St. Lucia (11/03)


For the most current version of this Note, see Background Notes A-Z.



Saint Lucia

Area: 619 sq. km. (238 sq. mi.).
Cities: Capital--Castries (pop. est. 67,000); Micoud, Gros-Islet; Vieux Fort; Soufriere.
Terrain: Mountainous.
Climate: Tropical.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--St. Lucian(s).
Population (2001): 163,300.
Annual growth rate (est. 2001): 5.4%.
Ethnic groups: African descent 90%, mixed 6%, East Indian 3%, European 0.8%.
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Church of England 3%, various Protestant denominations.
Languages: English (official); a French patois is common throughout the country.
Education: Literacy--85%. Years compulsory--ages 5-15. Attendance--more than 80% urban, 75% rural.
Health (2000): Life expectancy--74 years female; 68 years male. Infant mortality rate--16/1,000.
Work force (1998): Agriculture--62%. Industry and commerce--20%. Services--18%.
Unemployment (2000) 16.5%

Type: Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.
Independence: February 22, 1979.
Constitution: 1979.
Branches: Executive--governor general (representing Queen Elizabeth II, head of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative--bicameral parliament.
Judicial--district courts, Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (High Court and Court of Appeals), final appeal to privy council in London. Administrative subdivisions: 11 parishes.
Political parties: St. Lucia Labor Party (SLP, ruling); in power since 1997, United Workers' Party (UWP, official opposition).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.


St. Lucia flag

GDP (2002): $660 million.
Annual growth rate (2002): -0.5%.
Per capita GDP (2000): $4,562.
Natural resources: Forests, beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs. Agriculture (7.9% of GDP): Products--bananas, cocoa, coconut, citrus fruits, livestock.
Industry: Manufacturing 5.5% of GDP. Types--garments, electronic components, beverages, corrugated boxes. Tourism--13% of GDP.
Trade: Exports (2001): $ 42 million: bananas, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, other agricultural products, oils and fats, manufactured goods.  Major markets--U.K., U.S., CARICOM countries. Imports (2001) $258.7 million: food, fuel, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment.
Major suppliers--U.S., CARICOM countries, U.K., Japan.

St. Lucia's population is predominantly of African and mixed African-European descent, with small East Indian and European minorities. English is the official language, although many St. Lucians speak a French patois. Ninety percent of the population is Roman Catholic, a further reflection of early French influence on the island. The population of just over 147,000 is evenly divided between urban and rural areas, although the capital, Castries, contains more than one-third of the population. Despite a high emigration rate, the population is growing rapidly, about 5.4% per year.

St. Lucia's first known inhabitants were Arawaks, believed to have come from northern South America 200-400 A.D. Numerous archaeological sites on the island have produced specimens of the Arawaks' well-developed pottery. Caribs gradually replaced Arawaks during the period 800-1000 A.D.

Europeans first landed on the island in either 1492 or 1502 during Spain's early exploration of the Caribbean. The Dutch, English, and French all tried to establish trading outposts on St. Lucia in the 17th century but faced opposition from hostile Caribs.

The English, with their headquarters in Barbados, and the French, centered on Martinique, found St. Lucia attractive after the sugar industry developed in 1765. Britain eventually triumphed, with France permanently ceding St. Lucia in 1815. In 1838, St. Lucia was incorporated into the British Windward Islands administration, headquartered in Barbados. This lasted until 1885, when the capital was moved to Grenada.

Increasing self-government has marked St. Lucia's 20th-century history. A 1924 constitution gave the island its first form of representative government, with a minority of elected members in the previously all-nominated legislative council. Universal adult suffrage was introduced in 1951, and elected members became a majority of the council. Ministerial government was introduced in 1956, and in 1958 St. Lucia joined the short-lived West Indies Federation, a semi-autonomous dependency of the United Kingdom. When the federation collapsed in 1962, following Jamaica's withdrawal, a smaller federation was briefly attempted. After the second failure, the United Kingdom and the six windward and leeward islands--Grenada, St. Vincent, Dominica, Antigua, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, and St. Lucia--developed a novel form of cooperation called associated statehood.

As an associated state of the United Kingdom from 1967 to 1979, St. Lucia had full responsibility for internal self-government but left its external affairs and defense responsibilities to the United Kingdom. This interim arrangement ended on February 22, 1979, when St. Lucia achieved full independence. St. Lucia continues to recognize Queen Elizabeth II as titular head of state and is an active member of the Commonwealth. The island continues to cooperate with its neighbors through the Caribbean community and common market (CARICOM), the East Caribbean Common Market (ECCM), and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).

St. Lucia is a parliamentary democracy modeled on the Westminster system. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, represented by a Governor General, appointed by the Queen as her representative. The Governor General exercises basically ceremonial functions, but residual powers, under the constitution, can be used at the governor general's discretion. The actual power in St. Lucia lies with the prime minister and the cabinet, usually representing the majority party in parliament.

The bicameral parliament consists of a 17-member House of Assembly whose members are elected by universal adult suffrage for 5-year terms and an 11-member senate appointed by the governor general. The parliament may be dissolved by the governor general at any point during its 5-year term, either at the request of the prime minister--in order to take the nation into early elections--or at the governor general's own discretion, if the house passes a vote of no-confidence in the government.

St. Lucia has an independent judiciary composed of district courts and a high court. Cases may be appealed to the Eastern Caribbean Court of Appeals and, ultimately, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. The island is divided into 10 administrative divisions, including the capital, Castries. Popularly elected local governments in most towns and villages perform such tasks as regulation of sanitation and markets and maintenance of cemeteries and secondary roads. St. Lucia has no army but maintains a paramilitary Special Service Unit within its police force and a coast guard.

Politics in St. Lucia was once dominated by the United Workers Party (UWP), which, until 1997 had governed the country for all but three years since independence. John Compton was premier of St. Lucia from 1964 until independence in February 1979 and remained prime minister until elections later that year.

The St. Lucia Labor Party (SLP) won the first post-independence elections in July 1979, taking 12 of 17 seats in parliament. A period of turbulence ensued, in which squabbling within the party led to several changes of prime minister. Pressure from the private sector and the unions forced the government to resign in 1982. New elections were then called and were won resoundingly by Compton's UWP, which took 14 of 17 seats.

The UWP was elected for a second time in April 16, 1987, but with only nine of 17 seats. Seeking to increase his slim margin, Prime Minister Compton suspended parliament and called new elections on April 30. This unprecedented snap election, however, gave Compton the same results as before--the UWP retained nine seats and the SLP eight. In April 1992, Prime Minister Compton's government again defeated the SLP. In this election, the government increased its majority in parliament to 11 seats.

In 1996, Compton announced his resignation as prime minister in favor of his chosen successor Dr. Vaughan Lewis, former director-general of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). Dr. Lewis became prime minister and minister of finance, planning and development on April 2, 1996. The SLP also had a change of leadership with former CARICOM official Dr. Kenny Anthony succeeding businessman Julian Hunte.

In elections held May 23, 1997, the St. Lucia Labor Party won all but one of the 17 seats in Parliament, and Dr. Kenny Anthony became Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Planning and Development on May 24, 1997.

In elections of December 3, 2001 the St. Lucia Labor Party won 14 of the 17 available seats. The leader of the UWP, Dr. Morella Joseph failed to win a seat. Arsene James is  theleader of the Parliamentary Opposition.

Principal Government Officials
Head of State--Queen Elizabeth II
Governor General--Dr. Pearlette Louisy
Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, International Financial Services, Economic Affairs and Information--Dr. Kenny Anthony
Minister of External Affairs, International Trade and Civil Aviation --Julian Hunte
Ambassador to the UN--Earl Huntley
Ambassador to the U.S. and the OAS--Sonia M. Johnny
Consul General New York--Patsy Louis

St. Lucia maintains an embassy at 3216 New Mexico Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20016 (tel. 202-364-6792).

St. Lucia's economy depends primarily on revenue from banana production and tourism with some input from smallscale manufacturing. There are numerous small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises. Revenue from agriculture has supported the noticeable socioeconomic changes that have taken place in St. Lucia since the 1960s. Eighty percent of merchandise trade earnings came from banana exports to the United Kingdom in the 1960s. In view of the European Union's announced phase-out of preferred access to its markets by Windward Island bananas by 2006, agricultural diversification is a priority. An attempt is being made to diversify production by encouraging the establishment of tree crops such as mangos and avocados. A variety of vegetables are produced for local consumption. Recently, St. Lucia added small computer driven information technology and financial services as development objectives.

St. Lucia's leading revenue producers--agriculture, tourism, and smallscale manufacturing--benefited from a focus on infrastructure improvements in roads, communications, water supply, sewerage, and port facilities. Foreign investors also have been attracted by the infrastructure improvements as well as by the educated and skilled work force and relatively stable political conditions. The largest investment is in a petroleum storage and transshipment terminal built by Hess Oil. The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)-funded and airport expansion project.

Until the events of September 11, the tourism sector had made significant gains, experiencing a boom despite some untimely and destructive hurricanes. Stay-over visitors and cruise arrivals declined in 2001 and several hotels declared bankruptcy, including the Hyatt. The development of the tourism sector remains a priority, and the government is committed to providing a favorable investment environment. Incentives are available for building and upgrading tourism facilities. There has been liberal use of public funds to improve the physical infrastructure of the island, and the government has made efforts to attract cultural and sporting events and develop historical sites.

St. Lucia is a member of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU). The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) issues a common currency for all members of the ECCU. The ECCB also manages monetary policy and regulates and supervises commercial banking activities in its member countries.

St. Lucia is a beneficiary of the U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative and is a member of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).

St. Lucia is the headquarters of the Eastern Caribbean Telecommunications (ECTEL) authority, which is developing the regulations to liberalize the telecommunications sector in the region by 2004.

Historically, the major thrust of foreign affairs for St. Lucia has been economic development. The government is seeking balanced international relations with emphasis on mutual economic cooperation and trade and investment. It seeks to conduct its foreign policy chiefly through its membership in the OECS. St. Lucia participated in the 1983 Grenada mission, sending members of its Special Services Unit into active duty. St. Lucia is a member of the Commonwealth, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations. It seeks pragmatic solutions to major international issues and maintains friendly relations with the major powers active in the Caribbean, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and France. St. Lucia has been active in eastern Caribbean regional affairs through the OECS and CARICOM.

As a member of CARICOM, St. Lucia strongly backed efforts by the United States to implement UN Security Council Resolution 940, designed to restore democracy to Haiti. The country agreed to contribute personnel to the multinational force, which restored the democratically elected government of Haiti in October 1994.

St. Lucia participated, along with 14 other Caribbean nations, in a summit with President Clinton in Bridgetown, Barbados in May 1997. The summit, which was the first-ever meeting in the region between the U.S. and Caribbean heads of government, strengthened the basis for regional cooperation on justice and counternarcotics, finance and development, and trade issues.

There are currently four diplomatic missions in St. Lucia--People's Republic of China, France, Venezuela, and an office of the Barbados-based British High Commission. Some countries with which St. Lucia has diplomatic relations have representatives resident in Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Guyana.

The United States and St. Lucia have a cooperative relationship. The United States supports the St. Lucian Government's efforts to expand its economic base and improve the lives of its citizens.

The administration of Prime Minster Kenny Anthony has made a significant effort to strengthen ties with the U.S. during 2003.  In fact, Foreign Minster Julian Hunte has made improved U.S. relations a signal objective for the government and has used his perch as President of the UNGA to help promote this aim.  The government has cooperately especially on security concerns and managing the Haiti situation. U.S. assistance is primarily channeled through multilateral agencies such as the World Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), and the newly opened USAID satellite office in Bridgetown, Barbados. The Peace Corps, whose Eastern Caribbean regional headquarters is in Castries, has 25-30 volunteers in St. Lucia, working primarily in education, agriculture, and health. U.S. security assistance programs provide limited training to the paramilitary Special Services Unit and the coast guard. In addition, St. Lucia receives U.S. counternarcotics assistance and benefits from U.S. military exercise-related and humanitarian civic action construction projects.

St. Lucia and the United States share interest in combating international crime, the flow of illegal drugs and narcotics trafficking. Because of St. Lucia's geographical location, it is an appealing transit point for traffickers. In response to this threat, the Government of St. Lucia has concluded various bilateral treaties with the United States, including a Maritime Law Enforcement Agreement (subsequently amended to include overflight and order-to-land provisions), a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, and an Extradition Treaty.

In 2002, tourist visitors totaled nearly 650, 000, mainly from the U.S. (nearly 100, 000), CARICOM, and the UK.  Cruise ship arrivals totaled 387,180, with most cruise tourists also from the U.S.   Total visitor expenditure in 2002 was $256 million.  A relatively small number of American citizens--fewer than 1,000--reside in St. Lucia.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Ambassador-- (vacant)
Charg� d'Affaires, a.i.--Marcia Bernicat
Political/Economic Officer--Paul Belmont
Consular Officer-- Robert Fretz
Defense Attach�--(vacant)
Regional Labor Attach�--(vacant)
Economic-Commercial Affairs--Viki Limaye
Public Affairs Officer--Kathleen Boyle
Peace Corps Director--Earl Phillips (resident in St. Lucia)

The United States maintains no diplomatic presence in St. Lucia. The Ambassador and embassy officers are resident in Barbados and frequently travel to St. Lucia.

The U.S. Embassy in Barbados is located in the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown (tel: 246-436-4950; fax: 246-429-5246).

Other Contact Information
U.S. Department of Commerce
International Trade Administration
Trade Information Center
14th and Constitution, NW
Washington, DC 2230
Tel: 1-800-USA-TRADE

Caribbean/Latin American Action
1818 N Street, NW, Suite 310
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202) 466-7464
Fax: (202) 822-0075

Eastern Caribbean-American Chamber of Commerce
P.O. Box 111
St. Michael, Barbados
Tel: 246-436-9493

For the most current version of this Note, see Background Notes A-Z.