U.S. Report on the Application of Confidence and Security Building Measures for 2005-2006

November 21, 2006

Permanent Council of the Organization of American States
Committee on Hemispheric Security
27 November 2006

Information Presented Pursuant to Operative Paragraph 3 of General Assembly Resolution Ag/Res. 2113 (XXXV-O/05), “Transparency And Confidence- And Security-Building In The Americas”

Operative paragraph 3: Application of confidence and security-building measures (United States)

No. 145-B



The United States Permanent Mission transmits to the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States a copy of its report on U.S. implementation of confidence and security building measures (CSBMs), as called for in OAS Resolutions AG/RES. 2113(XXXV-O/05) paragraph 3 and AG/RES. 2246 (XXXVI-O/06) paragraph 1.d. This information is provided as a transparency and confidence building measure.

Enclosure: 2005-2006 U.S. Report on Implementation of CSBMs
United States Permanent Mission to the Organization of American States
Washington, D.C
November 21, 2006
United States Report to the OAS on the Application of Confidence and Security Building Measures for 2005 and 2006 AG/RES. 2113 (XXXV-O/05) and AG/RES. 2246 (XXXVI-O/06)

November 21, 2006


The U.S. strongly supports the adoption and implementation of measures identified in the Declarations of Santiago, San Salvador and Miami on Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs). This report is based on the measures identified at the Summit-Mandated Experts’ Meeting on CSBM held in Miami, Florida in 2003. The Miami CSBMs list consolidates all of the measures identified in previous OAS high-level meetings on CSBMs. In addition, on June 21, 2005 the U.S. provided to the OAS its revised list of experts on CSBMs for inclusion in the OAS Roster of Experts (CP/CSH-724/05).


1. Notification and observance of joint exercises and routine operations.

U.S. Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) conducted 15 joint exercises involving approximately 6,000 U.S. Forces and 12,000 Partner Nation personnel. Participating countries included: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay.

U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) invited Mexican defense officials to observe several exercises that demonstrated the Command’s operational priorities and the training methods the command employs. Canada and the U.S. have been conducting joint and combined exercises since entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Aerospace defense exercises have been routinely scheduled and conducted through the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). During the past year, USNORTHCOM initiated coordination with the newly created Canada Command for exercises and routine operations. USNORTHCOM, NORAD, and Canada Command participated in Ardent Sentry 2006, which is a homeland security exercise.

2. Defense visit programs to defense installations and military academies.

USSOUTHCOM supported this measure by sponsoring school and orientation visits to various defense installations, including HQ USSOUTHCOM, component headquarters, major medical centers, and service academies. These visits were conducted from senior-level to cadet-level. Activities included:

  • Dominican Republic Chief of Defense visit to Joint Interagency Task Force-South
  • Salvadoran Air Force Academy visit to U.S. Air Force Academy
  • Argentine National War College visit to HQ USSOUTHCOM and Washington, DC

U.S. Marine Corps Forces, South (MARFORSOUTH) supported USSOUTHCOM’s Theater Security Cooperation Program (TSCP) by arranging several visits to U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) installations during FY 2006. Members of the armed forces from Panama, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile visited a wide range of USMC sites and activities, including Marine Corps Base Quantico, The Basic School, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Systems Command, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Marine Corps Security Forces Battalion, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina.

U.S. Coast Guard training and technical assistance teams provided Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago with training, including nearly 40 mobile training iterations. Subjects taught included skills for small boat operations, maritime enforcement, port security, leadership and professional military education.

The U.S. Navy and Air Force also sponsor military visits and military personnel exchange programs.

In FY 2006, the U. S. Government (USG) hosted Academic Visits to military installations in Norfolk, Key West, San Antonio and Colorado Springs. The visits involved briefings and panels from the Air Force, Navy, Joint Forces Command, Coast Guard, Special Forces, USNORTHCOM, and USSOUTHCOM.

3. Exchange of civilian and military personnel for both regular and advanced training.

USSOUTHCOM sponsored 120 Subject Matter Expert Exchanges (SMEE) in FY 2006. These exchanges included a variety of subjects, including:

  • Non-Commissioned Officer Leadership and Development--Trinidad and Tobago
  • Amphibious Assault Vehicle Maintenance--Brazil
  • Counterdrug Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield--Multiple Countries
  • Peacekeeping Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures--Peru

USSOUTHCOM also sponsored four unit exchanges/small unit familiarization programs to enhance military training and professional growth. Three platoon exchanges were conducted with Brazil, Chile, and El Salvador. USSOUTHCOM coordinated training for over 2,000 students, at a cost of nearly $13 million, through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) Program, and 600 students, at a cost of $2.75 million, through the Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP). There are 36 U.S. personnel serving in Personnel Exchange Program billets throughout the USSOUTHCOM Area of Responsibility.

USNORTHCOM also conducted several SMEE in FY 2006 focusing particularly on information sharing, discussing measures to counter transnational threats near our borders, technical exchanges pertaining to aircraft and ship maintenance, and related subjects. Canada and the United States have a robust exchange program with instructor billets in formal professional military education and training institutions, to include the senior staff colleges of both nations.

4. Participate in the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, including the provision and exchange of information on national production of conventional arms.

On an annual basis, the U.S. participates in the UN Register of Conventional Arms and transmits a copy of its submission to the OAS Secretary General, the Committee on Hemispheric Security, and Member States. Last year, the U.S. submitted its report to the OAS on April 11, 2005 (CP/CSH-656/04 add 1 (4 May 2005). In 2006, the U.S. submitted its reports on November 20, 2006.

5. Participate in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military expenditures and exchange this information with others.

On an annual basis, the he U.S. participates in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and transmits a copy of its submission to the OAS Secretary General, the Committee on Hemispheric Security, and Member States. Last year, the U.S. submitted its report to the OAS on April 11, 2005 (CP/CSH-656/04 add 1 (29 June 2005)). In 2006, the U.S. submitted its reports on July 26, 2006.

6. Develop common standardized methodologies for measuring defense expenditures among neighboring states.

The U.S. supports universal participation in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and, as complementary measures, sub-regional and bilateral efforts to provide increased transparency regarding military expenditures.

7. Develop and exchange defense policy and doctrine papers (Defense White Papers)

USSOUTHCOM actively supports and participates in a number of activities designed to assist in the development and exchange of defense policy and doctrine papers. Activities in FY 2006 included:

  • Caribbean Defense and Security Course--a regional event executed in Jamaica
  • National Security Planning Workshops--executed in El Salvador, Honduras, and Costa Rica
  • Advanced Policy Seminar--executed by the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) in Washington DC, with invitees from all countries in the region.

The U.S. annually transmitted to the OAS General Secretariat and Member States a copy of the Secretary of Defense’s “Annual Report to the President and Congress,” which details the size, structure, and capabilities of the U.S. Armed Forces, as well as information on their deployment, and major military programs. Through this report the US now provides a direct website link to the report. The 2005 Annual Report to the President and Congress can be found at:http://www.dod.mil/execsec/adr2005.pdf

8. Exchange information on the functions, procedures, and institutional organization of the defense department and armed forces.

USSOUTHCOM hosts annual conferences to allow Chiefs of Defense from each sub-region to meet and exchange ideas.

USNORTHCOM invited senior Mexican military officers to visit the U.S. to exchange information on the roles, missions, and organization of the Department of Defense (DoD). Senior NORTHCOM officers visited their Mexican and Canadian counterparts to learn the same of the Mexican forces and the recently created Canada Command. Joint Task Force-North hosted members of the Mexican media and Mexican military, and participated in the U.S.-Mexico Bilateral Interdiction Working Group (BIWG) and border conferences, which helped exchange information on the functions, procedures, and institutional organization of the defense departments and armed forces of all participants.

Information exchanges occur on several levels between Canada and the United States. The Ogdensburg Declaration created the Permanent Joint Board on Defense (PJBD), which has provided strategic advice on defense issues for Canada and the U.S. for over 65 years. In February 2006, Mexican officials were observers at the PJBD for the first time.

The U.S. Army Foreign Attaché program provides support to foreign military attaches residing in Washington, DC and accredited to the U.S. Army. The program includes official accreditation and farewell of attaches, extension of military privileges based upon reciprocity and existing agreements, execution of the Military Attaches Orientation Trip Program, and execution of two annual receptions that give foreign military attaches access to the senior Army leadership.

The Army also offers a Foreign Liaison Officer (FLO) Program that facilitates cooperation and mutual understanding between the U.S. Army and armies of allied and friendly nations. The program’s mission is to identify opportunities for training and mutual collaboration, and to support expert exchanges, VIP visits, and information exchange in the areas of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities. The Military Personnel Exchange Program also fosters understanding and appreciation for the policies and doctrines of each country’s armed services.

9. Invite the Chair of the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security to observe joint exercises in the Western Hemisphere.

USNORTHCOM and USSOUTHCOM will work with the U.S. Permanent Mission to the OAS to identify an appropriate opportunity to invite the Chairman of the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security to observe joint exercises hosted by USNORTHCOM and USSOUTHCOM as part of their outreach programs.

10. Establish, use, and exchange common procedures among units deployed in border regions.

USNORTHCOM’s Joint Task Force-North (JTF-N) opened initial discussions with the Mexican military concerning increased information-sharing along our border to counter transnational threats. JTF-N also provides Mobile Training Teams (MTT) to U.S. and Mexican law enforcement agencies that focus on improving information-sharing and common procedures.

Canada and the U.S. regularly establish, use, and exchange common procedures among units assigned to NORAD, which is focused upon aerospace operations. In addition, USNORTHCOM and Canada Command have exchanged liaison officers and begun discussions on how to improve cooperation. In March 2006, the Bi-National Planning Group produced a Final Report on Enhanced Military Cooperation, which provides 36 recommendations that support establishment and use of common procedures between Canada and the U.S.

11. Consider establishing, as appropriate, mutual confidence or security zones in border areas.

USSOUTHCOM is actively pursuing cooperation on border security with Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia. Initiatives include fielding compatible small unit radios and potential infrastructure to support border security. The U.S. Army also conducts a Border Commanders’ Conference with Mexico that offers a forum to improve mutual understanding, communications, and cooperation between area headquarters on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border.

12. Encourage necessary coordination among all OAS bodies and specialized agencies.

The U.S. strongly supports the work of the organs, agencies and entities of the Inter-American system related to defense and security. The U.S. encourages these bodies to continue to contribute to greater transparency and confidence building between and among OAS member states.

13. Intensify cooperation in increasing security for transport by land, sea, and air.

The DoD/USSOUTHCOM Cooperating National Information Exchange System (CNIES) is designed to improve maritime and air traffic awareness by providing participating partner nations with real-time data on potential trafficking targets of interest. CNIES data recipients currently include Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Trinidad & Tobago.

Partner nation liaison officers at the Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S) in Key West, Florida are integral staff members in countering illicit trafficking threats. JIATF-S provides them information that they share with their home governments to enable law enforcement interdiction. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Mexico, the Netherlands, Peru (currently vacant), Spain, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela (currently vacant), provide liaison officers to JIATF-S.

USNORTHCOM has a liaison arrangement with Canada to share information focused on land, sea, and air domains. The two countries also are cooperating to increase security of key transportation nodes including harbors, ports, airports, personnel and cargo border-crossing points of entry, and bridges over waterways between the U.S. and Canada. The U.S. Navy and Coast Guard are working with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Canadian Forces Navy to monitor and protect maritime approaches to both nations. The recently renewed North American Aerospace Defense Command Agreement expands from the traditional aerospace mission to include maritime warning.

U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) International Port Security Program personnel visited ports in Belize, El Salvador, Guyana, and Suriname to learn how International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code measures have been implemented in other countries. The goal of the program is to visit all countries that trade with the U.S. by maritime means to observe and share best practices for implementation of the ISPS Code. The Caribbean Support Tender GENTIAN conducted maintenance and technical assistance, logistic support, and joint training, and it fostered regional cooperation and improved the capabilities and operational readiness/effectiveness of the maritime services in Haiti, Jamaica, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

14. Intensify cooperation in the fight against terrorism, drug interdiction, preventing illicit small arms and light weapons trafficking, combating piracy, preventing smuggling, search and rescue operations, and the protection of natural resources and archaeological goods.

The efforts conducted by the Caribbean Support Tender GENTIAN listed in Measure #13 support this Measure.

USSOUTHCOM’s Enduring Friendship initiative has been coordinated with the countries of Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Panama. This initiative will provide for a Common Operating Picture and maritime training and equipment. The procurement process for this initiative began in FY 2006.

USSOUTHCOM has also actively conducted Operation Central Skies, a focused multilateral and interagency counterdrug effort.

USSOUTHCOM sponsored several exercises and activities, including Panamax and the Partnership of the Americas, with the objective of improving cooperation and interoperability in combating a variety of transnational threats.

Through the Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), USSOUTHCOM has sponsored several sub-regional events focused on interagency and multinational approaches to combating terrorism.

15. Establish national points of contact regarding natural disaster response, environmental security, transportation security, and critical infrastructure protection.

USSOUTHCOM is sponsoring the development and installation of a regional information-sharing network that will allow Central American nations to share real-time information relating to natural disasters.

USSOUTHCOM also uses the Fuerzas Aliadas Humanitarias (FA HUM) exercise to help Central American nations build personal relationships at the worker and policy-maker levels.

USSOUTHCOM also supports this measure by sponsoring national regional disaster management conferences, which provide a forum for senior military and civilian disaster preparedness and humanitarian assistance officials to address disaster loss reduction through a Comprehensive Disaster Management Strategy. The events strengthen the relationships already established with the National Disaster Offices in each country and support the efforts of the three regional mechanisms in the AOR – Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA), Central American Coordination Center for the Prevention of Natural Disaster (CEPREDENAC), and the Andean Committee for the Prevention and Handling of Disasters (CAPRADE).

Bi-lateral multi-agency (USCG/EPA) hazardous material response plans have been agreed upon for responses that fall on the U.S.-Mexico border, with logistical agreements in place for mutual assistance and mitigation.

USNORTHCOM opened discussions with the Mexican Protección Civil and the Mexican Navy on disaster and consequence management planning. Mexican officials visited USNORTHCOM and government installations to learn more about potential areas where the two countries may be able to increase security for our respective countries from natural or man-made disasters. USNORTHCOM gained valuable insights into multilateral disaster response in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and commends Canada and Mexico for their rapid, valuable support during our civil assistance efforts.

USNORTHCOM and Canada Command are in the process of staffing a Canada-U.S. Civil Assistance Plan (CAP) that outlines military-to-military support of civil authorities in the event of disaster responses and emergencies. Once completed, the CAP will bridge the U.S. National Response Plan and the Canadian National Support Plan.

16. Exchange information on security issues, such as the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and nonproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, within the framework of the UN and OAS.

The U.S. provides to the United Nations (UN) detailed information on measures it has taken in support of the UN Programme of Action (UNPOA) to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects and UN Security Council Resolution 1540. The U.S. also provides copies of these reports to the OAS. On November 20, 2006 the U.S. provided the OAS with a copy of its 2006 Implementation Report concerning the UNPOA.

In 2006, the U.S. provided $50,000 to the recently created OAS Fund for the Collection, and Destruction of Small Arms and Light Weapons and Related Training Programs. The U.S., also provided to the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security 75 copies of the OSCE Best Practices Handbook on Small Arms and Light Weapons.

17. Identify excess stocks of small arms and light weapons as well as seized small arms and light weapons and define programs for the destruction of said weapons to be witnessed by international representatives.

The U.S. is active in the hemisphere supporting cooperative measures to combat the illicit trafficking of arms in the region. For example, the USSOUTHCOM Rewards Program, in conjunction with the Nicaraguan National Police, has secured over 3,000 small arms for destruction. The Rewards program managers in Nicaragua have purchased equipment to aid in the destruction of small arms and disposition of weapons that the U.S. and Nicaraguan National Police personnel will witness.

The Department of State and Department of Defense have also provided technical, financial and educational assistance regarding the destruction and stockpile management of small arms and light weapons to OAS member states. The Department of State provides assistance directly to states interested in the destruction of surplus and illicit stocks of small arms and light weapons. The U.S. also provides technical and financial assistance to support security infrastructure improvements.

18. Enhance multilateral cooperation regarding issues that are identified by the small island states as concerns, threats, and challenges to their security.

Two USSOUTHCOM endeavors help to support this measure:

  • Enduring Friendship: A developing program to establish a partnership of willing nations working together to identify, monitor, and intercept transnational maritime threats under international and domestic law. Initial participating countries are the Dominican Republic, Panama, Bahamas, and Jamaica.
  • Tradewinds Exercise: A regional engagement with the Caribbean nations as a joint and combined training exercise focusing on transnational threats. The objective is to improve maritime and ground force response to transnational threats.

Foreign Military Financing provided to the countries of the Eastern Caribbean totaled $889,000; IMET expenditures were $695,000, which provided training to 55 students.

19. Consider actions for early implementation aimed at enhancing the security-building capabilities of the small island states.

USSOUTHCOM’s Partner Nations Network (PNN) provides this capability. It is an unclassified but protected multinational web, collaboration and e-mail portal. Its purpose is to share critical information among border control authorities to strengthen border control capacity in the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism. PNN is also designed to create joint training programs to allow existing entities to meet new challenges.

USSOUTHCOM also supports this measure through the Tradewinds exercise, which is a joint and combined regional training exercise engagement with the Caribbean nations that focuses on transnational threats. USSOUTHCOM’s FA HUM promotes interoperability among the regional and inter-regional organizations to conduct unilateral and multilateral humanitarian relief and disaster response operations.

20. Exchange and share information on the special security concerns of small island states.

USSOUTHCOM shares information with the small island states via SMEE provided by the USSOUTHCOM Traditional Commander’s Activities. Eight such events were held with these countries during FY 2006.

Joint Interagency Task Force-South provides regional and tactical intelligence and information support to small island states that are partners in counterdrug operations.

The Caribbean Support Tender GENTIAN conducted maintenance and technical assistance, logistic support, and joint training. In doing so, it fostered regional cooperation and improved the capabilities and operational readiness/effectiveness of the maritime services in Haiti and Jamaica.

21. Hold high-level hemispheric meetings to follow up the Second High-level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States.

On March 22, 2006, the U.S. and CARICOM held a Ministerial meeting in Nassau, Bahamas and focused attention on democracy, security cooperation, and disaster preparedness. At the conclusion of the meeting a statement was issued by the CARICOM Foreign Ministers and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. The statement can be found at http://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2006/63568.htm

Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Michael Chertoff met with his CARICOM counterparts on October 26, 2006 in Port of Spain, Trinidad, to discuss avenues of greater cooperation and coordination in the areas of border security, counter terrorism, and drug interdiction. As the first DHS Secretary to meet with CARICOM, Secretary Chertoff highlighted the excellent, ongoing cooperation at the working level, citing agencies which engage regularly with CARICOM on disaster preparedness issues. He also expressed U.S. willingness to explore ways to support regional preparations for Cricket World Cup 2007 (CWC), to be held in nine of the 15 CARICOM countries.

22. Cooperate closely to implement commitments agreed to at the 1998 Transportation Ministerial, active participation at the July 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conference on the safety of transport of radioactive material.

Nothing to report.

23. Hold high-level meetings involving the ministries of defense and foreign affairs at the bilateral, sub-regional, and regional levels.

The Secretary of Defense and Commanders of USSOUTHCOM and USNORTHCOM attended the October 2006 Defense Ministerial of the Americas in Managua, Nicaragua. They participated in bilateral, sub-regional and regional meetings related to defense issues.

In October 2005, the Secretary of Defense hosted the Central America Ministers Conference on Security in Key Biscayne, Florida. Ministers from seven Central American nations and observers from Colombia, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico attended the conference, which focused on the theme of “Security and Economic Opportunity.”

USSOUTHCOM routinely engages high-level officials. Examples include the bilateral meetings held during the visits of Commander, USSOUTHCOM, and the sub-regional conferences of Chiefs of Defense sponsored by USSOUTHCOM. Bilateral and multilateral meetings are often a by-product of these conferences.

Additionally, USSOUTHCOM sponsored the participation of various high-level visitors to the Colombia Coordination Center for Integrated Action.

U.S.-Canada information exchanges and military cooperation through the Ogdensburg Declaration and MCC, as outlined in Measure #8, support this measure. In addition, senior personnel from Canada, Mexico and the United States participated in discussions during the North American Forum (NAF) in Banff, Canada during 2006. These talks facilitate military-to-military relationships and further the exchange of information concerning defense policy and doctrines. NORTHCOM also sponsored several high-level visits, including Admiral Keating’s attendance at El Grito Mexican Independence Day celebrations in Mexico City in 2006.

On November 8, 2006, the U.S. and Brazil held Political-Military Consultations in Washington, D.C. Similar consultations are scheduled for Argentina and Chile in 2006 and 2007. These talks have been held periodically over the past two decades.

24. Conduct combined exercises between armed forces and/or public security forces.

See response to measure #1.

25. Submit a comprehensive inventory of CSBMs annually to the OAS.

This report serves to support this measure.

26. Strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among police, law enforcement, and military authorities of neighboring states.

The efforts conducted by the Caribbean Support Tender GENTIAN listed in Measure #13 support this Measure.

The DoD/USSOUTHCOM Cooperating National Information Exchange System (CNIES) is designed to improve maritime and air traffic awareness by providing participating partner nations with real-time data on potential trafficking targets of interest. CNIES data recipients currently include Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Trinidad & Tobago.

27. Promote dialogue among hemispheric legislators within existing foraon Confidence-Building Measures, including the exchange of visits and the convening of meetings.

USSOUTHCOM, partnered with its regional center, the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS), provides strategic education to partner nation senior decision-makers, to include executive and legislative leaders, and military service chiefs. These programs include National Security Planning Workshops (NSPWs), Advanced Policy Seminars, and subregionally-focused Senior Executive dialogues.

Mexican congressional delegations visited USNORTHCOM, JTF-N, and Washington, DC to discuss mutual defense goals, policies, and strategies.

NORAD, USNORTHCOM, and Canadian military organizations encourage contact and cooperation between the U.S. Congress and Canadian Parliament through legislative liaisons embedded in military headquarters and commands. Congress and Parliament have exchanged information on defense and security for the past 50 years, and continue to do so on a regular basis.

28. Recommend the possibility of holding a conference of hemispheric civil society representatives on Confidence-Building Measures and on matters of peace and hemispheric security, including the exchange of visits, in accordance with the Summit of the Americas process.

Well beyond recommending, USSOUTHCOM, through active partnering with a Costa Rica-based NGO, has promulgated the Human Rights Initiative throughout the hemisphere. This initiative brings together government security and defense officials with members of civil society to discuss the importance of respect for human rights and the rule of law in pursuing democratic security and stability.

The National Defense University Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies held a sub-regional conference in June 2006, which included 163 participants from Mexico and many other participants from the Western Hemisphere.

29. Extend to diplomatic training institutes, military academies, research centers, and universities the seminars, courses, and studies envisioned in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador on Confidence- and Security- Building Measures.

This measure is supported by activities at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). The U.S. created CHDS to be a center of education in the hemisphere. Its mission is to conduct education, research, outreach and knowledge-sharing activities on defense and security policy with civilian and military defense and security leaders. 600 students attended CHDS programs during Fiscal Year 2006.

30. Encourage exchanges and contacts between students, academics, and experts in defense and security studies.

USSOUTHCOM participates in academic exchanges focusing on regional security issues, and has built a strong working relationship with Florida International University and the University of Miami, as well as several DoD institutions focused on higher learning (the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, the National Defense University, the Army and Air Force War Colleges, and the School of International Graduate Studies at the Naval Postgraduate School).

Additionally, USSOUTHCOM coordinated training for over 2,000 students, at a cost of nearly $13 million, through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) Program, and 600 students for $2.75 million of Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds.

NORAD-USNORTHCOM/J7 has created a Homeland Defense and Education Consortium (HSDEC) consisting of over 150 colleges and universities from Canada and the U.S. The HSDEC encourages exchanges and contacts between students, academics, and experts in defense and security studies. USNORTHCOM TSC will extend an invitation to Mexican universities to participate in HSDEC as well.

The U.S. Air Force conducts the Latin American Academy Cadet Initiative visit and Air Force Academy Cadet Exchanges.

The U.S. Army conducts the Army War College International Fellows Program, which provides opportunities for senior military personnel from allied and friendly countries to study, research, and write on subjects of significance and the security interests of their own and allied nations.

31. Use the OAS Information System (OASIS) for the exchange of defense and security information, data, and communications.

The U.S. is prepared to use OASIS along with other OAS member states.

32. Exchange and share experience and ideas on transparency and CSBMs with other regional security fora, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and the African Union (AU).

In 2004, the U.S. promoted the participation of other regional security fora in the First Meeting of the OAS Forum on CSBMs. The U.S. along with Canada facilitated a round of consultations with OSCE in 1999. Planning by the U.S. and Canada has begun on a possible OAS-OSCE exchange in 2007.

33. Implement the relevant aspects of the program Education for Peace in the Hemisphere (OAS CP/RES. 769/00).

The U.S. has hosted the Inter-American Defense College (IADC) for 44 years at Ft. McNair in Washington, D.C. The IADC mission is to develop and provide opportunities to military officers and civilian officials from OAS member states for advanced academic courses related to military defense issues, the inter-American system, and related disciplines. The IADC also strengthens cooperation and exchange of the information among police, law enforcement, civilian personnel and military authorities of member states. In 2006, the U.S. was elected as president of the IADC.

USSOUTHCOM supported the IADC’s annual seminar schedule. The seminars cover such issues as Global Threats and Hemispheric Security, Peace Keeping Operations, Large-Scale Emergency and Disaster Situations, and Negotiation and Conflict Resolution.

34. Continue consultations and the exchange of ideas to advance the limitation and control of conventional weapons in the region.

USSOUTHCOM supports this measure via the Defense and Military Contacts Program, which includes conferences and Subject Matter Expert Exchange (SMEE). Examples of such exchanges include:

  • Demining SMEE—Nicaragua
  • Military Police SMEE—Ecuador

USSOUTHCOM directs the DoD Humanitarian Mine Action program, which is closely coordinated with OAS activities. USSOUTHCOM received $3.0 million in FY 2006/07 to plan and implement demining activities in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Honduras.

In 2005, the United States support for humanitarian mine action surpassed $1 billion since the inter-agency U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Program, the worlds’ largest, was established in 1993. The U.S. has provided funds for demining in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile.

35. Consider cooperative activities that develop regional peacekeeping skills and capacity through common training, combined exercises and exchange of information on peacekeeping.

Two USSOUTHCOM endeavors support this measure:

  • Peacekeeping (PKO) North exercises are multinational staff exercises with emphasis on multinational and regional cooperation, establishing regional PKO capability by addressing the Conference of Central American Armed Forces (CFAC) PKO battalion formation concept, and developing consensus on force structures for the multinational PKO battalion/brigade.
  • PKO South exercises are regionally-oriented command post exercises involving military and civilian agencies in South America and the U.S. The exercises enhance military-to-military contacts and promote regional cooperation and engagement.

USSOUTHCOM has supported the New Horizons program, which includes joint exercises based on humanitarian assistance scenarios. These exercises have taken place in Honduras, Jamaica, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Suriname, and Peru.

USSOUTHCOM also supported the Global Peace Operations Initiative by initiating pre-construction activities at the Central American Regional PKO Training Center in Guatemala. USSOUTHCOM also provided initial shipment of personal and communications gear to three of the four member countries of the CFAC PKO Battalion.

36. Increase cooperation in accordance with the guidelines of the Inter-American Committee on Natural Disaster Reduction and to mitigate the consequences of such disasters.

USSOUTHCOM supports this measure with a comprehensive Humanitarian Assistance Program (HAP) through Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) funding. The HAP projects serve to improve the capacity of the host nations to fully respond to disasters, and in turn decrease or eliminate the need for U.S. military responses. HAP Projects are classified into four categories:

  • Excess Property: (which includes the following activities: Medical, Disaster Relief, and School Supplies/Equipment).
  • Medical: Includes, but not limited to, disease surveillance and vector control.
  • HA/Other: Projects that are not Excess Property or Medical in nature. The activities include technical/log assessments, and search-and-rescue training (focusing on train-the-trainer activities).
  • Renovations/Construction: In support of disaster preparedness (Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and warehouses).


The U.S. Government has conducted 71 Medical Deployment Readiness Training Exercises (MEDRETE) in 17 South American countries with over 2,700 medical personnel. The exercises included rapid response to the August 15th, 2006 eruption of the volcano in Tungurahua, Ecuador, with 15 personnel treating respiratory and ocular injuries.

The response to Measure #15 also provides information pertinent to natural disaster issues.

The USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance has been actively providing humanitarian assistance in response to international crises and disaster supporting OAS member states throughout the region. A full report accounting for USAID activities for 2004-2005 in the region can be found on the web at: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/publications/annual_reports/pdf/AR2005.pdf.