III. Country Narratives - Countries Q through Z

Trafficking in Persons Report
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
June 5, 2002

Qatar (Tier 3)

Qatar is a destination country for trafficked persons. Women from countries in East Asia, South Asia and Africa have reported being forced into domestic servitude and sexual exploitation. Children from Sudan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh have been trafficked to Qatar and forced to work as camel jockeys.

The Government of Qatar does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Qatari law specifically prohibits trafficking in persons. Penalties for traffickers include fines and imprisonment. Law enforcement agencies respond to complaints of trafficking by investigating them. However, the government has not prosecuted any cases against traffickers. The government strictly monitors its borders as well as its immigration and emigration patterns for evidence of trafficking. Regarding protection of victims, the government has made only minimal efforts. The government does not provide services to trafficked victims, nor does it provide funding or other forms of support to foreign or domestic NGOs for services to victims. The government does provide assistance to domestics who have suffered from abuse, in the form of payment of back wages and repatriation. The government supports public awareness programs to prevent the misuse of children as camel jockeys. The Heir Apparent issued a decree in September 2001 to establish a school and a medical center for the camel jockeys.

Republic of Korea (Tier 1)

The Republic of Korea is a source, transit and destination country for trafficking in persons. Koreans are trafficked to Japan and the United States for sexual exploitation. Persons from the Philippines, China, Southeast Asian countries, Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union are trafficked to Korea or transit Korea en route to Japan and the United States.

The Government of the Republic of Korea fully complies with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, including making serious and sustained efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons with respect to law enforcement, protection of victims and prevention of trafficking. Although there is no trafficking law per se, a number of provisions in the Criminal Code and the Act on Additional Punishment for Specific Crimes were used to prosecute traffickers in more than 100 cases in 2001. Additional law enforcement efforts include judicial and law enforcement training, participation in international and regional conferences on organized crime and trafficking, and cooperation with other governments on extradition. The Joint Task Force on Trafficking in Persons, established in December 2001, is comprised of prosecutors who investigate organized criminal syndicates and close businesses conducive to trafficking. Efforts to close loopholes in transit procedures and border crossings are being initiated. The government has been active in victim protection, and supports programs to protect victims. The government has also provided funding for domestic NGOs for the operation of shelters for victims of trafficking. The Immigration Bureau operates regional centers for foreign workers; these centers provide counseling, medical treatment, and assistance with disputes over wages and working conditions. Victims are encouraged to assist authorities in prosecuting traffickers; the government protects victims' privacy and tries to guard against retaliation by traffickers. Although services for foreign and child victims have substantially increased recently, assistance measures for returning Korean victims could be enhanced to deter further exploitation. Efforts to prevent trafficking have been developed. An interagency Committee for Countermeasures to Prevent Trafficking in Persons was created in July 2001. The government has promoted a public awareness campaign consisting of booklets, posters, media presentations and study camps for youth. Funding is also provided to NGOs to help both domestic and foreign women out of prostitution. The government is planning additional information campaigns for foreign workers and those in the entertainment industry.

Romania (Tier 2)

Romania is a source and transit country primarily for women and girls trafficked to Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Greece, Italy, and Turkey for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The Government of Romania does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government passed a law criminalizing trafficking in persons in December 2001. The Organized Crime Directorate, the lead agency in the Human Trafficking Task Force, investigated and arrested traffickers, and the government prosecuted traffickers under kidnapping and pimping codes, convicting several traffickers. The government cooperates with other governments on investigations. It is strengthening its borders to monitor immigration flow, and the Border Police have signed a memorandum with the Organized Crime Directorate on procedures to follow in suspected trafficking cases. Efforts to investigate and prosecute public officials involved in trafficking remain limited. In an effort to protect victims, in November 2001 the government began allocating space for the shelter of trafficking victims, and it cooperated with an international organization in repatriation procedures for trafficked citizens abroad and non-citizens transiting Romania. Although these current protection efforts are limited, the new law requires the government to grant recovery services to victims and build additional shelters, efforts that would strengthen victim protection. Prevention efforts included cooperation with international organizations' programs, including an anti-trafficking school program and a campaign to eliminate child labor. 

Russia (Tier 3)

Russia is a country of origin for women and children trafficked to many countries throughout Europe, the Middle East and North America for purposes of sexual exploitation.

The Government of Russia does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. There is no law specifically against trafficking. Recruitment for prostitution is illegal but not a criminal offense. The government of Russia recognizes there is a trafficking problem and the Duma has asked the United States for cooperation in drafting anti-trafficking legislation. Existing laws which can be used against traffickers include border crossing violations, document fraud, kidnapping, forced sexual activity, fraud, organized crime and pornography statues. The government of Russia rarely vigorously investigates trafficking cases of adults and only a few related cases have been prosecuted. Given the relatively low age of consent (14 years), it is difficult to prosecute trafficking cases when the victims are minors above that age absent threats or acts of violence by the traffickers. Resources for law enforcement are very limited. No specialized anti-trafficking training is provided by the government, but officials have participated in international and domestic training programs when available. The government tries to monitor its extensive borders. The government cooperates with foreign law enforcement on investigations in their countries, including a recent case successfully prosecuted in Alaska with evidence collected with the help of Russian law enforcement. Victim services and protections of rights are available and include compensation awards and rights to participate in prosecuting offenders at trial. Victims are not jailed, prosecuted for prostitution or detained upon repatriation. A new witness protection program has been developed but not yet implemented. Consulates in foreign countries have not assisted in repatriating victims. In terms of prevention, in February 2002, the Interior Ministry's Federal Migration Services office was established to handle refugee and immigration issues and to serve as the lead agency on trafficking. Although some regional governments are working with NGOs on prevention activities, the national government has not been involved in information campaigns or other prevention programs.

Saudi Arabia (Tier 3)

Saudi Arabia is a country of destination for trafficked persons. Trafficking victims who come to Saudi Arabia in search of work are put into situations of coerced labor. Victims come primarily from Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines to work as domestic servants and menial laborers. Many low-skilled foreign workers have their contracts altered and are subjected to extreme working conditions and physical abuse.

The Government of Saudi Arabia does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Saudi Arabia formally abolished slavery by royal decree in 1962; however, there are no laws specifically related to trafficking. The government has an extensive system of labor courts that enforce the terms of work contracts. However, some workers are exempt from labor law, including farmers, herdsmen, drivers, and domestic servants. Regarding protection of victims, the government has made minimal efforts. The Ministry of Labor runs a reception center for domestic servants. In cases where the Ministry of Labor is unable to resolve disputes with the employer, the domestic is deported. Domestic servants who are victims of trafficking may seek assistance from their embassies, several of which provide shelter and refuge where maids may stay while awaiting resolution of their cases or until they are deported. Government activities to prevent trafficking in persons have been minimal.

Senegal (Tier 2)

Senegal is a source and transit country for women and girls trafficked to Europe and the Middle East for sexual exploitation. Nigerian criminal organizations use Dakar as a transit point for women trafficked for purposes of prostitution to Europe, especially Italy. Senegalese children are sometimes held in conditions of involuntary servitude by some religious instructors in Senegal's larger cities.

The Government of Senegal does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Provisions of Senegalese criminal law prohibit abduction, hostage taking and the sale of persons, but the penalties for committing those crimes are inadequate to combat trafficking. Senegal has had some success in law enforcement. A high profile attempt to traffic Senegalese women to Libya was prevented, and trial is pending in the case. This year, the Senegalese police responded to the allegations of an escaped Nigerian trafficking victim with several arrests. Land border control is weak and corruption among officials is a problem. The Government supports related prevention programs to raise the status of women in society, promote the rights of the child and encourage public education. Over the past three years, the government cooperated with several United Nations' information campaigns on child labor, sexual exploitation and sexual exploitation of children. Senegal is actively cooperating with several United Nations' programs, as well as with NGOs, to assess the trafficking problem in Senegal. In January 2002, government representatives attended a seminar organized by NGOs to discuss trafficking. Senegal also hosted a regional meeting of experts to discuss trafficking in persons.

Sierra Leone (Tier 2)

Men, women and children have been trafficked internally in Sierra Leone as pawns in a brutal internal conflict. During the course of a 10-year conflict, to which Sierra Leone's President declared a formal end on January 18, 2002, rebels of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) abducted individuals and forced them to work as laborers, mainly in the country's diamond fields. Women and girls who were captured by RUF rebels were used as sex slaves as well as domestic labor. Despite the end of the conflict and the release of some victims, the number of girls released was an extremely small percentage of the estimated number of girls used as sex slaves during the conflict. Moreover, it is likely that small groups of previously captured individuals are still being held for forced labor or sexual servitude.

The Government of Sierra Leone does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Government efforts to investigate and prosecute trafficking cases have been severely hampered by the country's internal conflict and scarce resources. While Sierra Leone does not have a law specifically prohibiting trafficking, traffickers can be prosecuted for related offenses. In February 2002, a Sierra Leonean court indicted a group of rebel defendants for various crimes, including abductions. The Government works closely with international organizations and NGOs to facilitate the reintegration of over two thousand persons released last year by the rebels, many of whom were victims of trafficking. The Police are also actively involved in locating and securing the release of others still held captive, directing minors to United Nations' programs, and others to NGOs for assistance. The government has been unable to initiate any prevention programs or anti-trafficking campaigns.

Singapore (Tier 2)

Singapore is a destination country for women who are trafficked for sexual exploitation, primarily from Thailand, the Philippines, China, India, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia.

The Government of Singapore does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. There is no omnibus law against trafficking in persons; however, such acts are punishable under laws which prohibit the trafficking of women or girls into the country for purposes of prostitution, unlawful custody or control of children, wrongful confinement, and trafficking of illegal migrants. Profiting from prostitution by other persons violates the law, and use of fraud or coercion to induce women into prostitution is illegal. In practice, the authorities usually tolerate prostitution, which largely involves foreign women, some of whom may be trafficked. The Ministry of Manpower investigates complaints by foreign workers, and prevents employers from terminating workers while an investigation is ongoing. The Ministry is not known to have received complaints of trafficking in persons for labor purposes. There is no evidence that government officials are complicit in trafficking. Immigration laws are strictly enforced, which sharply reduces the flow of persons potentially vulnerable to trafficking, and adds to the legal jeopardy faced by would-be traffickers. In terms of victim protection, the government provides no assistance, and there are no NGOs that assist trafficking victims. In cases involving employer abuse of domestic workers, victims who testify remain in the country and are permitted to work; however, there are credible reports that at least some victims experience difficulty in getting permission to work for new employers. On the prevention side, there is no specific campaign to combat or prevent the use of fraud or coercion to recruit foreign women prostitutes. The government participates in regional initiatives against transnational crime, which include enhanced efforts against trafficking in persons.

Slovenia (Tier 2)

Slovenia is primarily a transit country for women and girls from Eastern, Southeastern, and Central Europe trafficked to Western Europe, the United States and Canada. Slovenia is also a destination country for women and teenage girls mostly from other Yugoslav republics, as well as from Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. A small number of Slovene women and teenage girls are trafficked to Western Europe.

The Government of Slovenia does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Slovenia lacks a law specifically prohibiting trafficking. It can prosecute traffickers under the following related offenses: pimping, procurement of sexual acts, inducement into prostitution, rape, sexual assault, bringing a person into slavery or similar condition, or the transportation of slaves. In practice, prosecutors find it difficult to get convictions of traffickers under these provisions and, therefore, prosecution is infrequent. It is particularly difficult to prove enslavement. Police focus their investigations on trafficking into Slovenia, and have worked in coordination with neighboring country authorities, where appropriate. Police have arrested some people for trafficking-related offenses. To protect the few Slovene victims, the government works with an international organization and NGOs to assist returning Slovene victims with reintegration. Also to assist Slovene victims, the Foreign Ministry encourages embassies and consulates in key countries to develop relationships with NGOs involved in combating trafficking. With respect to protection of foreign victims, the government works closely with NGOs and international organizations, particularly on the reintegration of women trafficked from Eastern Europe to Slovenia. However, there is a reluctance or inability of witnesses to testify in court because there are no witness protection programs. There is an absence of shelters, and victims' undocumented status renders them ineligible to work or receive social assistance. To prevent trafficking, the Ministry of Interior produces pamphlets and other informational materials for awareness-raising programs to sensitize potential target populations to dangers of and approaches used by traffickers. These materials have been used by NGOs as part of a municipality-funded series of workshops in middle and high schools in the largest urban center in Slovenia. The government has made progress in monitoring its borders, and consequently has reduced illegal migration considerably. However, when trafficking is suspected, the Ministry of the Interior refuses entry of those involved, but does not coordinate sufficiently with neighboring border authorities to ensure prosecution of traffickers. The government named a National Coordinator for Trafficking in Persons and has formed an interagency working group that adopted a national strategy to combat trafficking.

South Africa (Tier 2)

South Africa is a destination country for women, mainly between 18 and 25 years old, from other parts of Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, and the former Soviet Union. South African women also are trafficked internally. Most of the women are brought to Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria and Port Elizabeth by trafficking syndicates for work in the sex industry. South Africa is also a transit point for trafficking operations between developing countries and Europe, the United States and Canada.

The Government of South Africa does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government has directed its efforts to countering widespread sexual offenses, especially relating to abuse of children. South Africa does not have a law that specifically prohibits trafficking in persons but has other laws that could be used to prosecute traffickers. Under the laws that could be used to prosecute traffickers, most perpetrators would not receive jail time. They would be liable for fines of between $1,300 and $9,300 and for the cost of tracking, detaining and repatriating trafficked women. The national prosecuting authority conducts programs to improve treatment of victims, streamline prosecutions, and increase the conviction rate of perpetrators of sexual offense cases. A total of 500 prosecutors, police, magistrates and doctors have been trained in the specialized field of prosecuting sexual offenses, including trafficking. Twenty sexual offenses courts exist throughout the country, which are staffed by specialized prosecutors. The courts also direct victims to the appropriate medical and counseling services. The government publishes a quarterly bulletin distributed to all prosecutors updating them on the latest legal developments on sexual offenses cases. There have been few trafficking investigations and only one ongoing prosecution in the past year. Regarding protection for victims, there are no programs in place to help women who have been freed from a trafficking situation, although three government-funded rape-care centers exist in the country, which link victims to a network of service providers. Witness protection applies only to South African citizens. Most foreign victims are immediately deported, and thus cannot assist with prosecutions of traffickers. The government has not conducted any public awareness campaigns or other educational programs that would help prevent trafficking.

Spain (Tier 1)

Spain is a destination and transit country for trafficked persons, primarily women between the ages of eighteen and thirty trafficked for the purpose of prostitution from Latin America (Colombia, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Brazil), Africa (Nigeria, Guinea, Sierra Leone), and Eastern Europe.

The Government of Spain fully complies with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, including making serious and sustained efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking with respect to law enforcement, protection of victims, and prevention of trafficking. Spanish law prohibits trafficking and alien smuggling, with a specific provision outlawing trafficking in workers. Exploitation of prostitution through coercion or fraud and the exploitation of workers in general are also outlawed. The police dismantled many criminal organizations involved in some aspect of trafficking and made more than one thousand arrests. The government vigorously prosecuted many cases, notably those that also implicated illegal immigration, prostitution, and criminal organizations making use of false identity documents. Spain cooperates with other governments, especially those from source countries, in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases, primarily through Interpol and Europol. To protect victims, the law allows temporary residence for undocumented persons who cooperate with law enforcement for the prosecution of migrant smugglers. Victims who are granted the right to stay are authorized to work and travel. After legal proceedings conclude, the victim is given the option to remain in Spain or return to his or her country of origin. Medical assistance is available from government and NGO sources, although undocumented migrants are ineligible for government assistance other than emergency care. The government provides some funding to religious organizations and other NGOs, such as shelters for rape victims or immigrants' health or legal services organizations, that indirectly serve trafficking victims. The police also refer trafficking victims to an NGO in Madrid that specifically serves trafficking victims. To prevent trafficking, the government's strategic plan on illegal immigration explicitly recognizes the need to fight against trafficking. The Ministry of Labor provided support to an NGO that produced a pamphlet reviewing the problem of trafficking intended to raise the visibility of trafficking within Spanish society. The Autonomous Community of Madrid and the European Commission provided funding for a best practices guide produced by a journalists' organization for journalists covering prostitution and trafficking in women.

Sri Lanka (Tier 2)

Sri Lanka is a country of origin and destination for trafficked persons. Internal trafficking of persons for purposes of sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and child soldiers also takes place in Sri Lanka. In many cases, Sri Lankan women go to the Middle East in search of work, only to be put into situations of coerced labor, slave-like conditions, or sexual exploitation. A small number of Thai, Russian, and Chinese women have been trafficked to Sri Lanka for purposes of sexual exploitation. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) abduct and hold children against their will for purposes of forced labor, military conscription, and in some cases, sexual exploitation. A ceasefire with the LTTE has been in place since December 2001.

The government of Sri Lanka does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The Sri Lankan Penal Code specifically criminalizes trafficking in persons, and law enforcement authorities have undertaken some investigations of traffickers. The government has established a Police Women's and Children's Bureau, and the National Child Protection Authority, which works closely with the police to combat trafficking. Limited specialized training is provided to members of these units. The LTTE controls territory in the north and east of the country and the government is unable to investigate or prosecute traffickers in these areas. The government has undertaken several initiatives to provide protection and services to victims of internal trafficking, including supporting rehabilitation camps for victims. Foreign women trafficked to Sri Lanka are sometimes arrested and released upon paying a fine. The National Child Protection Authority provides medical and psychological assistance to Sri Lankan victims of trafficking and child soldiers. The government has assigned welfare officers to countries in the Middle East to focus on the rights of women who may have been trafficked there. The government's Overseas Employment Bureau works with Sri Lankan embassies abroad to resolve problems that domestic workers encounter. In terms of prevention, the government, together with NGOs, has conducted some public awareness campaigns regarding child labor, and created hotlines for reporting child labor abuse. In January 2002, the government signed the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Prevention and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution.

Sudan (Tier 3)

Sudan is a country of destination for internationally trafficked persons, as well as a country with widespread internal trafficking. Thousands of Ugandan men, women and children, have been abducted by rebel groups to be used as sex slaves, domestic helpers, child soldiers, and forcibly conscripted soldiers. Women and children have also been subjected to intertribal abductions for domestic and sexual exploitation in the southern part of the country. There are reports of Sudanese persons being sold into slavery through Chad, to Libya.

The Government of Sudan does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Sudan does not acknowledge the extent of the problem. Sudan tolerates abductions by government-affiliated militia as a form of remuneration for military services, and as a strategy of destabilization of the rebel-controlled areas. There are no laws that specifically address trafficking in persons. Although laws against rape, abduction, torture, and unlawful detention exist, the Government has not made an effort to investigate and prosecute any traffickers or abductors. Over the past years, the Government made several promises and outlined several plans to identify and release Ugandan children and Sudanese abductees, and to set up civilian tribunal tribunals to prosecute persons involved in abductions. To date, the tribunals have not been set up, no related prosecutions have taken place, and only a few hundred Ugandan children have been returned, with an estimated ten thousand still in captivity. In 2002, a Presidential Decree was issued, expanding the authority of the Committee for the Eradication of the Abduction of Women and Children (CEAWC), to investigate and prosecute abductions. Records indicating the number of individuals the CEAWC has repatriated have not been kept adequately, but the number is small relative to the size of the problem. The Government has made no significant efforts toward the protection of victims or the prevention of trafficking.

Switzerland (Tier 1)

Switzerland is a country of destination for trafficking victims, almost exclusively women, and, to a lesser extent, a transit country.

The Government of Switzerland fully complies with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, including making serious and sustained efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking with respect to law enforcement, protection of victims, and prevention of trafficking. The Swiss penal code criminalizes sexual exploitation, forced prostitution, trafficking, and taking advantage of a person's distress or dependency due to employment or other condition. The cantonal authorities conduct investigations and prosecutions, and the numbers of cases have increased over time. To protect victims, the Federal Office of Police and cantonal justice and police authorities collaborate with NGOs to provide assistance to victims of trafficking. Federal authorities are working with cantonal authorities through a federal-NGO working group to ensure that victims are not deported. Swiss victims' assistance laws cover foreigners living unlawfully in Switzerland, and provide for counseling, protections and safeguarding victims' rights. The government supports NGOs that help trafficking victims, notably one that provides services to women from Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe. To prevent trafficking, the Federal Office of Police launched a pioneer project several years ago to institutionalize the exchange of information with NGOs on commercial sexual exploitation of children. The government funds several prevention programs intended to combat trafficking from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. With NGO participation, the government trains its consular officials to educate visa applicants on the risks of falling victim to traffickers and common ploys used by traffickers to lure women into vulnerable situations. The government also provided funding to an OSCE project on trafficking.

Tajikistan (Tier 3)

Tajikistan is a country of origin for young women trafficked to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, and countries of the Persian Gulf including the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Iran and Saudi Arabia for purposes of sexual exploitation.

The Government of Tajikistan does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Although there is a growing awareness of trafficking as a problem in Tajikistan, the government has not evidenced a willingness to address it and does not have a national plan. There is no law against trafficking, although laws against prostitution, rape, kidnapping, immigration and document fraud violations could be used against traffickers. To date, there have been no reported prosecutions of traffickers. Law enforcement officials do not vigorously investigate trafficking. Corruption is endemic. There is no specialized training for law enforcement on trafficking. The borders are not controlled or monitored for trafficking in persons. The Government of Tajikistan does not provide protection assistance to trafficking victims, encourage victims to seek legal action, or provide restitution. However, the government does encourage NGOs to provide social services to victims. Some victims may be fined for prostitution. Economic and cultural attitudes may hinder the reintegration of trafficking victims. There are no resources provided for prevention initiatives with the exception of support for rural education and women's business associations.

Tanzania (Tier 2)

Tanzania is a source country for trafficked persons. Available information indicates that trafficking in Tanzania is most often internal and related to child labor, including child prostitution in the larger cities. Some sources also suggest that women and girls may be trafficked to South Africa, the Middle East, North Africa, Asia, and Europe to work as prostitutes. Children are trafficked from rural to urban areas within the country for domestic work, commercial agriculture, fishing, and mining. Children in the country's large refugee population are especially vulnerable to being trafficked to work on Tanzanian plantations, and some have been transported from refugee camps for training as child soldiers. To a lesser degree, Tanzania is a destination point for trafficked persons from India and surrounding African countries.

The Government of Tanzania does not meet the minimum requirements to eliminate trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government has acknowledged that trafficking is a problem. Severe financial constraints, pervasive corruption, and porous borders and only nascent understanding of the scope of the problem have hampered anti-trafficking efforts, resulting in an inconsistent and incomplete framework to combat trafficking. A new section of the penal code criminalizes trafficking within or outside of Tanzania; however the penalty is relatively light. A multi-agency government task force coordinates on child labor issues, but does not specifically address trafficking in persons. Law enforcement agencies traditionally investigate trafficking cases as immigration/visa crimes; consequently, there have been no trafficking convictions. Tanzania is one of three countries participating in a pilot program to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The program brings together government agencies, trade unions, and legal and social welfare organizations to combat child labor and trafficking. The government does not provide training for law enforcement officials in how to investigate and prosecute incidences of trafficking. Witness protection is not provided. Little government assistance is provided to protect victims, although some community organizations provide assistance, counselling, and rehabilitation. Foreign victims are routinely repatriated. The government has begun to provide free education to primary school children, which may help prevent child labor and child prostitution. There have been some public education campaigns, but the government does not have the resources to provide financial or in-kind contributions to social service NGOs.

Thailand (Tier 2)

Thailand is a source, destination and transit country for trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation and street begging. Internal trafficking has reportedly declined, however trafficking of foreigners has correspondingly increased . Victims are trafficked from Burma, Cambodia, China, and Laos. Chinese are trafficked through Thailand en route to the United States and other destinations. Thai women are trafficked to Japan, Taiwan, the United States, Australia and Western Europe primarily for sexual exploitation.

The government does not yet fully meet the minimum standards to eliminate trafficking, but is making significant efforts to do so. Thailand has a law against trafficking in women and children, but investigations and prosecutions have been limited. Evidence of low-level police involvement in facilitating the movement of trafficking victims, accepting bribes and owning brothels seriously hinders law enforcement. The government has undertaken several initiatives to protect victims, including working with NGOs and international organizations to provide shelter and repatriate victims. In-kind assistance is provided to NGOs that work with trafficking victims and limited services, such as counseling, food, and medical care, are available. In terms of prevention, the government has entered into cooperative agreements with industry leaders to promote employment of girls and women outside the sex industry. Police monitor migration patterns and deny departure to suspected trafficking victims. In coordination with NGOs and international organizations, the government has created a working group to combat trafficking in women and children to improve interagency coordination, build law enforcement capacity and draft legislation.

Togo (Tier 2)

Togo is a source and transit country for internationally trafficked persons, mostly children. The majority of the victims are trafficked for indentured servitude or domestic labor to Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria, France and Germany. Saudi Arabia and Lebanon are also reported destinations.

The Government of Togo does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Togo lacks financial resources and trained personnel to properly address the problem of trafficking and the needs of the victims. While there is no law specifically prohibiting trafficking, other laws on the illegal movement or transfer of children, child labor, and sexual exploitation can be used. Draft laws addressing trafficking, funded last year by the United Nations, are currently under consideration but have not been enacted. The government prosecutes and convicts traffickers, though corruption among border security forces and immigration officials remains a very serious problem. The government devotes personnel in the Ministries of Social Affairs, Education, and Labor to work on prevention and protection issues. In terms of protection, victims are respected and not treated as criminals by government officials and security forces. The government attempts to find the victims' families for reunification, and works with NGOs to provide them with shelter, legal and medical services. Over the past three years, the government organized public campaigns on the dangers posed by child traffickers and the legal penalties facing those who engage in criminal practices. Prevention campaigns were also organized for the Prefects and the security forces. Togo participates in international and regional efforts to combat trafficking, and is one of the West African countries participating in an international program to reduce trafficking in children.

Turkey (Tier 3)

Turkey is a minor country of destination, and transit to other European destinations, for women and girls trafficked into sexual exploitation. Most come from countries of the former Soviet Union, including Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova.

The Government of Turkey does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Turkey has no law against trafficking, although draft anti-trafficking legislation is on the Parliamentary agenda. Other laws against organized crime, pimping, child prostitution, and forced labor can be used against traffickers. Police in Istanbul report that operations against traffickers have led to scores of arrests. In one case, police freed 15 victims of trafficking in the Black Sea region. The Ukrainian government reported that Turkish cooperation led to the arrest of a trafficking ring in Ukraine. Some law enforcement officials tolerate foreigners working in commercial sex, but no evidence shows official involvement in trafficking per se. With respect to protection of victims, the government provides no social services or shelters for victims. Foreign trafficking victims may use one of the eight government battered-women shelters for Turkish citizens, but in practice have difficulty gaining access. Trafficking victims are generally detained and deported, although they may be held longer to give testimony for an investigation. Regarding prevention, the government is working on a National Action Plan to study the problem and offer remedies; however efforts thus far have been limited to a few ad hoc public education campaigns at the local level. The government's current prevention strategy involves strict regulations for immigrants, including deporting all foreigners found in commercial sex work and prohibiting their re-entry into the country; however, the government makes no effort to screen deportees for possible trafficking victims, and thus to protect trafficking victims.

Uganda (Tier 2)

Uganda is a source country for trafficked persons, primarily women and children. Over the past fifteen years, a terrorist organization, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), has abducted tens of thousands of women and children and forced them to carry stolen goods, to cook, to serve as sex slaves, and to become rebel soldiers.

The Government of Uganda does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so, despite limited resources, a civil conflict, and continued kidnapping raids by rebels based in southern Sudan. The Ugandan Penal Code prohibits the import, export, purchase, sale, receipt or detention of persons as slaves but does not cover other severe forms of trafficking. The government does not actively investigate or prosecute cases of trafficking. When captured through security enforcement or military action, LRA rebels normally are prosecuted for other crimes, such as treason and sedition. Regarding protection of victims, the government of Uganda instituted a military incursion in March 2002 against the LRA in southern Sudan, in part to rescue children and others abducted by the LRA. The government, while financially unable to provide assistance, works closely with donors and NGOs, which provide counseling services, reintegration programs and other assistance for returning victims. The government has not launched any anti-trafficking campaigns or other prevention programs geared specifically to trafficking. However, the government does support universal primary education and programs to bolster women's participation in economic decision-making as broader preventative measures against trafficking.

Ukraine (Tier 2)

Ukraine is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Central and Western Europe and the Middle East for purposes of sexual exploitation.

The Government of Ukraine does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making serious and sustained efforts to do so. Although limited in resources, the government has the political will to make efforts against trafficking. A new criminal code effective September 2001 criminalizes human trafficking, pornography and sexual exploitation. Anti-trafficking units have been established at the national and oblast level. A limited but increasing number of cases against traffickers are prosecuted. Criminal organizations are believed to run trafficking activities. The government has also suspended the licenses of individuals and companies involved in trafficking in persons. The government does not condone trafficking but a number of law enforcement officers may be corrupt thereby facilitating trafficking in persons. Specialized training is offered for law enforcement. The government cooperates with foreign governments internationally on investigations, and participates in international training seminars. Governmental protection and assistance for victims is provided mainly at the local and city levels. Limited resources prevent the national government from offering victim services. Victims are encouraged to assist law enforcement in investigations of traffickers and may file civil actions. There is no victim restitution program. Governmental actions regarding prevention are limited, as a new government action plan for prevention of trafficking has been approved but not yet implemented. In November 2001, a docudrama on trafficking was aired; NGOs and international organizations have provided additional information campaigns.

United Arab Emirates (Tier 3)

The United Arab Emirates is a country of destination for trafficked persons. Foreign nationals comprise about eighty-five percent of the population, and guest workers make up ninety-eight percent of the country's private sector workforce. Of these, some who come to the United Arab Emirates for unskilled or semi-skilled employment become the victims of trafficking, since they are subject to coerced labor, slave-like conditions, or sexual exploitation. Those low-skilled foreign workers forced into domestic servitude primarily come from South and Southeast Asian countries, primarily India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Victims trafficked as domestic male servants, laborers and unskilled workers in construction and agriculture come mainly from India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh. There are reports that some trafficking victims' employment contracts were altered or switched upon their arrival to the United Arab Emirates without their consent, actions against which such victims have little effective recourse. Women and girls from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Russia, East Asia and Eastern Europe have reported being lured with the promise of legitimate jobs and then forced into sexual exploitation. Boys from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka have been trafficked to the United Arab Emirates to work as camel jockeys.

The government of the United Arab Emirates does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. The United Arab Emirates does not have a law criminalizing trafficking in persons. Forced or compulsory labor is illegal, and labor regulations prohibit the employment of persons less than fifteen years of age. Traffickers can be prosecuted for child smuggling. The authorities have prosecuted foreign child smugglers, but do not investigate citizens involved in trafficking. The government prohibited the use of children under the age of fifteen as camel jockeys in 1993, but the Camel Racing Association, not the government, is responsible for enforcing these rules. The labor laws in the United Arab Emirates do not cover domestic servants or agricultural workers. Regarding protection of victims, the government has made only minimal efforts. The government of the United Arab Emirates has provided underage camel jockeys with shelter and repatriation assistance, but provides no assistance to other trafficking victims. Prostitutes are either detained or arrested and prosecuted and then deported without regard to whether they are victims of trafficking. The government does not sponsor prevention efforts. It has restricted granting visas to single women who are under forty years of age, to prohibit them from visiting the United Arab Emirates and working as prostitutes.

United Kingdom (Tier 1)

The United Kingdom is a destination country for the trafficking of women into prostitution and the trafficking of laborers, predominantly men, into agriculture, sweatshops and industry. Female victims are trafficked from Eastern Europe, notably the Balkans. Trafficked laborers come from a variety of countries, including China, Congo, Angola, Colombia, Romania, Yugoslavia and the Indian subcontinent.

The Government of the United Kingdom fully complies with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, including making serious and sustained efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons with respect to law enforcement, protection of victims, and prevention of trafficking. Although it has no specific law against trafficking in persons, the United Kingdom prohibits related offenses such as unlawful imprisonment, related offenses of sexual and physical violence, and immigration and other sexual offense violations. The British police have dedicated contact officers in national and international law enforcement agencies who deal specifically with trafficking. The government actively investigates and prosecutes trafficking cases, and has convicted traffickers for related offenses such as "causing prostitution." To protect victims, the government may provide trafficking victims with temporary residence. British social services provide care to trafficking victims. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has assisted many trafficking victims and repatriated many others. Community Liaison Units attached to consular sections of United Kingdom diplomatic missions have made strides to prevent forced marriages. Other Government prevention activities include distribution of anti-trafficking videos and literature in the Balkans and other countries of origin. The government supports numerous international and domestic organizations that combat trafficking, and is involved in international efforts to combat trafficking through the European Union, OSCE and the Balkans Stability Pact. The Department for International Development runs education programs on trafficking in Eastern Europe and South-East Asia. The government addresses organized, immigration-related crime through formal, interagency coordination. The government is legally obligated to implement within two years the European Union framework decision on trafficking.

Vietnam (Tier 2)

Vietnam is a source and transit country for women and children trafficked for sexual exploitation. There is also internal trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation. Vietnamese victims are trafficked primarily to China and Cambodia and, to a lesser extent, other destinations in Asia including American Samoa, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Organized crime groups use Vietnam as a transit point for persons trafficked from China and the Middle East to Australia, Canada, and Europe.

The government does not yet meet minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. There is a law against trafficking in women and children, but not against trafficking in men. The police actively investigate cases that come to their attention and traffickers have been prosecuted. Protection for victims includes a rehabilitation program, which offers assistance to some victims with the aid of international donors. Although prostitutes, including some trafficking victims, receive some counseling and services, this occurs in detention centers, in which they are confined until the sentence is served. Corruption, poor border control and inefficient interagency cooperation limit the effectiveness of prevention efforts. There has been an information campaign and the government cooperates with international organizations to warn potential victims of the dangers of trafficking. The government has also worked bilaterally on trafficking issues with China. In a case that could indicate government involvement in trafficking, an American Samoa court found that two government-controlled labor export companies were liable for labor law violations in their treatment of Vietnamese workers in American Samoa. Victims were subjected to a harsh work environment, unscrupulous contracts, and intimidation to drop the lawsuit. The government did take belated action in this case however, removing the general directors of both companies and suspending the operations of one company. One director has been prosecuted and sentenced, and judicial proceedings are pending for the other director.

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is a transit country, and to a lesser extent, a source and destination country for women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. Victims, mostly from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, and Bulgaria end up in Kosovo, Bosnia, Albania, and Western Europe. Roma children are also trafficked through the Federal Republic for begging and theft in Western Europe. Chinese nationals are occasionally trafficked from Serbia to Western Europe.

Neither the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia1, the Government of Serbia, nor the Government of Montenegro yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, they are making significant efforts to do so. The Federal Interior Ministry formed the Initial Board for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, with representatives from all relevant federal and republic ministries, international organizations, and NGOs, and it established a high-level working group. While the lack of specific trafficking laws makes prosecution of trafficking difficult, the Serbian and Montenegrin Republic Governments are currently prosecuting under slavery, prostitution, and kidnapping laws. With foreign government consultation, the federal and republic ministries have formed a law enforcement task force that is investigating and prosecuting trafficking cases. In addition, Montenegro's security center is exchanging information with the international community in Kosovo and with Albania in trafficking case investigations. Corruption, especially at the low level, is a widespread problem. In 2001, over 1,200 cases of general police corruption resulted in termination of employment or fines. With respect to protection of victims, the Federal and Serbian Governments provide in-kind support to NGOs and international organizations in the form of space and security for shelters, and rely on these organizations for all protection services to victims. The Federal government also provides facilities for the recently opened Regional Clearing Point, which collects and coordinates information on trafficking from all the countries in the region. The Federal Government signed an MOU granting victims a four-week assessment period before deportation; however, in some cases, potential victims are still being detained, fined, and deported for illegal border crossing and prostitution. For prevention, the Serbian and Montenegrin Governments provide school space and public TV and radio time for NGOs and international organizations to run public anti-trafficking programs.

Kosovo, while technically part of Serbia, is currently being administered under the authority of the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK) pending a determination of its future status in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. Since the adoption of UNSCR 1244 in June 1999, UNMIK has provided transitional administration for Kosovo. UNMIK is aware of the serious problems that exist in Kosovo concerning trafficking and is working to conduct anti-trafficking efforts. UNMIK remains the final authority in Kosovo but is turning over responsibility in most areas to Provisional Institutions of Self-government following Kosovo-wide elections last November and the formation of a coalition government.  


1Federal authority was exercised effectively only over the Republic of Serbia (excluding Kosovo) throughout the year.