopted against the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, explosives, ammunition and related materials and to streamline efforts between the Technical Secretariat of the CIFTA and the entities, organs, mechanisms, processes, strategies, and action plans of the OAS with mandates in areas envisaged in the CIFTA.

47. To convene, within the framework of the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA, the seventh meeting of the OAS Group of Experts to Prepare Model Legislation in the Areas to Which the CIFTA Refers, as a two-day event to be held during the first quarter of 2014 at the headquarters of the OAS General Secretariat in order to continue consideration of the draft Model Legislation and Commentaries on Security Measures to Eliminate Loss and Diversion, in accordance with Article VIII of the CIFTA, as well as the draft Model Legislation and Commentaries on Record-Keeping, Confidentiality, and Exchange of Information, in accordance with Articles XI, XII, and XIII of the CIFTA.

48. To establish a working group within the framework of the CIFTA Consultative Committee to evaluate the draft harmonized standards for marking firearms in the region, prepared by the Technical Secretariat, and to present its recommendations and contributions thereon at the fifteenth regular meeting of the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA.

49. To convene the fifteenth regular meeting of the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA, pursuant to Article XXI of the CIFTA, as a one-day event to be held during the first half of 2014 at the headquarters of the OAS General Secretariat, and to request the Technical Secretariat to provide support for the preparations for and follow-up to this activity, and that it be included in the budget for programmed meetings.

50. To instruct the CIFTA Technical Secretariat to use and expand the existing secure networks of experts of the member states in order to hold, or encourage the participation of those experts in, online meetings, as well as to exchange information, analytical documents, and national legislation, using electronic media.

51. To cooperate in efforts at the regional level to prevent, combat, and eliminate the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, ammunition, explosives, and other related materials, given the threat that such activities can pose to peace, security, stability, and hemispheric development.

Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC)

52. To reaffirm the commitment to the principles contained in the CITAAC and the commitment assumed in the Declaration of Punta del Este, adopted at the X Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas, to promote universal participation in and full implementation of said Convention.

53. To welcome with satisfaction the Consolidated Annual Report for 2012 prepared by the SMS and to request said Secretariat to do the same for 2013.

54. To urge States Parties to submit in a timely fashion annual reports and notifications in compliance with their obligations under Articles III and IV of the CITAAC, and to identify before July 1 of each year national points of contact to contribute to the preparation of notifications and annual reports.

55. To ask the General Secretariat to contact the non-member states of the Organization so that they may contribute to the objective of the CITAAC by providing information annually to the General Secretariat on their exports of conventional weapons to States Parties to the CITAAC, in accordance with Article V thereof.

56. To convene the Second Conference of States Parties to the Convention, in accordance with Article VIII of the CITAAC and AG/RES. 2552 (XL-O/10), at a place and date to be decided by the Permanent Council, and to request that the General Secretariat budget for the above conference and its two one-day preparatory meetings and that it support preparations for and follow-up on said conference.

57. To request the General Secretariat to continue coordinating with the IADB on the collaboration it is to provide with a view to full implementation of the CITAAC,2 in keeping with operative paragraph 15 of resolution AG/RES. 2631 (XLI-O/11).

III. OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE ORGANS, AGENCIES, AND ENTITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION (ARTICLE 91.F OF THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES)

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)

58. To encourage member states to follow the guidelines in the Hemispheric Drug Strategy and its Plan of Action on Drugs 2011-2015, whose evaluation and monitoring is the responsibility of CICAD through ad hoc instruments, the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), and other tools that it identifies.

59. To express appreciation for the work of the Inter-Governmental Working Group (IWG) of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), headed by Costa Rica and Mexico, and to take note with satisfaction of the proposed Evaluation Instrument for the Sixth Round of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) (CICAD/doc.1977/12), approved by CICAD at its fifty-second regular session held in San Jose, Costa Rica in November 2012, and to encourage the designation of national experts to form part of the Governmental Expert Group (GEG) and their full participation during the new round.

60. To urge member states to continue strengthening national, bilateral, subregional, regional, and international demand reduction plans and programs, particularly in the areas of prevention and treatment, in order to guarantee a comprehensive and balanced approach to the world drug problem, given that drug abuse represents a social and health problem for the Hemisphere.

61. To recommend that member states continue their efforts to adopt or improve comprehensive and balanced measures aimed at reducing the availability of the illicit supply of drugs.

62. To recommend that member states strengthen the capacity of their national drug authorities to develop, implement, and coordinate national drug policies, including the active participation of key public sectors, and promote, where appropriate, the collaboration of civil society actors in the process of designing, implementing, and updating national drug policies in this area.

63. To invite member states to explore mechanisms to offer treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration to drug-dependent individuals, as appropriate, as alternative measures to incarceration, including, inter alia, the drug treatment court model.

64. To urge member states to continue the design and implementation of strategies and specific programs that are centered on the welfare of individuals and their communities in order to confront the world drug problem with an approach based on social integration, human rights, health and comprehensive development.

65. To recommend that member states strengthen their drug information networks in the context of the functions of national drug observatories or similar technical offices, particularly in light of the increasing presence of new psychoactive substances, abuse of prescription drugs, and the need for early detection.

66. To endorse the CICAD Executive Secretariat’s work plan for 2013, in accordance with the CICAD statutes and in line with the Hemispheric Drug Strategy and its Plan of Action on Drugs 2011-2015, and to instruct the Executive Secretariat to carry out the corresponding activities and to continue providing technical support for capacity-building in member states in line with that work plan.

67. To instruct the General Secretariat to continue providing the CICAD Executive Secretariat with the necessary support, and to encourage member states, permanent observers, and other international donors to continue making voluntary contributions so that the Secretariat can continue implementing its mandates.

68. To recognize the importance of the central theme of the forty-third regular session of the OAS General Assembly “For a Comprehensive Policy against the World Drug Problem in the Americas” and its contribution to the debate on the world drug problem.

69. To express satisfaction with the Professional Exchange Program being offered by the CICAD Executive Secretariat, and to encourage member states to continue to participate by presenting candidates for each term.

Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE)

70. To reaffirm the commitments made in the Declaration “Strengthening Hemispheric Cooperation to Counter the Financing of Terrorism and Money Laundering” adopted by the member states of the CICTE at its thirteenth regular session held in Washington, D.C., on March 8, 2013, and to encourage member states to comply with the commitments contained therein, including the CICTE Work Plan for 2013.

71. To instruct the General Secretariat to continue providing the CICTE Secretariat with necessary support to ensure continuity in the implementation of its mandates, including support for convening and holding the fourteenth regular session of CICTE, scheduled to take place at the headquarters of the General Secretariat of the OAS in Washington, D.C., from February 19 to 21, 2014; the twelfth meeting of National Points of Contact of CICTE to be held in conjunction with that regular session; and the three one-day meetings to be held on October 21, November 11, and December 2, 2013, at the headquarters of the OAS General Secretariat.

72. To request the Chair of CICTE to report to the General Assembly, at its forty-fourth regular session, on the implementation of the mandates contained in the CICTE Work Plan.

Inter-American Defense Board (IADB)

73. To request the IADB to continue reporting to the CSH on its analysis and review of technical assistance, educational, and consultancy services that the IADB2/ can provide to member states in accordance with its Statutes, and to submit a report to the CSH by December each year.

74. To invite those member states that deem it appropriate to consider continuing to provide the IADB2/ with the necessary financial and human resources to support the institution and to promote the academic training of military and civilian officials by the Inter-American Defense College.

75. To encourage the IADB2/ to continue strengthening its communication and linkage with ministries of defense of the Hemisphere, with a view to continuing to provide advisory services on military and defense matters to the OAS.

76. To request the IADB, 2/ in accordance with its Statutes and in coordination with the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, to conduct the following activities:

a. To continue promoting the participation of civilian authorities and officials responsible for defense matters and to promote civilian-military relations, as a complement to the educational services offered by the IADB in this field; and to make recommendations to the CSH by December each year;

b. To support the SMS in hosting the sixth meeting of the Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and make recommendations on how to improve the implementation of these measures; and

c. To continue to attend the hemispheric armed services conferences, including the Conference of American Armies (CAA), the Inter-American Naval Conference (IANC), and the System of Cooperation among Air Forces of the Americas (SICOFAA), and report on their proceedings to the CSH.

IV. FOLLOW-UP AND REPORTING

77. To instruct the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security to submit in due course its 2013-2014 plan of activities for consultations or proper oversight by the member states.

78. To request the Permanent Council to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth regular session on the implementation of this resolution. Execution of the activities envisaged in this resolution will be subject to the availability of financial resources in the program-budget of the Organization and other resources.

 FOOTNOTES

1. … that are concerned with defense issues, given their origins, nature, scope, objectives, and performance.

The international context in which the entities concerned with defense issues in the Americas were conceived is long gone. The hemispheric relations that grew out of the Second World War and the Cold War were based on the now-defunct interventionist doctrine of national security and the principle of collective self-defense.

In Latin America and the Caribbean, we have consolidated our democracies and the full operation of the principles of sovereignty, independence, and non-intervention in our internal affairs. Accordingly, our countries reject any attempt at intervention and interference by global hegemonic powers.

The vision and execution of defense policy has moved beyond the militaristic, to submit to legally constituted civilian authority and to respect for the rule of law in all sectors of society, the very ones that consolidate the democratic institutional system in our states.

For its part, the inter-American system has not kept pace with regional political development but has kept old structures that must, without delay, adapt to the changing times in the Hemisphere.

We therefore demand that the IADB’s activities be strictly confined to the mandates provided for in Article 3 of the Statutes.

2. … on an ongoing basis a variety of preventive actions in the face of threats to security, in particular those stemming from all aspects of crime.

In this connection, Nicaragua shares and supports the efforts made and initiatives taken in the regional and hemispheric framework. However, with regard to initiatives to strengthen the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB), Nicaragua considers that the historical context that led to the emergence of the IADB is different from the present realities in our states.

Nicaragua does not agree that the IADB should intervene in matters of a military or other nature that might undermine the sovereignty, independence, institutional system, and legal order of the country.

3. … Additionally, the United States’ comprehensive review of its antipersonnel landmine policy is ongoing.

4. … Ammunition, Explosives and Related Materials (Law 510), which regulates the control and registration of firearms in the possession of the civilian population, including the seizure of weapons of war. Nicaragua continues to be committed to multilateralism. However, in respect of the Arms Trade Treaty recently adopted by the United Nations, Nicaragua did not accept it because it lacks a ban on the transfer of arms to non-State actors and does not address those states that commit crimes of aggression against other states and which pursue a policy of threats and the use of force.

5. … does not alter the position expressed by the States when said instrument was adopted.



[1]. The Government of Nicaragua attaches high priority to security in all its dimensions and, given the crosscutting nature of security, takes a comprehensive approach to it, taking …

[2]. The United States will continue to support OAS efforts to eliminate the humanitarian threat of all remaining landmines and declare countries “mine-impact-free.” …

[3]. With a view to preventing and combating illicit arms trafficking, the Government of Nicaragua adopted the Special Law for the Control and Regulation of Firearms, …

[4]. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela state that the inclusion of the reference to the Arms Trade Treaty in this resolution…