Table of Contents

Trafficking in Persons Report
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
June 4, 2008

Letter from Secretary Condoleezza Rice

Letter from Ambassador Mark P. Lagon

The 2008 Trafficking in Persons Report
Human Trafficking Defined
The Scope and Nature of Modern-Day Slavery
Focus of the 2008 TIP Report

Major Forms of Trafficking in Persons
Forced Labor
Bonded Labor
Debt Bondage and Involuntary Servitude Among Migrant Laborers
Involuntary Domestic Servitude
Forced Child Labor
Child Soldiers
Sex Trafficking and Prostitution
Children Exploited for Commercial Sex
Child Sex Tourism

Punishing Trafficking Offenders Adequately
Protecting Victims Adequately
Prevention: Spotlight on Addressing Demand
Importance of Research
Democracy and Human Trafficking

Topics of Special Interest
Highly Vulnerable: North Korean Refugees
Boy Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation
Women as Exploiters
Trafficking in Persons and New Technologies
Protecting Children From Child Sex Tourism
Trafficking of Migrant Workers
Street Children and Trafficking
Victim Trauma and Recovery
Worker Remittances: A Darker Side?
The Myth of the Bad “Runaway Worker”
Invisible People: Statelessness and Trafficking
Prostitution and Trafficking: Adjusting Policy to Reality
Custody of Child Trafficking Victims
Reports of Products Made with Forced Labor in the Last Year
Trafficking for Forced Begging
The Economics of Trafficking in Persons

Global Law Enforcement Data
Commendable Intiatives Around the World
2008 TIP Report Heroes
Tier Placements
U.S. Government Domestic Anti-Trafficking Efforts
Country Narratives
Special Cases
Relevant International Conventions
Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000
Stopping Human Trafficking, Sexual Exploitation, and Abuse by International Peacekeepers
Glossary of Acronyms
Human Trafficking Defined
A Closing Note From the Drafters of the Report