President's Interagency Task Force: Progress in Combating Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. Government Response to Modern Slavery

Office To Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
October 25, 2016


“Human trafficking occurs in countries throughout the world and in communities across our Nation. Children are forced to fight as soldiers, young people are coerced into prostitution, and migrants are exploited. People from all walks of life are trafficked every day, and the United States is committed to remaining a leader in the global movement to end this abhorrent practice.” -- President Barack Obama, Presidential Proclamation – National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2016

The President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons was authorized by section 105(a) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-386) and established by Executive Order 13257, sec. 1(a) (Feb. 13, 2002). Agencies of the President’s Interagency Task Force:

Department of State
Department of Defense
Department of Justice
Department of the Interior
Department of Agriculture
Department of Labor
Department of Health and Human Services
Department of Transportation
Department of Education
Department of Homeland Security
Domestic Policy Council
National Security Council
Office of Management and Budget
Office of the United States Trade Representative
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Federal Bureau of Investigation
U.S. Agency for International Development
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Progress In Combating Trafficking In Persons: The U.S. Government Response To Modern Slavery

Trafficking in persons, also known as modern slavery or human trafficking, includes both sex trafficking and compelled labor. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-386), as amended (TVPA), uses a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor, to describe this phenomenon.

Human trafficking can include, but does not require, movement. Under the TVPA, people may be considered trafficking victims regardless of whether they were transported to the exploitative situation, previously consented to work for a trafficker, or participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked. At the heart of this phenomenon is the traffickers’ aim to exploit and enslave their victims and the myriad coercive and deceptive practices they use.

Human trafficking is an opportunistic crime. Traffickers target all types of people irrespective of their age, gender, gender identity, citizenship, or immigration status (documented or undocumented). However, a common factor among victims of modern slavery is their vulnerability to exploitation. Systemic social, cultural, and economic policies or practices may marginalize or discriminate against individuals and groups because they are poor, have intellectual or physical disabilities, or because of their gender or ethnicity. Migrants, refugees, Native Americans, runaway youth, those who are homeless, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals are particularly vulnerable.

Victims often have something else in common – aspirations for a better life without options to fulfill them. Exploiting these aspirations, traffickers claim to offer hope – in the form of love, a sense of belonging, a good job, a brighter future, or a safe home. They prey on victims’ hopes and exploit their trust, robbing them of their dignity and well-being in exchange for a false promise to pursue their dreams.

In the United States, federal departments and agencies work to ensure a whole-of-government approach to address all aspects of human trafficking. The President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (PITF) and the Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG), which consists of senior officials designated as representatives of the PITF members, are dedicated to a multi-faceted response from every level of the U.S. government. This multidisciplinary approach includes the vigorous enforcement of criminal anti-trafficking statutes and labor laws; development of victim-centered identification, stabilization, and protection measures; support for innovations in data gathering and research; implementation of education and public awareness programs; enhanced partnerships and research opportunities; and strategically linked foreign assistance and diplomatic engagement.

The agencies of the PITF are the Departments of State (DOS), Defense (DOD), Justice (DOJ), the Interior (DOI), Agriculture (USDA), Labor (DOL), Health and Human Services (HHS), Transportation (DOT), Education (ED), and Homeland Security (DHS), as well as the Domestic Policy Council (DPC), the National Security Council (NSC), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR), the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). As part of the PITF, these agencies convene routinely to advance and coordinate federal policies to combat trafficking in persons and implement the TVPA.

Following President Obama’s March 2012 call to strengthen federal efforts to combat human trafficking, agencies of the PITF have brought together leaders from government, the private sector, law enforcement, academia, religious communities, and civil society, as well as survivors, and have achieved significant progress in the areas of victim services, rule of law, procurement and supply chains, and public awareness and outreach – an engine of progress that continues to drive our interagency collaboration and this Administration’s commitments.

The pages that follow reflect the work these agencies and their partners have accomplished from March 2015 through August 2016, both individually and through the five SPOG Committees, as well as their commitment to continue their efforts in the years to come. These accomplishments demonstrate the efforts undertaken across the U.S. government in all priority areas: enhancing criminal justice capacity to hold traffickers accountable; strengthening victim services to empower survivors to restore their lives; advancing policies to prevent sex trafficking and forced labor in federal contracts and global supply chains; and building public awareness and outreach programs to mobilize additional partners in the fight against human trafficking.

The diverse achievements ranged from engaging with the newly-appointed U.S. Advisory Council on Human Trafficking – which provides trafficking survivors a formal voice in federal anti-trafficking policy – to ensuring that goods produced wholly or in part by indentured, convict, or forced labor, including forced child labor, are not imported into the United States, and working to produce the first National Intelligence Estimate on human trafficking. In addition, the PITF expanded in the last year to include the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative in recognition of the belief that trade agreements are an important tool at the United States’ disposal to address forced labor.

This compilation of the Obama Administration’s accomplishments in combating human trafficking represents merely a snapshot, as of August 2016, of the successes achieved through the U.S. government’s commitment to combat trafficking in persons. Each day, the Obama Administration strives to improve its strategy and to enhance its partnerships in order to fulfill not only the mandates of the TVPA, but also the promise of the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

The Face of Modern Slavery

Sex Trafficking
When an adult engages in a commercial sex act, such as prostitution, as the result of force, threats of force, fraud, coercion or any combination of such means, that person is a victim of trafficking. Under such circumstances, perpetrators involved in recruiting, harboring, enticing, transporting, providing, obtaining, advertising, maintaining, patronizing, or soliciting a person for that purpose are guilty of federal sex trafficking of an adult. This is true even if the victim previously consented to engage in such activities.

• Child Sex Trafficking

When a minor (defined under federal law as a person under 18 years) is recruited, enticed, harbored, transported, provided, obtained, advertised, maintained, patronized, or solicited to engage in a commercial sex act, proving force, fraud, or coercion is not required. The use of children in the commercial sex trade is prohibited both under U.S. law and by legislation in most countries around the world.

Labor Trafficking
Labor trafficking encompasses the range of activities – recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining – involved when a person uses force or physical threats; psychological coercion; abuse of the legal process; a scheme, plan, or pattern intended to hold a person in fear of serious harm; or other coercive means to compel someone to work. Once a person’s labor is obtained by such means, the person’s previous consent or effort to obtain employment with the trafficker does not preclude the person from being considered a victim, or the government from prosecuting the offender.

• Bonded Labor or Debt Bondage
U.S. law prohibits the use of a bond or debt as a form of coercion used to compel a person’s labor. Some workers inherit debt, while others fall victim to traffickers or recruiters who unlawfully exploit an initial debt assumed as a condition of employment.

• Debt Bondage among Migrant Laborers
Although contract violations and hazardous working conditions for migrant laborers do not necessarily constitute human trafficking, the burden of costs and debts on these laborers can contribute to a situation of debt bondage. Employment-based temporary work programs when the workers’ legal status in the country is tied to the employer make it more difficult for workers to speak up and seek redress.

• Domestic Servitude
In the case of domestic servitude, the circumstances of providing services in a residence create unique vulnerabilities. Domestic workplaces are often informal, connected to off-duty living quarters, and not shared with other workers. Such an environment, which often isolates domestic workers, is conducive to exploitation because authorities cannot inspect private homes as easily as formal workplaces.

• Forced Child Labor
Although children may legally engage in certain forms of work, forms of slavery or slave-like practices – including the sale of children, forced or compulsory child labor, and debt bondage and serfdom of children – continue to exist as manifestations of human trafficking, despite legal prohibitions and widespread condemnation. U.S. law prohibits the importation of goods produced by forced labor, including forced child labor.

Unlawful Recruitment or Use of Child Soldiers
Child soldiering can be a manifestation of human trafficking when it involves the unlawful recruitment or use of children – through force, fraud, or coercion – by armed forces as combatants or to carry out support roles such as cooks, porters, messengers, medics, or guards. Perpetrators may be government forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups. In addition to being recruited or used for combat or labor, some child soldiers are sexually exploited by armed groups. 

What follows are selected highlights and individual agency accomplishments as they relate to U.S. government priorities organized by ten strategic objectives:

1) Investigate and prosecute traffickers and dismantle the criminal networks that perpetrate trafficking in persons.

2) Enhance victim identification and the provision of relief and services for all victims of trafficking.

3) Enhance training of stakeholders, including civil society, law enforcement, and government officials, to increase identification of victims.

4) Encourage foreign governments to combat trafficking through international diplomacy and engagement.

5) Forge and strengthen partnerships and other forms of collaboration to combat trafficking in persons.

6) Fund domestic and international anti-trafficking programs focusing on victim identification, prevention, and outreach.

7) Integrate anti-trafficking components into relevant government programs.

8) Promote public awareness about modern slavery.

9) Spur innovation and improve capacity to combat modern slavery through data collection and research.

10) Gather and synthesize actionable intelligence to increase the number of domestic and international trafficking prosecutions.

1) Investigate and prosecute traffickers and dismantle the criminal networks that perpetrate trafficking in persons.

• DOJ, in coordination with DHS and DOL, continued to develop high-impact human trafficking investigations and prosecutions through the highly effective Anti-Trafficking Coordination Team (ACTeam) Initiative, and also designated six new Phase II ACTeams and delivered intensive advanced training to Phase II ACTeam federal agents, prosecutors, and victim assistance professionals.

• DOJ secured convictions against 297 defendants for federal human trafficking offenses in FY 2015. Of these convictions, 291 involved predominantly sex trafficking and six involved predominantly labor trafficking, although several involved both.

• DHS’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement Homeland Security Investigations (ICE/HSI) initiated 1,034 human trafficking cases, resulting in 1,437 arrests and 587 convictions, and identified 384 victims of human trafficking in FY 2015.

• The FBI Human Trafficking Program initiated 383 human trafficking investigations from March 2015 to June 2016, resulting in the arrests of 462 subjects. The FBI Violent Crimes Against Children Program opened 700 cases relating to child sex trafficking and made over 2,000 arrests in FY 2015. The FBI Human Trafficking Program initiated 264 investigations in FY 2015, resulting in the arrests of 422 subjects.

• The FBI enhanced the Innocence Lost Database using the DOD Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA) Memex program, which is available to law enforcement associated with the FBI’s Child Exploitation Task Forces.

• DOJ and DHS continued to collaborate with Mexican law enforcement counterparts through the U.S.-Mexico Bilateral Human Trafficking Enforcement Initiative aimed at dismantling human trafficking networks operating across the U.S.-Mexico border. U.S. and Mexican authorities conducted a coordinated, bilateral enforcement action in November 2015 to apprehend eight defendants charged with operating a sex trafficking enterprise, and collaborated to secure the extradition to the United States in June 2016 of the five defendants apprehended in Mexico.

• The FBI Human Trafficking Program developed the Labor Trafficking Initiative to improve efforts to identify labor trafficking cases by using training, enhanced intelligence models, and strategic outreach to assist field offices with the identification of potential labor trafficking victims, while also improving coordination with state regulatory agencies.

• DOD conducted operations targeted at identifying activities off overseas installations whose primary business model is prostitution and human trafficking. Relevant information pertaining to human trafficking was forwarded to the Korean National Police for further investigation and prosecution.

• DOS’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) had 279 open cases, as of August 2016, where DS Special Agents determined human trafficking may be involved. DS maintains about 100 active cases a year with a human trafficking element.

• DHS’s Customs and Border Protection (CBP) National Targeting Center assisted DHS ICE/HSI in 31 suspected human trafficking reported leads. CBP assisted ICE/HSI in identifying and locating individuals that were reported as potential victims or human traffickers.

• DOJ funded 23 Enhanced Collaborative Model (ECM) anti-trafficking task forces across the United States from March 2015 to March 2016.

• DOL participated in 15 DOJ-funded task forces that are operating in nine states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands, as well as 35 non-DOJ funded task forces located in nine states.

• DHS ICE/HSI participated in nearly 100 human trafficking task forces throughout the United States. These task forces are comprised of federal, state, and local law enforcement, prosecutors, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with a vested interest in human trafficking.

2) Enhance victim identification and the provision of relief and services for all victims of trafficking.

• The SPOG Victim Services Committee, co-chaired by DOJ, HHS, and DHS, continued to implement and track progress on the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States, 2013-2017.

• HHS’s Office on Trafficking in Persons grantees provided comprehensive case management for 1,726 individual clients during FY 2015. HHS issued 623 Certification Letters to foreign national adults and 240 Eligibility Letters to foreign national children.

• DHS’s United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) granted T nonimmigrant status to 336 victims and 480 eligible family members from October 2015 through March 2016; USCIS met the 10,000 cap for U nonimmigrant status it can grant to principal petitioners each year by January 1, 2016, and approved petitions for 6,693 eligible family members.

• EEOC resolved two lawsuits involving hundreds of victims of national origin discrimination and labor trafficking. In the state of Washington, a judge ordered Global Horizons to pay more than $7 million for subjecting Thai farmworkers to a hostile work environment, harassment, and discrimination in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. In another case, Signal International, LLC settled for $5 million in a race and national origin discrimination lawsuit involving 476 Indian nationals recruited through the federal H-2B guestworker program to work at facilities in Texas and Mississippi in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

• DOJ’s Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) grantees providing services to human trafficking victims reported 3,889 open client cases from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015, including 2,180 new clients, an increase from 2,782 open client cases and 1,366 new clients served between the same period the previous year.

• The DHS/ICE Victim Assistance Program referred a total of 628 human trafficking victims for services to NGOs, including faith-based organizations, from March 1, 2015 through August 5, 2016.

• HHS’s Rescue and Restore Regional Program grantees made initial contact with 578 victims or suspected victims in FY 2015, including 494 foreign nationals and 82 U.S. citizens.

• The DOS Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (TIP Office) continued to support a global emergency victim assistance fund to provide short- to medium-term, direct assistance for trafficking victims overseas on an emergency, case-by-case basis. In FY 2015, more than 250 victims of human trafficking received services, including shelter, medical care, repatriation, and reintegration assistance.

• DHS disseminated guidance on Continued Presence throughout all ICE/HSI field offices to advance awareness on how and when to appropriately use this temporary immigration status.

• USAID implementing partners responded to the immediate and, in many cases, long-term needs of more than 6,505 trafficking victims worldwide through the provision of services. In addition, USAID implementing partners reached more than 30,237 individuals at risk for human trafficking through targeted outreach and support.

• The FBI funded trafficking survivors to participate in training for its Child Exploitation Task Force to develop more effective victim identification and investigative strategies.

• The DOS TIP Office supported projects in Honduras, Uzbekistan, and Sierra Leone in FY 2015, resulting in increased capacity for victim assistance for particularly vulnerable and underserved populations, such as LGBTI youth and male survivors.

• DOS’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) funded a program that helped reunify 391 eligible family members with 176 foreign national trafficking victims in the United States, assisted 671 family members with pre-departure assistance, and aided four survivors to return home voluntarily from March 2015 through August 2016.

• ED widely disseminated Human Trafficking in America’s Schools, a guide released in 2015 to help schools protect students, identify potential victims, and work with partners in their efforts to prosecute traffickers.

• The DHS Blue Campaign published the U and T Visa Law Enforcement Resource Guide to inform law enforcement of immigration relief available to human trafficking victims.

• DOL completed law enforcement certifications for T and U visas, including for extortion, fraud in foreign labor contracting, and forced labor.

• DOS’s Diplomatic Security Victim Recovery Assistance Program supported victims during investigations, including efforts to lessen trauma during interviews, and located shelter placements globally for victims and family members who were witnesses in domestic cases.

• DOS consulted with NGOs in May 2016 on issues related to domestic workers employed by foreign mission and international organization personnel in Washington, D.C.

3) Enhance training of stakeholders, including civil society, law enforcement, and government officials, to increase identification of victims.

• DHS, DOJ, and DOL launched the Advanced Human Trafficking Training Program for anti-trafficking task forces comprising federal, state, and local law enforcement and NGO victim advocates.

• USAID implementing partners provided targeted training to 6,850 key stakeholders in Egypt, Burma, Moldova, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Ukraine including civil society, law enforcement, and government officials. The training’s objective was to increase identification of victims and improve access and delivery of services to victims of human trafficking.

• DOI’s Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) partnered with the New Mexico Office of the Attorney General and the Coalition to Stop Violence Against Native Women to host a working conference to provide training to local, state, and tribal law enforcement, and victim service providers.

• DOT provided anti-trafficking training for federal, state, and local bus and truck inspectors and nearly all 55,000 DOT employees.

• ED staff provided training to the National Association of School Social Workers and other school and student-serving organizations.

• DOJ provided anti-trafficking training and technical assistance through OVC’s Training and Technical Assistance Center to 7,386 victim service providers and allied professionals between March 2015 and August 2016 to help build community capacity to identify and respond to human trafficking. From July 2014 through June 2015, OVC grantees provided trafficking training to 38,829 anti-trafficking stakeholders.

• HHS provided training and technical assistance in FY 2015 to state child welfare agencies representing all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and Washington, D.C. through the Children’s Bureau Child Welfare Capacity Building Collaborative, including on victim identification.

• The FBI Human Trafficking Program developed an online training platform for DOJ law enforcement personnel on investigating sex and labor trafficking.

• The DHS Blue Campaign implemented a program requiring human trafficking awareness training for all DHS operational components. In June 2016, DHS submitted its first congressional report on implementation of this requirement as mandated by the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015.

• HHS grantees provided training to 1,734 participants and technical assistance on 4,427 occasions throughout FY 2015 to individuals in nearly all the states in their regions, including in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

• DOL collaborated with DOJ to enhance mechanisms to detect, refer, and track instances of potential trafficking identified in the course of its regular Wage and Hour investigations.

• HHS, with survivor and stakeholder input, developed and delivered the Stop. Observe. Ask. Respond (SOAR) to Health and Wellness training on human trafficking across ten virtual and seven in-person sites to equip health care and social service providers, and public and behavioral health professionals with an understanding of how to identify and respond appropriately to human trafficking in these settings.

• DOJ provided or coordinated trainings on money laundering, forfeiture, and financial investigations, as well as a week-long training on child sex trafficking cases, for hundreds of prosecutors and agents working on human trafficking cases.

• The DOS TIP Office’s training and technical assistance grantees trained more than 200 criminal justice practitioners across ten countries in FY 2015 to strengthen coordination on victim-centered investigations and prosecutions.

• EEOC continued training staff and representatives of state and local fair employment practice agencies on identifying and developing human trafficking cases.

• USDA, in partnership with DHS’s Blue Campaign and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC), launched Human Trafficking Awareness Training for Law Enforcement Officers to enhance the training of USDA law enforcement personnel on victim identification and how to handle suspected trafficking cases.

• DHS’s FLETC integrated human trafficking awareness training into its basic training for federal law enforcement and collaborated with the National Sheriffs’ Association to include human trafficking training in the Homeland Security Leadership Academy.

• The DHS Blue Campaign, in partnership with FLETC, launched a Native American training video and piloted a train-the-trainer course specifically for Indian Country.

• DOS provided training to domestic Diplomatic Security field offices and Passport Agencies beginning in April 2015. As of April 2016, the training reached 757 DOS employees in 10 U.S. cities.

4) Encourage foreign governments to combat trafficking through international diplomacy and engagement.

• DOS released the annual Trafficking in Persons Report, describing the anti-trafficking efforts of and ranking 188 countries and territories, including the United States. The theme of the 2016 Report focused on effective strategies to prevent human trafficking.

• In December 2015, with the United States as Council President, the United Nations Security Council held its first session to address human trafficking in conflict and called on Member States to improve implementation of obligations to criminalize, prevent, and otherwise detect and disrupt it. The United States also co-sponsored the June 2016 United Nations Human Rights Council resolution on “Trafficking in persons, especially women and children: protecting victims of trafficking and people at risk of trafficking, especially women and children in conflict and post-conflict situations.”

• Throughout 2015 and 2016, Administration officials urged foreign governments through diplomatic engagement in Washington, D.C., overseas, and multilateral venues to improve their anti-trafficking efforts.

• The DOS TIP Office launched the first Child Protection Compact Partnership with the government of Ghana, a jointly-developed multi-year plan aimed at bolstering current government and civil society efforts to address child sex trafficking and forced child labor in Ghana. The Partnership facilitated the award of $5 million in U.S. foreign assistance for two projects.

• DHS ICE/HSI developed a partnership with the Consular Corps College to provide human trafficking and victim assistance awareness training to attendees from more than 30 countries over the course of the reporting period. DHS ICE/HSI also delivered human trafficking training to 1,405 foreign law enforcement personnel, judges, and prosecutors in 13 countries.

• DOD collaborated with foreign partner militaries in more than 50 countries to provide training on human trafficking, reaching an estimated 450 foreign military members.

• The Trans-Pacific Partnership, negotiated by USTR, includes enforceable obligations to eliminate forced labor and to address trade in goods produced by forced labor. The agreement’s labor provisions and associated labor consistency plans specifically target labor trafficking concerns in trading partners by requiring reforms in law and practice.

• Through its International Visitor Leadership Program, DOS’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) conducted professional exchange programs with 396 current and emerging foreign leaders from March 2015 through August 2016, coming from around the world with responsibilities related to trafficking in persons.

• USAID managed a project focused on implementation of victim support provisions of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Convention by helping ASEAN countries adopt a rights-based approach to victim services.

• USAID provided training, technical assistance, and case management monitoring to Guatemala’s Specialized Trafficking in Persons Prosecutor’s Office to support implementation of the Law Against Sexual Violence, Exploitation, and Trafficking in Persons.

• FBI’s Office for Victim Assistance (OVA) provided training on child sexual exploitation in Canada, Ethiopia, and Thailand to law enforcement officials, victim services organizations, attorneys, U.S. embassy staff, teachers, and counselors. In addition, OVA staff met with foreign delegations to discuss the provision of services to victims of child sex trafficking, tourism, and pornography. OVA also provided consultation to DOS personnel regarding transnational child victim cases in Indonesia, Japan, and Russia.

• DOL continued to implement its 11 consular partnerships to ensure that foreign workers in the United States are informed of their labor rights, conducting coordinated outreach events year-round.

• In 2015 and 2016, DOS hosted Washington, D.C. briefings for foreign embassy Deputy Chiefs of Mission and representatives of international organizations to review the requirements governing the hiring of foreign domestic workers by foreign mission personnel and the In-Person Registration Program, emphasizing best practices and compliance with U.S. law. DOS continues to work actively with other governments to enhance protections.

5) Forge and strengthen partnerships and other forms of collaboration to combat trafficking in persons.

• On December 16, 2015, President Obama announced the historic appointment of 11 survivors to the United States Advisory Council on Human Trafficking. The Council provides a formal platform for trafficking survivors to advise and make recommendations on federal anti-trafficking policies.

• The Partnership for Freedom, a public-private partnership with DOJ, HHS, DOS, DOL, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the NGO Humanity United, announced two awards for its second Challenge, Rethink Supply Chains, a competition seeking technological solutions to help identify and address labor trafficking in global supply chains.

• The Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council, with support from the SPOG Procurement & Supply Chains Committee, issued and sought public comment on a proposed rule that would amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to provide a definition of “recruitment fees” to support implementation of the federal policy strengthening protections against trafficking in persons in federal contracts.

• DOI BIA partnered with the Oglala Sioux Tribal Child Protection Team and the Tribal Attorney General to adopt a human trafficking tribal code, which is one of the first tribal codes to address human trafficking.

• HHS established the Administration for Children and Families Office on Trafficking in Persons to elevate anti-trafficking work across HHS, coordinate programs on behalf of both foreign and domestic human trafficking victims, and strengthen anti-trafficking policies and practices.

• In 2016, USDA and HHS launched a pilot outreach campaign focused on ensuring an integrated and comprehensive approach to fighting human trafficking and meeting the needs of survivors in high-poverty tribal and rural communities in Louisiana, North Dakota, and Colorado.

• The DHS Blue Campaign entered into formal partnerships with the North Dakota Public Health Association; the Houston Mayor’s Office; the Birmingham, Alabama Mayor’s Office; the California Hotel & Lodging Association; the San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission; the D.C. Office of Human Rights; the Los Angeles Airport Police Department; and the Virginia Office of the Attorney General to provide training and awareness materials and collaborate on local and statewide anti-trafficking efforts.

• ED and HHS, in collaboration with President Lincoln’s Cottage, continued to cultivate a public-private partnership through a peer-to-peer social media competition to increase youth engagement in preventing and ending trafficking, generate youth-informed and youth-friendly prevention and intervention messages on a broader scale, and raise public awareness about the issue of human trafficking.

• DOJ OVC continued to forge partnerships with human trafficking survivors to implement programming and inform policies. Survivor voices were incorporated in a significant number of on-site technical assistance deliveries through OVC’s Training and Technical Assistance Center, and an OVC-funded survivor professional development pilot project launched in June 2016.

• HHS, in collaboration with DOJ and the National Governor’s Association, sought statements of interest from the public for a new National Advisory Committee on the Sex Trafficking of Children and Youth in the United States, which will advise on relevant federal anti-trafficking policies.

• In response to the April 2015 earthquake in Nepal, USAID expanded a project to offer protection services to earthquake-affected communities, including support to empower communities to combat trafficking and to mitigate vulnerabilities through community-based psychosocial support.

• EEOC continued to partner with community-based organizations to raise awareness, educate vulnerable communities, and reach victims; and also trained staff and representatives of state and local fair employment practice agencies on identifying and developing human trafficking cases.

• DHS’s Office of Health Affairs, Medical First Responder Coordination Branch collaborated with federal and local officials, NGOs, and survivor groups to develop and deliver awareness tools to first responders.

• DOS ECA collaborated with Coursera, an online education provider, to establish its recent ‘Coursera for Refugees’ partnership. Additional educational platforms may reduce the vulnerability of refugees to trafficking. This partnership builds upon DOS’s successful Massive Open Online Course Camps being run by its embassies and consulates around the world.

• DHS has forged new relationships with the U.S. Immigration Courts in a joint effort to identify and assist victims of human trafficking involved in the asylum process.

• USAID worked in Madagascar to improve national coordination on human trafficking, increase awareness, strengthen victim protections, and improve coordination with destination countries. Key achievements included the development of a national action plan, launch of an interagency anti-trafficking working group, and establishment of the Anti-Human Trafficking National Bureau.

6) Fund domestic and international anti-trafficking programs focusing on victim identification, prevention, and outreach.

• The SPOG Grantmaking Committee, co-chaired by DOS, DOL, and USAID, updated the SPOG Review Procedure to enable more flexibility when agencies share information and enhance coordination of U.S. government anti-trafficking policies.

• HHS funded the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC), which received reports of 5,418 unique cases of potential trafficking in FY 2015, 3,487 reports of which were directly from victims of human trafficking.

• HHS awarded $15.755 million in grants to assist victims of trafficking and build capacity for anti-trafficking responses in FY 2015, including the Trafficking Victim Assistance Program, the Rescue & Restore Regional Program, the NHTRC, Grants to Serve Domestic Victims of Trafficking, and Grants to Address Trafficking in Child Welfare.

• DOJ OVC and DOJ Bureau of Justice Assistance funded 16 task forces in FY 2015 through 32 awards to law enforcement agencies and victim service providers, totaling more than $22.7 million under the ECM grant program, a cooperative effort designed to execute a comprehensive approach to identifying and combating all forms of trafficking.

• DOJ OVC also funded 22 victim service organizations in FY 2015 totaling almost $14 million for victims of human trafficking. Of OVC’s 22 new awards, 12 were for comprehensive services and 10 were for specialized services.

• The DOS TIP Office awarded approximately $19 million to fund 30 new projects worldwide that address both sex and labor trafficking. At the start of FY 2016, the TIP Office had approximately 100 open anti-trafficking projects in 70 countries, totaling more than $60 million.

• USAID supported the International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) National Migrant Advice and Counter-Trafficking Hotline 527, which provides crucial information to internally displaced persons and other vulnerable persons in Ukraine on the dangers of trafficking. This national toll-free hotline assisted more than 10,000 callers by providing referrals for social services and consultations with legal advice and/or referrals to the pro bono legal services provided by the Ukrainian Coalition for Legal Aid.

• DOJ OVC awarded two organizations a total of nearly $1 million in FY 2015 to provide training and technical assistance on a range of legal services for trafficking survivors. DOJ also awarded more than $475,000 to conduct targeted outreach to state legislators in reviewing needs and assessing anti-trafficking policy approaches.

• DOS’s Office of the Chief of Protocol launched the In-Person Registration Program for foreign domestic workers employed by staff of foreign missions and international organizations in the Washington, D.C. area in October 2015. The program enhances protections for these workers, who are issued registration cards that will be renewed annually. The program will be expanded throughout the United States.

• DOL funded technical assistance projects implemented by the International Labor Organization (ILO) to address forced labor, including trafficking-related issues, in Brazil, Peru, and Uzbekistan.

• In the Greater Mekong Subregion, DOS PRM supported anti-trafficking training, workshops, and outreach activities and provided psychosocial support and direct assistance to victims of trafficking, including reintegration assistance to 275 male trafficking victims in Cambodia.

7) Integrate anti-trafficking components into relevant government programs.

• The SPOG Procurement & Supply Chains Committee, co-chaired by OMB, DOS, and DOL, worked to develop tools and guidance to help the federal procurement workforce implement anti-trafficking requirements under the FAR. In collaboration with the Committee, the DOS TIP Office and the NGO Verité developed and launched, a comprehensive online resource to help federal contractors, procurement officials, and other companies understand the risks of human trafficking in global supply chains and develop systems to detect, prevent, and combat human trafficking. Federal agencies also participated in training sessions on the site.

• On February 24, 2016, the President signed the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015 to ensure that goods produced wholly or in part by indentured, convict, or forced labor, including forced child labor, are not imported into the United States. As of August 2016, DHS CBP has withheld the release of products from four different companies since passage of this law.

• The White House Legal Aid Interagency Roundtable was established through a presidential memorandum issued in September 2015, and it launched an online toolkit about the ways in which legal services can enhance federal strategies for providing services for vulnerable and underserved populations, including human trafficking victims.

• DOL enhanced protections for H-2B nonimmigrant guestworkers by establishing new regulations, promulgated with DHS, that guard against fraudulent recruitment practices and conditions that may lead to labor trafficking.

• DOD’s Defense Contract Management Agency played an integral role in creating training scenarios that incorporated human trafficking issues, such as an exercise where participants took part in a mock housing inspection and identified contract violations as well as appropriate corrective actions.

• DOD’s Pacific and Northern Commands integrated human trafficking into their professional training and exercise programs to address global trends, such as trafficking among terrorist and transnational organized crime groups, and domestic responses at the state, regional, and federal levels to a major earthquake.

• USAID partnered with two Dakar municipalities in Senegal to reduce the incidence of forced begging and improve the educational and health outcomes for talibés (young boys studying the Koran, who are forced to beg for food and money to pay their teachers). Target municipalities saw a reduction in both the time talibés spent begging and the total number of talibés.

• DHS and DOT, through the Blue Lightning Initiative, continued to train airline personnel on human trafficking and victim identification and formed a new partnership with SkyWest Airlines.

• DOS PRM worked with IOM to launch a messaging campaign in Guatemala aimed at raising awareness on the risks of irregular migration, including trafficking in persons. The campaign is focused on unaccompanied children, women, and LGBTI migrants in border communities and will also be implemented in El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Panama.

• DOD designated an agency labor compliance advisor within the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics to facilitate contractor compliance with labor laws and assess labor violations.

• DOS, in collaboration with DOJ, DHS, and DOL, updated the Know Your Rights (or “Wilberforce”) pamphlet, which features an improved layout and additional resources for workers. DOS is in the process of translating the pamphlet into 38 languages.

• DOJ increased efforts to pursue human traffickers’ assets, including by hiring a dedicated attorney to use powerful financial investigations, money laundering, and forfeiture tools and by allocating additional resources to prioritize these efforts through national investigations, extensive trainings, and support to money laundering and forfeiture inquiries on human trafficking cases around the country.

• DHS ICE/HSI partnered with DHS USCIS during FY 2016 to create a new curriculum for law enforcement training on Continued Presence, T and U visas, and the role of law enforcement in the certification process. The trainings continued to be conducted quarterly in-person and bi-monthly via webinar for law enforcement, prosecuting agencies, judges, and other certifying officials.

• DOJ released its National Strategy for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction, which sets out specific goals in four areas – investigations and prosecutions, outreach and awareness, victim services, and policy and legislation – to improve the response to child sexual exploitation, including child sex trafficking.

8) Promote public awareness about modern slavery.

• The SPOG Public Awareness & Outreach Committee, co-chaired by DOS, HHS, and DHS, updated a social media toolkit for government agencies to amplify anti-trafficking messaging during National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month and support engagement with stakeholders.

• USDA, with assistance from the DHS Blue Campaign, developed a food and agriculture centric pamphlet on human trafficking awareness and distributed it across USDA regional offices and with industry partners.

• EEOC partnered with community-based organizations devoted to anti-trafficking work and conducted approximately 282 anti-trafficking outreach events, reaching more than 21,629 attendees during the reporting period.

• USAID anti-trafficking programming reached almost 1.7 million people through general awareness raising activities, including in Mozambique, Thailand, Ukraine, and Bangladesh.

• HHS distributed more than 883,000 pieces of public awareness campaign materials in FY 2015 publicizing the NHTRC, including posters, brochures, fact sheets, and cards with tips on identifying victims of human trafficking.

• DOD’s Defense Media Activity produced 10 television and radio spots broadcasted on the American Forces Radio and Television Service to raise awareness of human trafficking.

• DOS funded a project to produce a movie titled We Are Not Slaves. The movie was filmed and edited on location in the Democratic Republic of Congo and highlights two true stories of human trafficking. To help spread awareness about human trafficking, six U.S. embassies in Africa hosted screenings of the movie for government officials, NGOs, stakeholders, civil society, and students.

• USAID supported a behavior change campaign in Bangladesh to build awareness of human trafficking and safe migration among vulnerable populations. The campaign reached more than 1.6 million people across all districts of Bangladesh through social media and other innovative communication technology.

• DOL partnered with the ILO, Humanity United, and the UCLA Burkle Center to convene a two-part conference in Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles focused on the relationship between labor exploitation and labor trafficking, and explored key initiatives and developments in the United States and Brazil.

• DOJ OVC developed and released a video series titled Faces of Human Trafficking to raise awareness of all forms of human trafficking and the important role that everyone can play in helping to identify and serve victims. The series features the voices of survivors, service providers, and allied professionals.

• The DHS Blue Campaign raised public consciousness of human trafficking across the country by creating new tools and resources. In FY 2016, with input from human trafficking survivors and other partners, the Blue Campaign created a new Public Service Announcement (in English and Spanish); a human trafficking infographic (print and video); posters for vulnerable communities to engage in the fight against human trafficking; and toolkits for universities as well as the hospitality and finance industries.

• DHS finalized the Blue Campaign Language Access Plan and the DHS Language Access Plan, which provide information on numerous efforts to individuals with limited English proficiency.

• DOD continued to display anti-trafficking awareness posters at military installations in the United States and overseas with information on the NHTRC and about reporting human trafficking-related violations to the DOD Inspector General.

• EEOC continued its efforts to increase public awareness about human trafficking and the linkages to equal employment opportunity law by providing resources on its website for human trafficking victims.

• DHS conducted outreach on human trafficking, through the ICE/HSI domestic field offices, international offices, and headquarters, to approximately 50,000 individuals worldwide.

9) Spur innovation and improve capacity to combat modern slavery through data collection and research.

• The SPOG Research & Data Committee, co-chaired by DOS and DOJ, enhanced agencies’ understanding of the scope, demographics, and nature of human trafficking by sharing information on research projects and facilitating briefings that bring together agencies and academics, practitioners, and researchers. Topics included DOJ-sponsored research on trafficking organizations and facilitators, DOJ-sponsored research on the perpetrators of human trafficking in the United States, DHS’s methodology to estimate human trafficking in the United States, and a USAID forum on gauging awareness and prevalence through research.

• DOD DARPA’s Memex program provided several law enforcement entities with new capabilities to discover, organize, and present domain-specific (e.g., human trafficking) content online.

• DOL released the Sweat & Toil: Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking Around the World mobile app, a comprehensive resource that documents child labor and forced labor around the world. The app includes DOL’s 2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, and List of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor.

• USAID supported innovative research to gather evidence-based data to inform the design of counter-trafficking programs, such as an impact evaluation project in Cambodia focused on livelihoods programs for at-risk/vulnerable populations in target areas, and surveys in Honduras and the Philippines to uncover root causes of trafficking and examine the situation of trafficking survivors.

• In December 2015, the International Centre for Migration Policy Development published a report, funded by the DOS TIP Office, on Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons.

• USAID’s Supply Unchained program issued two awards to identify patterns and individuals most at risk of trafficking; one investment is with GoodWeave to develop a technology platform for Target Corporation to identify risks of human trafficking in its supply chain in India, and the second is with Issara Institute to collect and analyze real time data in Thailand using social media platforms to reach migrant workers on fishing vessels.

• HHS, in an effort to establish uniform data collection on human trafficking, facilitated 10 sessions with subject matter experts, gathered more than 500 comments, and refined its human trafficking indicators into 30 human trafficking data elements that will identify the populations served; determine services provided or not provided; and recognize costs associated with services provided.

• The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, funded by DOJ’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), produced more than 1,600 analytical reports during the reporting period regarding biographical and identifying information about people involved with the victimization of children through sex trafficking.

• The National Mentoring Resource Center, a DOJ OJJDP program, released a literature review in January 2016 on mentoring for youth with backgrounds (or at high-risk) of child sex trafficking victimization. This review provides information on noteworthy practices to consider when providing mentoring opportunities for these youth.

• DOJ released the first public report of the Trafficking Information Management System, a standardized reporting tool for OVC grantees that collects performance measurement data.

• DHS ICE increased support to the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC) to consider ways to improve the capacity of federal, state, and local partners to efficiently exchange and analyze human trafficking data, including normalizing and analyzing large data sets, examining human trafficking data standards, and implementing sound data governance policy to ensure the protection and integrity of human trafficking information.

• DOJ OJJDP funded the Urban Institute and the Center for Court Innovation to research commercial sexual exploitation of youth in six urban areas across the United States. DOJ also funded research to conduct interdisciplinary analyses describing disparities in the pathways into incarceration for lesbian, bisexual, questioning, gender nonconforming and transgender (LBQ/GNCT) girls incarcerated for “prostitution.”

• EEOC continued to track training and outreach involving human trafficking issues through its charge data system.

• FBI OVA collected Operation Cross Country statistics for victim assistance categories to improve its capacity to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of youth and provide evidence-based victim services to those identified in FBI cases. This data collection now includes follow-up on the minors recovered during the operation at six months and one year post-recovery.

10) Gather and synthesize actionable intelligence to increase the number of domestic and international trafficking prosecutions.

• The Intelligence Community, PITF agencies, and HSTC continued to build processes to improve, review, and share intelligence reporting with a focus on preventing human trafficking, protecting victims, and advancing prosecutions.

• The National Intelligence Council within ODNI will publish the first-ever National Intelligence Estimate on human trafficking during the presidential transition.

• DOD Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) Special Agents continued to collect actionable intelligence to counter trafficking in persons. As of June 2016, NCIS had published 149 Intelligence Information Reports involving human trafficking.

• ODNI issued guidance to the community to focus reporting on human trafficking along with other competing national security priorities.

• DOD DARPA’s Memex program enabled performers to index and analyze portions of the internet previously difficult to understand. These new indices enabled law enforcement and prosecution teams to expand their human trafficking investigations. The work thus far significantly advanced the ability of law enforcement, prosecution teams, and victim outreach NGOs to leverage advanced technology to further their work.

• DHS CBP’s Sector Intelligence Units continued to engage in intelligence efforts with their federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement partners in order to combat human trafficking.

• HSTC, in collaboration with federal partners, developed a new human trafficking Program of Analysis – an established system for planning, conducting, tracking, and evaluating research and analysis in support of closing key interagency data and intelligence gaps.

• DOD’s OIG Hotline received 23 human trafficking allegations regarding other country nationals working in the theater of Operation Freedom Sentinel and Operation Iraqi Freedom and referred those allegations to the appropriate agency for investigation and inquiry.