Jordan (01/02)

For the most current version of this Note, see Background Notes A-Z.


Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Area: 89,544 sq. km. (34,573 sq. mi.).
Cities: Capital--Amman (pop. 1 million). Other cities--Irbid (281,000), Az-Zarqa (421,000).

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Jordanian(s).
Population (est.): 5.0 million.
Religions (est.): Sunni Muslim 96%, Christian 4%.
Languages: Arabic (official), English.
Education (2001): Literacy--90%.
Health (2001): Infant mortality rate--26/1,000. Life expectancy--71 yrs.
Ethnic groups: Mostly Arab but small communities of Circassians, Armenians, and Kurds.
Work force (1.15 million): Services--64%; industry--30%; agriculture--6%.

Type: Constitutional monarchy.
Independence: May 25, 1946.
Constitution: January 8, 1952.
Branches: Executive--king (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), council of ministers (cabinet). Legislative--bicameral National Assembly (appointed Senate, elected Chamber of Deputies). Judicial--civil, religious, special courts.
Political parties: Wide spectrum of parties legalized in 1992.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Administrative subdivisions: Twelve governorates--Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun, al-'Aqaba, Madaba, al-Mafraq, al-Zarqa, Amman, al-Balqa, al-Karak, al-Tafilah, and Ma'an.

Flag: flag of jordan

GDP (2001 est.): $7.5 billion.
Annual growth rate (2001 est.): 4.1%.
Per capita GDP (2001 est.): $1,500.
Natural resources: Phosphate, potash.
Agriculture: Products--fruits, vegetables, wheat, olive oil. Land--4% arable.
Industry (25% of GDP): Types--phosphate mining, manufacturing, cement and petroleum production, and construction.
Trade (2000 est.): Exports--$1.5 billion: chemicals, phosphates, potash, agricultural products, manufactures. Major markets--U.S., Iraq, Saudi Arabia, India, EU, UAE, Syria, Indonesia, Malaysia, China.
Imports--$3.7 billion: machinery, transportation equipment, food and live animals, petroleum products, and chemicals. Major suppliers--U.S., Iraq, Japan, U.K., Syria, Turkey, EU, Japan, China.

Note: From 1949 to 1967, Jordan administered that part of former mandate Palestine west of the Jordan River known as the West Bank. Since the 1967 war, when Israel took control of this territory, the United States has considered the West Bank to be territory occupied by Israel. The United States believes that the final status of the West Bank can be determined only through negotiations among the parties concerned on the basis of Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338.

Jordanians are Arabs, except for a few small communities of Circassians, Armenians, and Kurds which have adapted to Arab culture. The official language is Arabic, but English is used widely in commerce and government. About 70% of Jordan's population are urban; less than 6% of the rural population is nomadic or seminomadic. Most people live where the rainfall supports agriculture. About 1.5 million Palestinian Arabs registered as refugees and displaced persons reside in Jordan, most as citizens.

The land that became Jordan is part of the richly historical Fertile Crescent region. Its history began around 2000 B.C., when Semitic Amorites settled around the Jordan River in the area called Canaan. Subsequent invaders and settlers included Hittites, Egyptians, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arab Muslims, Christian Crusaders, Mameluks, Ottoman Turks, and, finally, the British. At the end of World War I, the League of Nations as the mandate for Palestine and Transjordan awarded the territory now comprising Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, Gaza, and Jerusalem to the United Kingdom. In 1922, the British divided the mandate by establishing the semiautonomous Emirate of Transjordan, ruled by the Hashemite Prince Abdullah, while continuing the administration of Palestine under a British High Commissioner. The mandate over Transjordan ended on May 22, 1946; on May 25, the country became the independent Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. It ended its special defense treaty relationship with the United Kingdom in 1957.

Transjordan was one of the Arab states which moved to assist Palestinian nationalists opposed to the creation of Israel in May 1948, and took part in the warfare between the Arab states and the newly founded State of Israel. The armistice agreements of April 3, 1949 left Jordan in control of the West Bank and provided that the armistice demarcation lines were without prejudice to future territorial settlements or boundary lines.

In 1950, the country was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to include those portions of Palestine annexed by King Abdullah. While recognizing Jordanian administration over the West Bank, the United States maintained the position that ultimate sovereignty was subject to future agreement.

Jordan signed a mutual defense pact in May 1967 with Egypt, and it participated in the June 1967 war between Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Egypt, and Iraq. During the war, Israel gained control of the West Bank and all of Jerusalem. In 1988, Jordan renounced all claims to the West Bank but retained an administrative role pending a final settlement, and its 1994 treaty with Israel allowed for a continuing Jordanian role in Muslim holy places in Jerusalem. The U.S. Government considers the West Bank to be territory occupied by Israel and believes that its final status should be determined through direct negotiations among the parties concerned on the basis of UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338.

The 1967 war led to a dramatic increase in the number of Palestinians living in Jordan. Its Palestinian refugee population--700,000 in 1966--grew by another 300,000 from the West Bank. The period following the 1967 war saw an upsurge in the power and importance of Palestinian resistance elements (fedayeen) in Jordan. The heavily armed fedayeen constituted a growing threat to the sovereignty and security of the Hashemite state, and open fighting erupted in June 1970.

No fighting occurred along the 1967 Jordan River cease-fire line during the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war, but Jordan sent a brigade to Syria to fight Israeli units on Syrian territory. Jordan did not participate in the Gulf war of 1990-91. In 1991, Jordan agreed, along with Syria, Lebanon, and Palestinian representatives, to participate in direct peace negotiations with Israel sponsored by the U.S. and Russia. It negotiated an end to hostilities with Israel and signed a peace treaty in 1994. Jordan has since sought to remain at peace with all of its neighbors.

Jordan is a constitutional monarchy based on the constitution promulgated on January 8, 1952. Executive authority is vested in the king and his council of ministers. The king signs and executes all laws. His veto power may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of the National Assembly. He appoints and may dismiss all judges by decree, approves amendments to the constitution, declares war, and commands the armed forces. Cabinet decisions, court judgments, and the national currency are issued in his name. The king, who may dismiss other cabinet members at the prime minister's request, appoints the council of ministers, led by a prime minister. The cabinet is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies on matters of general policy and can be forced to resign by a two-thirds vote of "no confidence" by that body.

Legislative power rests in the bicameral National Assembly. In July 2001, King Abdullah approved a temporary election law--subject to validation when Parliament next convenes--that raised the number of members in the Chamber of Deputies from 80 to 104. The Chamber, elected by universal suffrage to a 4-year term, is subject to dissolution by the king. The king appoints the 40-member Senate for an 8-year term.

The constitution provides for three categories of courts--civil, religious, and special. Administratively, Jordan is divided into 12 governorates, each headed by a governor appointed by the king. They are the sole authorities for all government departments and development projects in their respective areas.

Principal Government Officials
Chief of State--King Abdullah bin al-Hussein II
Prime Minister--Ali Abul Ragheb
Minister of Defense--Ali Abul Ragheb
Foreign Minister--Abdullah al-Khatib
Ambassador to the U.S.--Marwan Muasher
Ambassador to the UN--Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad

Jordan maintains an embassy in the United States at 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-966-2664).

King Hussein ruled Jordan from 1953 to 1999, surviving a number of challenges to his rule, drawing on the loyalty of his military, and serving as a symbol of unity and stability for both the East Bank and Palestinian communities in Jordan. In 1989 and 1993, Jordan held free and fair parliamentary elections. Controversial changes in the election law led Islamist parties to boycott the 1997 elections. King Hussein ended martial law in 1991 and legalized political parties in 1992.

King Abdullah II succeeded his father Hussein following the latter's death in February 1999. Abdullah moved quickly to reaffirm Jordan's peace treaty with Israel and its relations with the U.S. Abdullah, during the first year in power, refocused the government's agenda on economic reform.

Jordan's continuing structural economic difficulties, burgeoning population, and more open political environment led to the emergence of a variety of political parties. Moving toward greater independence, Jordan's Parliament has investigated corruption charges against several regime figures and has become the major forum in which differing political views, including those of political Islamists, are expressed. In June 2001, the King dissolved Parliament. Parliamentary elections are expected to be held next in summer/autumn 2002.

Jordan is a small country with limited natural resources. As only 4% of the land is arable, agricultural production is subject to the vagaries of a limited water supply, currently compounded by a 3-year drought. A water protocol with Israel has eased the situation to a certain extent, and the country is currently exploring other ways to expand its supply. Jordan depends on Iraq for most of its energy needs, although a pipeline that will bring natural gas from Egypt is nearing completion. While Jordan's economy has traditionally been centered on phosphates, potash, fertilizer derivatives, overseas remittances, tourism, and foreign aid, the government hopes to reinvigorate economic growth by focusing on information technology (IT), tariff-free export areas such as the Qualified Industrial Zones (QIZ) and the Aqaba Special Economic Zone (ASEZ), as well as expanding tourism.

In 2001, Jordan became the fourth nation to enter into a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States. The FTA will phase out duties on nearly all goods and services over a 10-year period. The agreement also provides for more open markets in communications, construction, finance, health, transportation, and services, as well as strict application of international standards for the protection of intellectual property rights. Jordan also has signed trade-liberalizing agreements with the European Union and some of its neighbors in the region. In 2000, it acceded to the World Trade Organization. In 1996, Jordan signed a civil aviation agreement that provides for "open skies" between the two countries and a bilateral, state-of-the-art investment treaty with the United States in 1997.

As elsewhere in the region, tourism was impacted by the combination of renewed violence on the West Bank/Gaza and the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the U.S. A heavy debt burden and a large public sector continue to be challenges to economic growth in the Kingdom. Despite some progress, red tape and a still developing legal system remain obstacles to foreign investment.

Real GDP, which grew 3.2% in 2000, is expected to increase by 4.1% in 2001. Jordan's high population growth rate has fallen to 2.8%. The official unemployment is at 16% but may well increase as the impact of the tourist slump ripples through the economy. Inflation continues to be low, and monetary stability remains a priority of the Central Bank of Jordan.

While pursuing economic reform and increased trade, Jordan's economy will continue to be vulnerable to external shocks and regional unrest. Without calm in the region, economic growth seems destined to stay below its potential.

Jordan has consistently followed a pro-Western foreign policy and traditionally has had close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom. These relations were damaged by support in Jordan for Iraq during the Gulf war. Although the Government of Jordan stated its opposition to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, popular support for Iraq was driven by Jordan's Palestinian community, which favored Saddam as a champion against Western supporters of Israel. Publicly, Jordan continues to call for the lifting of UN sanctions against Iraq within the context of implementing UNIC resolutions.

Since the end of the war, Jordan has largely restored its relations with Western countries through its participation in the Middle East peace process and enforcement of UN sanctions against Iraq. Relations between Jordan and the Gulf countries improved substantially after King Hussein's death.

Jordan signed a nonbelligerency agreement with Israel (the Washington Declaration) in Washington, DC, on July 25, 1994. Jordan and Israel signed a historic peace treaty on October 26, 1994, witnessed by President Clinton, accompanied by Secretary Christopher. The U.S. has participated with Jordan and Israel in trilateral development discussions in which key issues have been water-sharing and security; cooperation on Jordan Rift Valley development; infrastructure projects; and trade, finance, and banking issues. Jordan also participates in the multilateral peace talks. Jordan belongs to the UN and several of its specialized and related agencies, including the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and World Health Organization (WHO). Jordan also is a member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), INTELSAT, Nonaligned Movement (of which it will become the chair in 2002), and Arab League.

Since the outbreak of the Intifadah in September 2000, Jordan has worked hard, in a variety of fora, to maintain lines of communication between the Israelis and the Palestinians to counsel moderation and to return the parties to negotiations of outstanding permanent status issues.

Relations between the U.S. and Jordan have been close for four decades. A primary objective of U.S. policy, particularly since the end of the Gulf war, has been the achievement of a comprehensive, just, and lasting peace in the Middle East. Jordan's constructive participation in the Madrid peace process is key in achieving peace.

U.S. policy seeks to reinforce Jordan's commitment to peace, stability, and moderation. The peace process and Jordan's opposition to terrorism parallel and indirectly assist wider U.S. interests. Accordingly, through economic and military assistance and through close political cooperation, the United States has helped Jordan maintain its stability and prosperity.

Since 1952, the United States has provided Jordan with economic assistance totaling more than $2 billion, including funds for development projects, health care, support for macroeconomic policy shifts toward a more completely free market system, and both grant and loan acquisition of U.S. agricultural commodities. These programs have been successful and have contributed to Jordanian stability while strengthening the bilateral relationship. U.S. military assistance--provision of materiel and training--is designed to meet Jordan's legitimate defense needs, including preservation of border integrity and regional stability.

Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador--Edward Gnehm
Deputy Chief of Mission--Gregory L. Berry
Political Affairs--Douglas Silliman
Economic Affairs--Thomas H. Goldberger
Consular Officer--Les Hickman
Administrative Affairs--Thomas M. Young
Public Affairs--Haynes R. Mahoney

The U.S. Embassy in Jordan is located in Abdoun, Amman (tel. 962-6-592-0101) and is closed on all U.S. federal holidays and some Jordanian holidays.