Obama Administration Accomplishments on Combating Trafficking in Persons as of February 2013
President’s Interagency Task Force (PITF)
• On March 15, 2012, in tandem with the Obama Administration’s third meeting of the President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (PITF), President Obama issued a public statement directing his cabinet to find ways to strengthen its work and to expand partnerships to bring more resources to bear in fighting modern slavery. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton chaired the PITF – the first to take place at the White House and the first to be broadcast via the web. Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett opened the meeting and discussed the importance of the issue to President Obama, and Deputy National Security Advisor Denis McDonough stressed that human trafficking is a national security priority. Cabinet members and other agency designees highlighted recent accomplishments and the U.S. government’s priorities for combating modern slavery in the coming year.
• On September 25, 2012, President Obama delivered a major policy speech at the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) on U.S. government efforts to end human trafficking, and announced a number of new and strengthened initiatives. Building on his statement from March 2012, the President directed his Administration to take additional concrete steps by focusing the federal government’s efforts on providing tools and training to identify and assist trafficking victims while increasing resources and on developing a comprehensive plan for future action.
• During his September 2012 speech at CGI, the President called on Congress to reauthorize the landmark Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000. On March 7, 2013, following a bipartisan effort by members of both chambers and with the support of a wide range of non-governmental experts and advocates, President Obama signed into law Pub. L. 113-4, Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, which includes provisions reauthorizing TVPA and the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (TVPRA).
Throughout 2012 and into 2013, the White House and PITF member agencies announced a number of collaborative initiatives, programs, policies, and partnerships, including:
• Executive Order 13627, Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts, was signed by President Obama to bolster the U.S. government’s existing zero-tolerance policy on human trafficking in government contracting. The Executive Order outlines prohibitions on trafficking-related activities that will apply to all federal contractors and subcontractors, requires compliance measures for large overseas contracts and subcontracts, and provides federal agencies with additional tools to foster compliance. Implementation of Executive Order 13627 will be reinforced and complemented by parallel implementation of Title XVII of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 National Defense Authorization Act (Pub. L. 112-239), the End Trafficking In Government Contracting Act.
• A five-year Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States will be released publicly for comment before being finalized in 2013. When completed in the fall of 2013, the plan will be the first-ever comprehensive federal plan to coordinate and strengthen services for trafficking victims in the United States.
• A National Human Trafficking Assessment, the federal government’s first-ever interagency assessment on human trafficking trends in the United States, is being developed by the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC) and scheduled for completion during FY 2014 to help enable both law enforcement and service providers to more effectively deploy resources to combat human trafficking.
• Driven by the United States’ Chief Technology Officer and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the White House continues to convene advocates, law enforcement leaders, technology companies, and researchers to brainstorm ways to share information more effectively with law enforcement, and to explore other innovative approaches to provide victims of child sex trafficking with the help they need.
• The President’s Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships’ Community Action Plan will be released in the spring of 2013, and will identify opportunities to expand partnerships between federal, state, and local governments and faith and community-based groups in an effort to prevent and respond to trafficking.
• The Presidential Award for Extraordinary Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons will be awarded to incentivize and recognize exceptional contributions in the field.
• Significant partnerships for non-governmental efforts are being developed, including Humanity United’s Partnership for Freedom Innovation Awards, the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health Research Partnership, the U.S. Travel Association’s anti-trafficking “toolkit” with anti-trafficking materials for travel professionals, and the Global Business Coalition Against Trafficking’s business-to-business anti-trafficking network.
• The Department of Justice (DOJ), the Department of Labor (DOL), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) created an advanced human trafficking training course for the anti-trafficking coordination teams (ACTeams), which, through enhanced coordination among federal prosecutors and multiple federal investigative agencies, have been developing significant human trafficking investigations and prosecutions. The first training was held in September 2012 and included expert instructors from DOJ, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), and DOL. This highly interactive course focuses on complex issues of human trafficking (such as discovery, immigration relief, and strategies concerning witnesses’ testimony, search warrant information, interviewing both cooperative and uncooperative witnesses, and evidence gathering). ACTeams from Atlanta, Georgia and Los Angeles, California participated in the training with a total of 25 trainees.
• The Department of State (DOS) and the FBI implemented a one-year Interagency Agreement creating an Advanced Human Trafficking Investigator course at the FBI Training Academy at Quantico for South and Central American law enforcement officers. The FBI recently completed the second of two training courses at Quantico. All told, the FBI trained 38 students from 10 Central and South American countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay), representing the judiciary, military, and law enforcement. Upon completion of the second training course, the FBI trained law enforcement officials from nearly half of the nations in the Western Hemisphere, excluding the Caribbean island nations and Canada.
• The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) conducted numerous in-person trainings on identifying indicators of human trafficking, case-studies of human trafficking investigations, and immigration relief options available to trafficked victims as part of its State and Local Law Enforcement Training Symposiums. FLETC trained over 1,600 officers at symposiums in Akron, Ohio; Glynco, Georgia; Gulf Shores, Alabama; Hampton, Virginia; Laredo, Texas; Maui, Hawaii; Miami, Florida; and Traverse City, Missouri.
• DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano, Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood, and Amtrak President and CEO Joseph Boardman announced a new partnership between DHS, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), and Amtrak to combat human trafficking. Under this partnership, DHS and DOT will work with Amtrak to train employees and Amtrak Police Department officers on how to identify and recognize indicators of human trafficking, as well as how to report suspected cases of human trafficking.
• DHS’s U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) worked with DOT to release the Blue Lightning Initiative training, a training module and pocket guide that educates airline employees on how to identify human trafficking in airports or during flights and how to notify law enforcement. This voluntary, advanced reporting allows CBP to research and formulate an appropriate response to suspected human trafficking incidents, including coordination with other federal agencies as needed. Airlines were consulted in the development of the training, and U.S. carriers with international routes have expressed interest in participating in the Blue Lightning Initiative.
• As part of government-wide efforts to integrate anti-trafficking policies across sectors, multiple PITF member agencies began implementation of Executive Order 13595 and the U.S. National Action Plan (NAP) on Women, Peace, and Security. The NAP’s goal is to empower women as equal partners in preventing conflict and building peace in countries threatened and affected by war, violence, and insecurity; and incorporates as a key pillar U.S. efforts to prevent – and protect women and children from – trafficking in persons in conflict-affected areas.
• To expand reporting on global trafficking in persons using existing law enforcement reporting mechanisms, DOS is encouraging diplomatic posts with active Law Enforcement Working Groups (LEWGs) to add human trafficking to their portfolios and to ensure that any relevant trafficking-related information discovered in the normal course of business be shared with the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and with other appropriate law enforcement contacts. Overseas missions are also being asked to harness LEWG expertise and relationships with host country law enforcement to bolster the U.S. government’s foreign anti-trafficking assistance and cooperation programs. In response, the Bureau of Diplomatic Security has received numerous inquiries from Regional Security Officers abroad and others about how they can contribute to this initiative. Countries are being evaluated for a pilot project which will expedite and expand this initiative.
• The Intelligence Community, PITF member agencies, and the HSTC continue to build processes to improve, review, and share intelligence reporting with a focus on preventing human trafficking, protecting victims, and contributing to prosecutions. In 2012, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) highlighted these efforts and available resources at the federal government’s annual conference on Transnational Organized Crime.
• The Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) met three times in 2012 – in January, April, and November – and coordinated implementation of strategies and programs related to federal efforts to combat human trafficking. Building on advancements made in previous years, the SPOG sustained these efforts through standing committees, as well as ad hoc working groups devoted to addressing victim services and issues related to federal procurement.
• The SPOG published a compendium of 15 promising practices, “Promising Practices: A Review of U.S. Government-Funded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Programs,” that, while by no means exhaustive, provides an important starting point upon which to build a more comprehensive learning resource. The promising practices, drawn from all regions of the world, cover the core components of counter-trafficking programming (prevention, protection, and prosecution) and all forms of trafficking, whether for sex or labor, internal or international. In reading the compendium, the SPOG hopes that practitioners and other key stakeholders will identify ideas and approaches for combating trafficking worth testing in their own countries and communities, and spur greater information-sharing.
• SPOG agencies continued to share information on matters relating to grants, grant policies, and other significant actions regarding the international trafficking of persons to inform funding decisions and ensure they are not duplicative, but strategic and smart.
In addition to efforts undertaken via the PITF, in 2012 and 2013, federal departments and agencies launched and continued to implement a number of agency-specific anti-trafficking actions.
Department of State (DOS)
• DOS pledged $500,000 for technical assistance and training for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) at the ASEAN-U.S. Leaders’ Meeting, held in Cambodia on November 19, 2012, where President Obama and the 10 ASEAN heads of state agreed to improve cooperative efforts to tackle all forms of modern slavery. Members agreed to engage in collaborative efforts to harmonize legal frameworks in defining and prohibiting human trafficking, increase cross-border joint investigation, and build capacity for a standardized response to trafficking victims’ needs.
• In November 2012, the Governments of the United States and Burma issued a Joint Plan on Trafficking in Persons that provides a framework to bolster the capacity of the Burmese government and its civil society partners to address all forms of trafficking through the sharing of best practices and technical assistance and training provided by the United States government and its partner entities. Both governments are committed to working together to identify trafficking offenses, investigate and prosecute trafficking offenders, provide victim services, and implement measures to prevent Burmese citizens from being trafficked within the country’s borders or abroad.
• DOS issued an October 5, 2012 cable to all embassies and consulates outlining the President’s landmark speech on human trafficking at the 2012 CGI meeting and a series of new initiatives to combat human trafficking, including the new Executive Order 13627, Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts.
• On June 19, 2012 Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton released the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report) covering 186 countries and territories, including the United States. Since 2000, the TIP Report has encouraged the enactment of anti-trafficking laws throughout the world. Research has indicated a correlation between low tier rankings and new criminalization of trafficking in persons; in the year following a downgrade, governments are approximately twice more likely to pass an anti-trafficking law than in previous years. The TIP Report also has supported increased numbers of victims identified and traffickers brought to justice, and has prodded recalcitrant governments to take their first significant anti-trafficking steps, planting the seeds for sustained political commitment to protection, prevention, and prosecution.
• In connection with the release of the annual Trafficking in Persons Report, the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) worked in cooperation with the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Office on a two-week Voluntary Visitor project through the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) for ten participants recognized by the Secretary of State as global heroes for their role in combating trafficking in persons. In addition to the official rollout of the annual Report at DOS, the Trafficking in Persons Report Heroes took part in additional activities in Washington, DC; Miami, Florida; and Cincinnati, Ohio such as a roundtable at the Open Society Institute, interviews with foreign and domestic press, discussions with U.S.-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and briefings with officials from DOS and other U.S. government agencies.
• In September 2012, the TIP Office launched a public awareness campaign to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. More than two dozen American embassies joined the ongoing effort, reiterating the American commitment to freedom from involuntary servitude and slavery, known today as “human trafficking.” At the center of the initiative is the film Journey to Freedom, produced by the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in collaboration with the TIP Office. The film highlights the anti-trafficking heroes identified in the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report, and honors the sesquicentennial by underscoring the similarities between the efforts of antebellum abolitionists and of current anti-trafficking heroes.
• DOS collaborated with business partners such as Carlson and Sabre Holdings to raise awareness on human trafficking through their high profile events in Minnesota and Texas; DOS representatives spoke at several universities and participated in roundtables on the ways the business sector can combat human trafficking.
• The TIP Office collaborated with the American Bar Association (ABA) on a major initiative focused on combating human trafficking to raise the profile of the issue within the legal profession. In collaboration with the leadership of the ABA and its Task Force on Human Trafficking, the TIP Office provided expertise and guidance to various ABA efforts including public awareness and training initiatives.
• DOS is planning to form a public-private partnership with New Perimeter, LLC, a non-profit organization established by DLA Piper, a global law firm aimed at increasing the availability of pro bono legal services in the United States and internationally to combat human trafficking, in particular by using the “3P” framework of prosecuting traffickers, protecting survivors, and preventing victimization reflected in the United Nations (UN’s) Palermo Protocol and the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. The TIP Office will enter into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) by April to combine efforts, resources, and ideas in order to pursue this shared goal of augmenting pro bono legal services worldwide.
• In an effort to deter activities that contribute to the phenomenon of trafficking in persons, in particular the exploitation of persons in prostitution, DOS, in 2012, reiterated and reinforced its policy prohibiting the procurement of commercial sex. Employees under Chief of Mission Authority are prohibited from purchasing commercial sex, regardless of whether prostitution is legal in a host country or whether the activity takes place during or after working hours. Civil service personnel overseas on temporary duty assignments are subject to this prohibition. The policy will also be included in the upcoming Department-wide training on human trafficking.
• In November 2012, DOS invited domestic workers employed by foreign diplomatic personnel in the Washington, DC area to a briefing to apprise them of their rights and responsibilities, and discuss employment and visa matters. The briefing was a direct result of a commitment made by DOS at the 2011 PITF meeting and of the President’s call on September 25 to do more to spot and stop human trafficking, including involuntary domestic servitude.
• DOS continued its effort to promote the fair and equitable treatment of foreign domestic workers by foreign mission personnel in the United States. The Department has continued to convey, via diplomatic channels, its policies and procedures for the employment of domestic workers, including a prohibition of wage deductions for meal expenses or lodging. DOS also hosted a briefing for foreign embassy Deputy Chiefs of Mission in April 2012 to remind the Missions of the requirements relevant to the employment of domestic workers; to relay the importance of joint efforts to ensure that all domestic workers understand their rights and protections and that those employing them understand their contract obligations and responsibilities; and to promote a continued dialogue to address these issues.
• In June 2012, a U.S. government delegation participated in the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Workshop on Domestic Servitude in Diplomatic Households, along with representatives from a number of European countries.
• In August 2012, the Department updated the prevailing wage rate members of foreign mission must pay domestic workers in the United States, and requested that all new written contracts between domestic workers and their employers reflect the updated amounts and all contracts already in effect be amended to reflect the new rates.
• Building on DOS’s preventative efforts to address vulnerabilities that domestic workers face when employed by foreign diplomats, the Bureau of Human Resources is revising the Foreign Affairs Manual regulations to strengthen the protections of domestic workers employed overseas by U.S. government personnel serving under Chief of Mission authority. The aim of the revision is to ensure that the U.S. government aligns its standards for its own employees hiring domestic workers to those required of foreign diplomats serving in the United States.
• In 2013, DOS will continue efforts to promote a program, which provides domestic workers, upon their arrival in the United States, with an overview of their rights and responsibilities as domestic workers employed by foreign diplomats in the United States.
• DOS continued to work toward fundamental reform of the J-1 visa Summer Work and Travel (SWT) Program. Significant new regulations published in May, 2012 became immediately effective in time for the summer program season. In addition to a number of other important elements, the 2012 rule prohibited jobs deemed dangerous to health, safety and welfare, and those considered inappropriate for a cultural exchange. The Department undertook the largest ever monitoring exercise, visiting 650 sites in 31 states over the summer, and 226 sites in 24 states over the winter. The Department’s toll free helpline was staffed 24 hours a day, seven days a week to respond to any complaint. The 2011 cap on program participation remained in place at 109,000, as did the moratorium on new sponsors. The overall number of participants decreased significantly in 2012 to 91,600, an important factor during this time of program reform. The Department removed State Department designations from three Summer Work Travel sponsors due to program violations and poor performance, and has initiated additional actions in 2013. DOS continued to consult and coordinate with a broad range of stakeholders, including civil society, advocates, and local governmental officials, as well as cabinet agencies. Additional reforms, including a full Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and a final rule to encompass additional reforms are planned throughout 2013. Several bureaus in DOS will continue to actively monitor participants in the SWT program to ensure they are protected against abuses.
• On February 28, 2012, DOS issued a second Procurement Information Bulletin (PIB) regarding human trafficking, dealing specifically with contractor recruitment of third country nationals (TCNs). This PIB requires contractors to provide both a recruitment plan for hiring TCNs, as well as a detailed housing plan, as part of the initial proposal. The recruitment plan requires providing employees with contracts in their native language prior to departure from their home country, barring employees being charged recruitment fees for the contract, and clearly outlining benefits and salary deductions. In terms of housing, the PIB mandates that the contractor comply with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Temporary Labor Camp standard of fifty square feet per person, as well as local housing and safety standards and codes.
• The TIP Office conducted fair, transparent, and competitive grant reviews to support grassroots prevention, prosecution, and protection projects worldwide. During FY 2012, the TIP Office awarded almost $19 million to 44 projects in 25 countries. These projects address both sex and labor trafficking and support efforts focused on child sex tourism, demand reduction, debt bondage, and forced child labor. As of December 2012, the TIP Office has 118 open and active projects in 64 countries totaling over $60 million. The TIP Office’s foreign assistance budget was maintained at approximately $16 million in FY 2012.
• Services to protect victims and survivors of human trafficking are an integral part of the TIP Office’s international programs. Many TIP Office projects provide services across the “3P” paradigm of prevention, protection, and prosecution. In 2012, 88 percent of the 40 newly awarded projects, using over $7 million in funding, included a victim protection component, with 22 percent of those including direct victim services. Of the TIP Office’s total active grants, 38 percent included a shelter component and 34 percent included a direct victim services component. One innovative pilot program designed by the International Business Leaders Forum provides employment training for survivors of trafficking in the hospitality industry in three countries (Brazil, Mexico, and Vietnam), and has reported that many alumni are currently employed because of the effort.
• In 2012, the TIP Office continued to support programs to improve the prevention of human trafficking and the prosecution of traffickers, especially through training and technical assistance for law enforcement, judiciary officials, and members of civil society. Thirty-five percent of TIP Office-funded programs included a training component for civil society, 38 percent included a training component for judges, 51 percent included a training component for law enforcement, and 40 percent included a training component for prosecutors. The TIP Office continued to fund a global project by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), which has been working since 2010 to train members of civil society, law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, and government officials on the most effective ways to combat human trafficking. In a recent progress report, UNODC detailed successful trainings in Burundi and Fiji. UNODC intends to expand their program into the Republic of Congo in coming years.
• The TIP Office is funding ongoing research projects including a case study assessing approaches to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases and the protection of victims in four countries given a Tier 1 ranking in the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report; a research study in a Middle Eastern country comparing a shelter for labor trafficking victims and a shelter for sex trafficking victims, focusing on how each shelter is operated, similarities and differences between the victims, and the current methods being employed to stabilize victims; and evaluability assessments, two of which were finalized in 2010 leading to the identification of two programs for full scale outcome evaluations, which are currently underway.
• After receiving supplemental funding in FY 2012, the Fair Trade Fund will continue its project of developing Slavery Footprint, a web- and mobile-based application that allows users to understand how their lives may intersect with modern slavery and to make informed purchasing decisions. Nearly 4.6 million users in more than 190 countries have visited the site since its launch in 2011. This self-assessment tool is a unique effort to expand consumers’ understanding of how their own actions can drive markets for human trafficking, in particular the demand for forced labor in supply chains, and calls consumers to take action.
• DOS continued to successfully advance its priorities in several multilateral fora. For example, the TIP Office led a multi-agency U.S. delegation to the first OSCE Human Dimension Seminar to focus on trafficking in persons, and provided concrete recommendations to participating states and relevant OSCE entities. At the triennial Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons of the Organization of American States, DOS shared President Obama’s priorities, including the new Executive Order on government procurement. At the 6th Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto, the TIP Office also highlighted the Executive Order on government procurement. Finally, at the UN Human Rights Council, the United States co-hosted with the Governments of the Philippines and of Germany a side event, “Remedies for Trafficking Victims: Civil Society and Law Enforcement Partnerships.”
• DOS led a robust delegation that included the Attorneys General of Nevada and New Mexico, and representatives from the Department of Defense (DOD), DOJ, the Department of the Interior (DOI), and DHS to represent the United States before the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. The delegation discussed the latest efforts of the United States to implement the Optional Protocols on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography, as well as the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict since the last U.S. appearance before the Committee in 2008.
• DOS supports International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) overseas that deliver instructions to foreign law enforcement officials to address and help counter international crimes, including trafficking in persons. In calendar year 2012, the ILEAs trained over 500 international law enforcement officials on counter-trafficking in persons topics.
• DOS funded and coordinated training for foreign law enforcement officials in the Pacific and in Southeast Asia. DOS conducts and funds numerous law enforcement, border security, fraudulent document detection, and criminal justice capacity-building programs that contribute to anti-trafficking efforts.
• In 2012, through the ECA-sponsored IVLP, the TIP Office briefed over 175 current and emerging foreign leaders with responsibilities related to trafficking in persons, including government officials, immigration officers, human rights activists, academics, law enforcement teams, and representatives of social service organizations. Through a variety of single-country, regional, and multi-regional IVLP projects lasting up to three weeks, participants met with their American professional counterparts, examined the global problem of trafficking in persons, and explored methods and best practices to prevent trafficking in persons, including prosecution of and enforcement against traffickers. Participants also learned about initiatives to protect, assist, and provide social reintegration for victims of trafficking.
• DOS and DHS continue to offer a 15-minute, online, interactive general awareness training on human trafficking on their websites.
• The Return, Reintegration, and Family Reunification Program for Victims of Trafficking in the United States, supported by DOS’s Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration and implemented by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), helps eligible family members join trafficking victims with T visa status in the United States through the provision of financial and logistical support. For trafficking victims who wish to return home, the program provides travel and reintegration assistance to reduce the likelihood of re-trafficking. In 2012, the program assisted two survivors of trafficking to voluntarily return home and helped 209 family members join trafficking survivors in the United States.
• The Diplomatic Security Service’s (DSS) Human Trafficking Unit increased efforts this year to promote its ability to handle trafficking cases with a nexus to passport and visa fraud and to assist other law enforcement agencies overseas and domestically. Outreach to the NGO community has resulted in a significant increase in case referrals for which DSS is the primary investigating agency. In one case, DSS arrested three labor providers, in Pennsylvania in March 2012, pursuant to a federal indictment for trafficking-related offenses. The labor providers allegedly imported foreign national women to serve as domestic employees and harbored them for commercial advantage and personal gain. Some of the women alleged serious abuse by their employers.
• DOS’s Bureau of Consular Affairs (CA) presented a webinar for American consular officers on the special handling required for T and U nonimmigrant visa application processing at U.S. embassies and consulates. T and U visa training was also incorporated into the new five-day Foreign Service Institute (FSI) course for mid-level consular officers. (T and U visa training is already part of the mandatory FSI training for new consular officers.)
• DOS’s CA Bureau distributes at all visa-issuing posts a “know your rights” brochure – developed by DOS in consultation with DHS, DOJ, DOL, and NGOs – to recipients of visas in certain visa classes vulnerable to trafficking. The brochure has generated nearly 3,200 calls to the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) hotline.
• DOS’s Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL) awards grants to support organizations promoting internationally recognized labor standards, as laid out in the eight International Labor Organization (ILO) core conventions. One portion of DRL’s labor programs targets forced labor directly and engages stakeholders to address underlying conditions that can lead to forced labor. In 2012, DRL funded over $2.5 million in anti-trafficking activities in Jordan, Haiti, Mali, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the East Asia and Pacific region. These projects worked to combat the worst forms of child labor, to increase outreach and support to migrant workers, and to raise awareness of existing labor rights and of the illegality of child soldier recruitment under national law.
• The Secretary’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (S/GWI) has addressed trafficking in persons through several policy strategies in 2012. In August 2012, the White House, in close coordination with DOS and USAID, released the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally, accompanied by an Executive Order directing relevant agencies to implement the Strategy. The Strategy marshals U.S. expertise across government agencies to address all forms of gender-based violence, including trafficking in persons. Additionally, the U.S. National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security, includes protection from violence, including human trafficking, as a key objective. S/GWI coordinated DOS’s NAP implementation strategy, and ensured a focus on the protection of women and girls from harm, exploitation, discrimination, and abuse, including gender-based violence and trafficking in persons, and holding perpetrators accountable in conflict and post-conflict affected environments. Through both of these policy frameworks, DOS will engage with multilateral, bilateral, civil society, and private sector partners and invest in programs to strengthen the prevention of trafficking in persons and the protection of trafficking survivors.
• On November 25, 2012, in commemoration of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, the U.S. Ambassador to Haiti and the Ambassador at Large for Global Women’s Issues hosted a meeting on the vulnerabilities of Haitian girls, focused on gender-based violence and trafficking in persons. The Ambassadors met with representatives from the Haitian government focused on the law enforcement and social protection of children and with civil society focused on eradicating child exploitation. Speaking candidly on the situation of Haitian youth, all parties acknowledged the multiple layers of insecurity—the destabilizing earthquake of 2010 and other environmental disasters, poverty and disproportionate distribution of resources, the rural/urban divide—that leave children, especially girls, vulnerable to abuse and relegated to domestic servitude. Despite the challenges, both government and civil society representatives highlighted the great strides being made to increase child protection, including: enforcing existing laws to protect the survivors of trafficking and abuse, holding caregivers accountable for how they treat the children under their guardianship, and raising awareness among families throughout all departments of Haiti on the ills of strangers promising a “better life” for their children. Working hand-in-hand, the Haitian government, community organizations, and international donors are partnering to protect Haitian girls and boys, and ensuring a stronger Haiti, free from violence.
• ECA sponsored two federal Senators and two staffers from Brazil to participate in a one-week IVLP focused on trafficking in persons legislation, victim services, and prosecution, in Washington, DC and New York City.
• DOS is looking internally to strengthen procedures to ensure DOS personnel, as well as other U.S. employees, contractors, and family members serving under Chief of Mission authority abroad understand their responsibilities and abide by all appropriate U.S. federal laws and regulations and appropriate local laws in employing household staff.
• DOS’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) hired the only trafficking-specific analyst in the Intelligence Community, and this has contributed to interagency coordination in expanding anti-trafficking related education, research, and analysis.
Department of Defense (DOD)
• DOD established a multidisciplinary Strategic Planning Task Force to provide advice and recommendations for improving current implementation, execution, and oversight of Combating Trafficking in Persons (CTIP) policy in its defense contracts. The Task Force is led by DOD’s CTIP Program Manager and includes advisors from DOD Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics; DOD Policy; DOD Inspector General (DODIG); North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Contracting Directorate; Army; Army and Air Force Exchange Service Joint Staff; United States Central Command (CENTCOM); International Security Assistance Force; and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
• DOD deployed two personnel to Afghanistan to establish an Outside the Continental United States (OCONUS) CTIP Task Force to resolve issues related to contractors exploiting their workers overseas.
• DOD strengthened its CTIP outreach program by participating in interagency and nongovernmental conferences related to trafficking in persons and by engaging with other activists in the community to review and comment on the Defense training and awareness products.
• DOD conducted interviews with American Forces Press Service and the Pentagon Channel to engage in further outreach to deployed troops.
• U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) posted new public service announcements (PSAs) on American Forces Network and YouTube to raise awareness about human trafficking within the “juicy bars” outside U.S. bases within Korea. A link to "USFK video links 'juicy bars' with human trafficking" is available here.
• The DOD liaison to NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe (SHAPE) produced a new CTIP guidance document for the NATO Alliance based on DOD inputs. The document instructs the 28 different nations of the Alliance on monitoring their respective contractors and recognizing trafficking in persons violations.
• SHAPE also incorporated a CTIP contract clause to be included in all NATO contracts. Any contractor found to be trafficking in persons will be suspended upon an investigation and later debarred if found to be in violation. Prior to this clause, no such provision was found within NATO common funded requirements and their resulting contracts.
• DOD updated and distributed awareness brochures and wallet-sized cards in eight different languages to TCNs and Senior Contracting Officials on U.S. contracting commands within Afghanistan and Iraq that explain workers’ rights and provide hotline information to report suspected trafficking in persons violations. These materials raise awareness about workers’ rights, as well as the penalties for engaging in this crime. The materials are also published on DOD’s CTIP website, CENTCOM’s Contracting Command Contracting Office website, and on the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy (DPAP) Contingency Contracting website.
• The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) appointed CTIP representatives throughout the DLA enterprise Continental United States and OCONUS to effectively raise awareness on human trafficking and the importance of reporting human trafficking incidents throughout the DLA workforce.
• DLA also developed CTIP benchmarks and incorporated the actions into the DLA Installation Support Security and Emergency Services Program Review to efficiently measure the program's effectiveness throughout DLA.
• The National Security Agency (NSA) added an automated email reminder feature to its Enterprise Learning Management system so that monthly notifications are sent to all employees and affiliates required to complete CTIP training. Since some NSA employees and affiliates do not have easy or adequate access to classified systems, NSA made CTIP training available on the unclassified system. As a result of this effort, a substantial increase in the completion of mandatory training was noted, allowing NSA to sustain high levels of compliance.
• The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) established a CTIP Program Manager position and approved an agency-wide charter to develop a DCMA-integrated CTIP process that is codified into DCMA policy. The charter establishes team representation from all major DCMA Headquarters components who are major stakeholders in the DCMA CTIP process. The policy is projected for completion in mid-2013.
• DCMA participated in the International Combating Human Trafficking Round Table held in Moscow last fall. DCMA Navy Rear Adm. Robert J. Gilbeau discussed DOD’s zero- tolerance policy for trafficking in persons, the Department’s efforts to prevent it, and the importance of international cooperation. Several news articles were published, including a piece in Agency News.
• DPAP and other DOD entities provided inputs on pending draft bills related to combating trafficking in persons in government contracts (H.R. 4259 and S. 2234). The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), which provides overall direction for government-wide procurement policies, regulations, and procedures related to the acquisition processes, is incorporating and providing these inputs to Congress. The OFPP is also preparing for the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) amendment process and the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, which will address items related to Executive Order 13627, Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts. DPAP staff is helping with development of the language for both supplements, along with companion language for the Policy Guidance Instructions.
• Online Learning Management Systems (LMS) for training and reporting were improved in 2012. The automated reporting of CTIP training can now be downloaded from DOD components’ LMS in a matter of minutes, an improvement over the old system that took days for compilation.
• The DOD Inspector General issued a May 15, 2012 report to Congress on DOD contracts performed within the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. As a result of the four DODIG CTIP contract assessment reports, inclusion of the FAR CTIP clause in DOD contracts was found to increase from 50 percent to 95 percent.
• Over 75 percent of DOD components reported taking CTIP awareness training in 2012.
Department of Justice (DOJ)
• DOJ’s Civil Rights Division and the U.S. Attorneys’ Offices (USAOs) together brought 55 forced labor and adult sex trafficking prosecutions in FY 2012, the highest number of these types of human trafficking cases on record.
• Select forced labor and sex trafficking by force, fraud, and coercion cases:
• On December 5, 2012, Terrence Yarbrough, a/k/a “T-Rex,” 37, of Memphis, Tennessee, was convicted in federal court on 10 counts of sex trafficking and one count of conspiracy to commit food stamp fraud. At the trial, victims recounted the defendant’s scheme of violent coercion, including beatings with belts, wooden coat hangers, crowbars, padlocks, and dog chains. They also testified to being thrown down stairs, having their heads smashed in car doors, having their legs burned with irons, and being scalded with boiling water. One of the victims testified that Yarbrough forced her to engage in prostitution the entire time she was pregnant with his child. The defendant is pending sentencing.
• On November 26, 2012, defendant Alex Campbell, a/k/a “Cowboy,” a former massage parlor owner in Glenview, Illinois, was sentenced to life in federal prison for sex trafficking, forced labor, extortion, and related crimes against four young Eastern European women, whom he physically and psychologically abused to compel them into forced labor in his massage parlors and into forced prostitution. The defendant targeted young women from Ukraine and Belarus who were without legal status in the United States, lured them into romantic relationships, and promised them a job, a place to live, and immigration assistance. After gaining their trust, he branded them with tattoos to mark them as his property, confiscated their identification documents, brutally beat them, and forced them to work long hours in massage parlors and in prostitution.
• On October 30, 2012, in the Eastern District of Michigan, a jury returned a guilty verdict against Jean-Claude "Kodjo" Toviave, a defendant who used force, and threats of force, to obtain the domestic labor of four children from Togo, West Africa from January 2006 to January 2011. The defendant brought the minors into the United States with false passports claiming they were his own children, and then forced them to work for him for nearly five years. The victims testified at trial that the defendant regularly beat them with broomsticks, a toilet plunger, ice scrapers, and phone chargers if they failed to obey his orders to cook, clean, hand wash and iron his laundry, polish his shoes, and wash and vacuum his car. In addition to force and threats of force, the defendant used food and sleep deprivation as punishment for the minors.
• On August 1, 2012, defendant Eleuterio Granados pleaded guilty to sex trafficking by force, fraud, and coercion for his role in a scheme to compel young, vulnerable Mexican victims into prostitution in New York. Three other defendants had previously pleaded guilty in connection with the scheme. Additional members of the scheme have been charged in Mexico as part of an ongoing U.S.-Mexico Bilateral Human Trafficking Enforcement Initiative.
• On September 20, 2012, defendant Song Ja Cha was sentenced to life in prison and ordered to pay $200,000 in restitution following her conviction for compelling young, uneducated Micronesian women and girls into prostitution in a bar she operated in Guam, confiscating their identification documents and using physical violence and threats to maintain control.
• On July 16, 2012, defendant Omelyan Botsvynyuk was sentenced to life in prison plus 20 years, the longest sentence ever imposed in a forced labor case. The defendant was convicted in October 2011, following a lengthy trial in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, for his role in a transnational organized criminal network that lured Ukrainian men and women into the United States on false promises, then compelled them into forced labor on commercial cleaning crews at large chain stores, using physical violence, threats of physical violence, and confiscation of the workers’ identification documents. Co-defendant Stephan Botsvynyuk was sentenced on July 17, 2012 to 20 years. Additional members of the criminal conspiracy are awaiting extradition or are fugitives.
• DOJ’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS), along with the U.S. Attorneys’ Offices, prosecute federal child exploitation statutes including child sex trafficking and sex tourism.
• Child sex trafficking and sex tourism cases:
• On May 7, 2012, defendant James “Red” Mozie was sentenced to life in prison, after he was convicted, along with two co-defendants, in the Southern District of Florida on charges relating to the sex trafficking of minors. Defendant Mozie and his common-law wife, co-defendant Laschell “Shelly” Harris, acted as pimps and prostituted adults and minors out of a house near Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Defendant Mozie would “initiate” the minor victims by engaging in sexual intercourse with them. At least four minor girls between the ages of 13-17 were identified as victims. Co-defendant Harris was sentenced to 13 years in prison. Co-defendant Willie David Rice, who provided security at the house, was sentenced to four years in prison.
• On March 23, 2012, defendant Edward Lee Sullivan was sentenced to 300 months’ imprisonment following his conviction in the Northern District of California for producing and possessing child pornography. In 2008, Sullivan trained a 14-year old girl to work for him as a prostitute and produced numerous photographs and videos of the minor engaging in sex acts. The photos and videos documented the steps Sullivan took to prepare the minor for commercial sex acts.
• On February 4, 2013, defendant Melvin Douglas was sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment for transporting a minor across state lines for purposes of engaging in prostitution, in a case prosecuted by DOJ’s CEOS and the District of Maryland. The Maryland Child Exploitation Task Force linked a missing child alert for a 15-year-old girl from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) to an advertisement that featured the missing girl on a website frequently used to advertise prostitution and escort services. The victim confirmed that defendant Douglas kept all the money she earned through prostitution. On February 1, 2013, in a separate case also prosecuted in the District of Maryland, defendant Dennis Smith was sentenced to 12.5 years’ imprisonment for engaging in the sex trafficking of minors. Defendant Smith advertised three minor females online for sexual services and had his moniker tattooed on the 15- and 16-year old victims.
• On November 2, 2012, a jury in the Middle District of Florida found defendant Weylin Rodriguez, guilty of numerous counts of sex trafficking and violent use of firearms in the recruitment of three minor females and two young adults to work as prostitutes through the use of force and violence. Rodriguez kidnapped some of his victims, and lured others through false pretenses followed by violence. Rodriguez has a felony criminal record, including a conviction for indecent liberties with a child. The convictions carry a maximum sentence of life imprisonment, which he received in March 2013.
• On August 24, 2012, in Memphis, Tennessee, defendant Arieke Lester was sentenced to 14 years’ imprisonment following his conviction for conspiracy to engage in sex trafficking of a minor. Lester and his co-defendant Maurice Mabon were members of a “Vice Lords” street gang and advertised a 15-year-old girl for prostitution on the internet. On July 13, 2012, Mabon received a 27-year sentence for his involvement. A third defendant Chauntta Lewis received a sentence of 54 months’ imprisonment on a related charge.
• In March 2012, Marcelo Desautu was sentenced to more than 17 years’ imprisonment having pleaded guilty to one count of sex trafficking of a minor, in a case prosecuted by DOJ’s CEOS and the Northern District of Georgia. Between December 2007 and March 2008, Desautu convinced the victim, who was 13 years old at the time, to engage in sex for money with numerous men. The victim provided all of her earnings to Desautu. Desautu gained access to the victim by informing the victim’s mother that he would watch her during the day while the mother slept after working evenings.
• In September 2012, Marvell Culp pleaded guilty to sex trafficking by force, fraud, and coercion. Culp used physical violence to force a young girl to engage in commercial sex acts. In addition, Culp posted advertisements offering the female for sex on the Internet via the website www.backpage.com. He would arrange meetings with customers and transport the young female for the sexual encounters. Culp also forced the young woman to prostitute herself on a known street of prostitution in Memphis, Tennessee. The case is being prosecuted by DOJ’s CEOS and the Western District of Tennessee.
• Kala Bray was sentenced to 14 years’ imprisonment in October 2012 after having pleaded guilty to conspiracy to engage in child sex trafficking and sex trafficking by force, fraud, and coercion. Bray, along with her co-conspirator Vincent Jones, lured two Memphis-area juveniles to Houston, Texas, with false promises of a trip to a water park. Bray and Jones plied the teens with drugs, including Oxycotin and Xanax, and made the juveniles engage in commercial sex acts, both in Memphis and Houston. Jones has not yet been sentenced. The case is being prosecuted by DOJ’s CEOS and the Western District of Tennessee.
• On February 28, 2013, Matthew Andrew Carter was convicted by a jury in the Southern District of Florida on five counts of traveling in foreign commerce for the purpose of engaging in illicit sexual conduct with minors, and one count of attempting to do so. Prior to his May 8, 2011 arrest, Carter, a U.S. citizen, resided at and operated the “Morning Star Center” in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The Center, which Carter had operated since 1995, was a residential facility that provided shelter, food, and education to Haitian minors. The minors who lived at the Center were orphans or from impoverished families that could not support them. From 1995 to the present, Carter frequently traveled back to the United States in order to raise funds for the continued operation of the Center, and he would then return to the Center in Haiti. During this period, Carter sexually abused several minors in his care and custody at the Center. The minors’ participation in this illicit sexual conduct was necessary in order for the minors to remain at the Center and to continue attending school, and/or to receive gifts or money from Carter. Carter had a history of abuse going back 40 years, three prior acquittals, and had been systematically abusing dozens of boys in Haiti for decades. He faces up to 30 years of imprisonment on five of the counts and 15 years maximum on one count. The case was prosecuted by DOJ’s CEOS and the Southern District of Florida.
• The FBI’s Innocence Lost National Initiative addresses the growing problem of children recruited into prostitution. This initiative is in partnership with DOJ’s CEOS and NCMEC. Since inception, the Innocence Lost National Initiative has resulted in 1,329 convictions and 2,638 children recovered and/or identified. Substantial sentences of convicted pimps have been obtained, including nine life sentences and several ranging in length from 25-50 years. The Initiative is supported by the FBI's 66 Child Exploitation Task Forces consisting of 331 state and local partner agencies.
• The FBI coordinated Operation Cross Country I - VI between June 2008 and June 2012. Operation Cross Country is a national enforcement operation conducted over three- to five-day periods, to combat domestic commercial sexual exploitation of children through prostitution. FBI Field Divisions and their law enforcement partners participated in the operation by targeting venues such as street tracks, Internet, truck stops, motels, and the casinos where children are prostituted. Over 8,500 law enforcement officers from 414 state, local, and federal law enforcement agencies, joined together to rescue child victims and apprehend those who victimize them. As a result of these operations, 328 child victims were safely recovered and 430 pimps engaged in the commercial sexual exploitation of children were arrested.
• Since 2003, the FBI has partnered with NCMEC to host the Protecting Victims of Child Prostitution (PVCP) training course. To date, over 1,350 law enforcement officers and prosecutors have received this training on the comprehensive identification, intervention, and investigation of the commercial sexual exploitation of children.
• The Civil Rights Division’s Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit (HTPU), the Executive Office of the U.S. Attorney and multiple USAOs have continued to lead six Pilot ACTeams in collaboration with the FBI, DHS ICE/HSI, and DOL. Following a competitive, nation-wide selection process, six Pilot ACTeams were launched in July 2011 in Los Angeles, California; El Paso, Texas; Kansas City, Missouri; Atlanta, Georgia; Miami, Florida; and Memphis, Tennessee. Since that time, the ACTeams, through enhanced coordination among federal prosecutors and multiple federal investigative agencies, have developed significant human trafficking investigations and prosecutions, including the first multi-district, multi-defendant combined sex trafficking and forced labor case in the Western District of Texas, the first domestic servitude prosecution in the Western District of Missouri, and the first Eastern European forced labor case initiated in the Northern District of Georgia, in addition to numerous other significant investigations and prosecutions.
• DHS, DOJ, and DOL collaboratively developed and delivered an Advanced Human Trafficking Training Program to the ACTeams at the FLETC in Glynco, Georgia. The training addressed current topics and complex issues in investigating and prosecuting human trafficking crimes and involved exchanges of expertise in using victim-centered investigative techniques in proactive investigations. The Pilot Interagency Advanced Human Trafficking Training Program was delivered to two ACTeams in September 2012 and two additional ACTeams in March 2013. Pending funding, the course will be provided to the final two Phase I ACTeams. The course involves intensive strategy sessions to strengthen case identification, investigation, and prosecution techniques in consultation with other districts and national subject matter experts.
• Through innovative partnerships with local NGOs, the ACTeams are developing comprehensive approaches to identifying, investigating, and prosecuting trafficking cases, and ensuring that trafficking victims receive the services they need. These training efforts are consistent with the directive announced by President Obama in his speech at the CGI meeting in which he highlighted the work that this Administration is doing, and the need to increase existing collaboration with state and local law enforcement, as well as NGOs, to combat human trafficking and assist victims.
• The Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act of 2012 directed U.S. Attorneys to establish, or participate in, a human trafficking task force. As of October 22, 2012, every USAO across the country is leading, or participating in, an anti-human trafficking task force. The USAO task forces include collaborative efforts that focus on criminal investigation and prosecution, regional coordination and information-sharing, and trafficking victims’ unique needs.
• Over the last year, the U.S./Mexico Human Trafficking Bilateral Enforcement Initiative has contributed significantly to restoring the rights and dignity of human trafficking victims through outreach, interagency coordination, international collaboration, and capacity-building. DOJ and DHS have worked as partners with Mexican law enforcement counterparts in the Procuraduría General de la República (PGR), the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública, and the Procuraduría Social de Atención a las Víctimas de Delitos. Through the Initiative, the United States and Mexico have collaborated to bring high-impact prosecutions under both U.S. and Mexican law to more effectively dismantle human trafficking networks operating across the U.S.-Mexico border, prosecute human traffickers, rescue human trafficking victims, and reunite victims with their families. Significant bilateral cases have been prosecuted in Atlanta, Georgia; Miami, Florida; and New York, New York.
• To advance the interdisciplinary Initiative, DOJ and DHS have participated in meetings in both the United States and Mexico to ensure that simultaneous investigations and prosecutions enhance, rather than impede, each other. These efforts have already resulted in three cross-border collaborative prosecutions, involving defendants who have been sentenced in Mexico and the United States to terms of imprisonment of up to 37.5 years, and resulting in the vindication of the rights of dozens of sex trafficking victims.
• In December 2012, the USAO for the Eastern District of New York announced that this bilateral partnership helped lead to the extradition and arraignment of four Mexican sex traffickers and the reunification of a Mexican sex trafficking victim and her child. Two Mexican nationals, Benito Lopez-Perez and Anastasio Romero-Perez, were arraigned on a 25-count indictment in United States. v. Lopez-Perez, et al., after their extradition from Mexico. The indictment charges the defendants with sex trafficking, interstate prostitution, alien smuggling, and money laundering offenses, and allegations involving victims as young as 14 and 15 years old. A third defendant in that case, Jose Gabino Barrientos-Perez, was extradited from Mexico and arraigned on December 3. Another sex trafficking defendant, Antonio Lira-Robles was arraigned in federal court in Brooklyn in November 2012 after extradition from Mexico in a separate multi-defendant case, United States v. Granados-Hernandez, et al. If convicted of sex trafficking, these defendants face mandatory minimum sentences of 15 years and maximum sentences of life in prison.
• In December 2012, after substantial post-conviction investigation and international coordination among DOJ, DHS, and Mexican law enforcement officials, a Mexican sex trafficking victim was successfully reunited with her child, who was being held in Mexico by members of a trafficking organization. The man who had trafficked the victim and fathered the child was convicted in 2005 of multiple counts of sex trafficking and numerous other crimes in United States v. Carreto. The victim-mother and her child had been separated by the Carreto organization for over 10 years. The reunification was accomplished through the collaborative efforts of U.S. and Mexican authorities, non-governmental victim service organizations in both countries, and pro bono attorneys in Mexico.
• Throughout 2012, DOJ’s anti-trafficking grant programs and training and technical assistance initiatives continued to support communities in building capacity to combat human trafficking and assist victims:
• DOJ’s Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) Legal Assistance Capacity Building Initiative continued to strengthen crime victims’ access to legal help. OVC works with organizations throughout the country to identify, train, mentor, and provide oversight of attorneys who volunteer to provide pro bono legal assistance, including immigration assistance, to crime victims.
• DOJ’s Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) and OVC added seven new enhanced model task forces to support a comprehensive, victim-centered approach to combating all forms of trafficking – sex trafficking and labor trafficking of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens (male and female, adults and minors). BJA made seven awards to support law enforcement agencies (one in each task force site) to coordinate the goals, objectives, and activities of the entire task force in close collaboration with the local USAO and victim service provider partner. OVC made seven awards to support a victim service organization (one in each task force site) to coordinate the provision of a comprehensive array of culturally and linguistically appropriate services to all trafficking victims identified within the geographic area covered by the task force.
Ongoing Training and Technical Assistance Initiatives
• Outreach and training continues to be a large part of DOJ’s effort to combat human trafficking. The Civil Rights Division, FBI, and other DOJ components joined with DOS to create an Advanced Human Trafficking Investigator course at the FBI Training Academy at Quantico for Central American law enforcement officers. The program has trained investigators from El Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay.
• DOJ’s CEOS is involved in numerous ongoing training initiatives. These include providing training at the 2012 National Law Enforcement Training on Child Exploitation, which brought together more than 1,700 agents, investigators, prosecutors, victim advocates, and community outreach specialists from around the country and from all sectors of government.
• In February 2012, DOJ’s CEOS presented a Project Safe Childhood Sentencing Seminar for federal prosecutors at the National Advocacy Center, which focused on how best to present the testimony of child victims during sentencing hearings.
• DOJ’s BJA-funded law enforcement agencies and OVC-funded victim services organizations conducted professional training with community stakeholders within their geographic regions in an effort to build capacity and improve the community’s response to human trafficking.
• DOJ’s OVC supported requests from the mainstream victim services field for training focused on understanding the needs of human trafficking victims and incorporating appropriate services into their existing client service model.
• DOJ’s BJA and OVC supported technical assistance requests from non-DOJ funded anti-trafficking task forces to support their efforts to incorporate best practices into their task force structure.
• DOJ’s BJA supported the development of three skill-based trainings for law enforcement agencies, including: 1) Human Trafficking Training for State Prosecutors; 2) Human Trafficking Training for State Judges; and 3) Advanced Human Trafficking Investigation Training.
• DOJ’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) provided training and technical assistance to Mexican prosecutors, law enforcement, and emergency responders through its AMBER Alert Training and Technical Assistance program. The purpose of this assistance is to prevent and combat cross-border child abductions and human trafficking in the United States and Mexico. These efforts were conducted in coordination with DOJ’s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (OPDAT) and the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City, with the full support of the Attorney General of Mexico, and will continue in 2013. As a result of these efforts, Mexico has adopted Alerta AMBER México, a system similar to the U.S. AMBER Alert program.
• DOJ’s OPDAT conducted 42 trafficking in persons programs in FY 2012 to build prosecutorial capacity in 17 countries (Albania, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Djibouti, Indonesia, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Mexico, Philippines, Romania, Russia, St. Lucia, Serbia, and Ukraine), and organized programs for over 245 foreign visitors to participate in training programs with DOJ’s human trafficking experts.
• Below are six examples of achievements facilitated by OPDAT:
• On June 3, 2012, in Macedonia, a database of individuals convicted of sex crimes against children was made available to the public. Macedonia is the first country in the region to launch this type of online register, and the public online availability of this registry is the direct result of OPDAT action. Pursuant to a new law enacted by the Macedonian Parliament, with the assistance of the OPDAT Resident Legal Advisor (RLA), courts are now required to provide regular updates on such convictions to social services to help them improve services to vulnerable categories of persons. The online register of convicted child abusers includes personal data about offenders, including their photographs. Minister of Labor and Social Policy Spiro Ristovski told reporters on June 3, 2012, “If this measure protects or saves at least one child's life, then it will serve its purpose.”
• In the Philippines, OPDAT, through its RLA and Trafficking in Persons Intermittent Legal Advisor, conducted seven trafficking in persons programs in FY 2012, falling into two categories: drafting workshops in trafficking in persons hotspots, primarily in Mindanao, focusing on assisting the local Philippines National Police to draft complaint affidavits in trafficking in persons cases so that they will not be dismissed for legal insufficiency; and training for judges in the areas of victim witness assistance and improved docket management.
• In Mexico, in September 2012, the OPDAT trafficking in persons RLA and the PGR jointly created a model curriculum for the training of all federal and state law enforcement, prosecutors, and judges on the new anti-human trafficking legislation, which was enacted federally in June 2012.
• At the request of the Government of St. Lucia, the U.S. Embassy in Bridgetown, and the DOS TIP Office, OPDAT implemented a workshop on human trafficking in Castries, St. Lucia, in September 2012 for approximately 30 government officials and NGOs on developing a task force approach to combating trafficking in persons and to interviewing victims.
• A similar workshop was conducted in Barbados, also in September 2012, to assist in the development of a trafficking in persons task force protocol manual to be distributed to the individuals and agencies that handle trafficking in persons investigations and prosecutions, and provide assistance to victims.
• DOJ’s OJJDP funded the Institute of Medicine and the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council to study the commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. The study will be conducted by a committee of independent experts who will review relevant research and practice-based literatures and make policy recommendations. The committee will examine, through a comprehensive literature search, workshops, and site visits: the scope and severity of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and sex trafficking of U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents who are under the age of 18; causes and consequences for CSEC and sex trafficking victims and offenders, including the role of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems; evidence on efforts in human services, health care, and law enforcement to prevent CSEC and sex trafficking and to intervene with victims and offenders; lessons from international, national, state, and local advocacy efforts that contribute to successful intervention and prevention strategies, and; the adequacy of current state and federal laws for addressing the CSEC and sex trafficking of domestic minors. The committee will recommend: strategies to respond to CSEC and sex trafficking of domestic minors; new legislative approaches, if necessary, and; a research agenda to guide future studies in this field.
Anti-trafficking International Programs
• DOJ’s International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) supported the international anti-trafficking effort through program activities in seven countries on three continents. ICITAP also graduated 350 students from anti-trafficking training programs in Nigeria, the Philippines, and Tanzania.
• ICITAP provided training programs for law enforcement in Kosovo and the Philippines that has graduated 211 students between the two countries.
• ICITAP’s trafficking in persons program in the Philippines, at the request of the Philippine National Police, has been expanded to include the addition of trafficking in persons components in other forms of training, including training that focused on crimes against women and children, human rights, and other areas of criminal investigation.
• In support of the Kosovo government’s TIP Awareness Campaign, ICITAP delivered a series of TIP Awareness presentations at high schools in the Pristina area and also funded the production of over 3,000 brochures listing services available to victims of trafficking. The brochures also provided information about identifying the signs of trafficking, how and where to report it, the contact information for the Kosovo Police National Helpline, and the web address for the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator’s website.
• In FY 2012, through its Services for Victims of Human Trafficking Program, DOJ’s OVC made grant awards to seven victim service organizations with a demonstrated history of providing trauma-informed, culturally competent services to male and female victims of sex trafficking and labor trafficking. Funding under this program supported either a comprehensive array of services for trafficking victims in specific geographic areas, or specialized mental health or legal services over larger geographic areas. Funding also supported efforts to increase the capacity of communities to respond to victims through the development of interagency partnerships and public outreach and awareness campaigns. In addition, BJA and OVC jointly awarded funding to support seven Enhanced Collaborative Model Task Force sites. In total, OVC made 14 grant awards to support services for victims of human trafficking. A link to these victim service organizations is available online.
• In FY 2012, OVC initiated two projects to strengthen crime victims’ access to much-needed legal assistance. Both projects include a focus on the varied and complex legal needs of foreign national and U.S. citizen victims of human trafficking. The Legal Assistance Capacity Building Initiative will work to develop a comprehensive, capacity-building effort to expand the availability of pro bono and no-cost legal assistance for victims of crime. The project includes extensive outreach and awareness efforts involving broad collaboration with professionals in the legal field, including those currently providing legal assistance to trafficking victims. OVC’s Wrap-Around Legal Assistance Network Demonstration Projects will develop collaborative models for the delivery of legal services to crime victims that can be replicated in other jurisdictions in the United States. During this four-year project, each site will conduct a community needs assessment and address the range of legal needs that arises for victims related to their victimization.
Department of the Interior (DOI)
• DOI received and distributed trafficking awareness training DVDs to all its law enforcement divisions. These training DVDs were targeted towards federal and local law enforcement.
• Within DOI, the Federal Ombudsman (Ombudsman) provides assistance to Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands’ (CNMI) 30,000 plus nonresident workers with labor and immigration issues. The Ombudsman continues to engage with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), DHS, DOJ, and DOL in efforts related to T and U visas for victims of trafficking, as well as to investigating and prosecuting traffickers.
• In Guam and CNMI, the following were granted:
• Three HHS certifications for 2011 T visa holders
• Two new T visas with HHS certification
• Four U visas
• Four new Continued Presence through FBI with subsequent HHS certification
• Two pre-certified with pending T visa applications and two pre-certified T visas are with legal counsel finalizing for submission.
• There is also one pending U visa for a sexual assault and trafficking case, one pending U visa assault case with legal counsel, and one pending U visa for a trafficking assault case.
• The Ombudsman’s office is providing 38 foreign labor fraud clients with humanitarian assistance and the cases are under review for T or U visas.
• The Ombudsman assisted with the prosecution of one trafficking case set for trial in U.S. District Court with one conviction pending sentencing, and one plea conviction to fraud in foreign labor contracting. The victims have since received T visas.
• In Guam, three Guam police officers were charged in Guam Superior Court for involvement in the “Blue House” case where the Chuukese girls were the victims of trafficking. The U.S. District Court case resulted in a conviction, but part of the sentencing involved the traffickers’ cooperation in the local investigation.
• New cases this year for the Ombudsman involved three of the prior victims of the fraud in foreign labor contracting case from 2009, which prompted the re-interviewing of all victims remaining in the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands. The Ombudsman’s office is still in the process of the re-interviews.
• In response to law enforcement concerns about possible human trafficking on the Fort Berthold Reservation in Western North Dakota, the U.S. Attorney’s Office in North Dakota (USAOND), the FBI, and multiple tribal organizations created a Human Trafficking Working Group to address the abuse of women and children through prostitution on the Fort Berthold Reservation. The work of this group resulted in the April 2012 conviction of a New Town, North Dakota man on 16 counts of sex trafficking, sexual abuse, drug trafficking, and witness tampering. The facts revealed at trial established that the defendant had conspired to distribute marijuana around the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation. As part of this conspiracy, the defendant recruited minors and young adults to be part of a gang. According to testimony at trial, the defendant also used physical force and coercion to cause an adult female he had recruited for the gang to engage in commercial sex acts on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation and in Williston and Minot. USAOND believes that innovative, cooperative efforts, like the investigation that led to this conviction, are key to battling organized criminal activity on the reservations.
Department of Labor (DOL)
Detection and Law Enforcement
• In 2012, DOL’s Wage and Hour Division (WHD) and Office of Inspector General (OIG) have continued to participate in the Federal Enforcement Working Group and are actively working alongside law enforcement partners in the six pilot ACTeams located in Atlanta, Georgia; El Paso, Texas; Kansas City, Missouri; Los Angeles, California; Memphis, Tennessee; and Miami, Florida. WHD plays a key role in these interagency efforts by assisting the law enforcement agencies that are developing and prosecuting human trafficking cases. For example, WHD computes back wages and liquidated damages for the victims, reviews employer records, and provides translation services where necessary, as well as helps to identify potential cases in the course of regular WHD investigations. The OIG investigates fraud and abuse related to DOL’s Foreign Labor Certification (FLC) Programs (PERM, H-2A, H-1B, H-2B, etc.), as well as non-traditional organized crime threats that may jeopardize the integrity of these FLC programs.
• The WHD is participating in 23 DOJ-funded task forces that are operating in nine states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands. These task forces, composed of both federal law enforcement agencies and NGOs, are working to strengthen domestic trafficking investigations and prosecutions. Additionally, the WHD is participating in 13 non-BJA/OVC funded task forces, located in nine states. These task forces comprise federal, state, and local government agencies, along with a number of NGOs that have come together for a common purpose to combat human trafficking and to provide assistance to victims within the capabilities of the individual organizations.
• WHD continues to enforce worker protections for temporary foreign workers, a group at particular risk for trafficking, including enforcement actions under the H-2A and H-2B programs for temporary nonimmigrant workers. WHD also enforces broad federal minimum wage and overtime protections for all covered workers.
• While human trafficking charges were not brought in the following cases, they illustrate the connection between trafficking and the broader spectrum of labor exploitation that DOL is charged with addressing.
• United States v. Yoo Taik Kim: As a result of a joint DOL-OIG and ICE investigation, Yoo Taik Kim, owner of Hi-Cap Enterprises, a manpower supply company, was sentenced on April 19, 2012, to more than three years in prison and three years of supervised release, and was ordered to pay a fine of $125,000 for his role in a visa fraud scheme. Kim had previously been found guilty of visa fraud, making false statements, and unlawful procurement of citizenship. Kim, who is a naturalized U.S. citizen, was stripped of his citizenship as a result of his conviction and for lying on his citizenship application. He will also face possible deportation to his native country of Korea upon completion of his sentence. Through his company, Kim contracted with a corporation to provide temporary workers for a large construction project in northern California. Although he had been notified by the corporation that its labor needs had dwindled, making further recruitment unnecessary, in 2001, unbeknownst to the corporation, Kim continued to recruit on its behalf, bringing a total of 49 welders from Thailand to San Francisco through fraudulent H-2B labor certifications. The corporation ultimately hired 10 of the welders. Kim and his associates transported the remaining 39 workers to Southern California, where they lived in substandard conditions in apartments provided by Kim’s company. With no source of income, and facing potential arrest and deportation for being in violation of their visas, the workers survived by working for little or no pay in two Thai restaurants owned by Kim. Many of the workers, who were recruited from some of the poorest areas of Thailand, had secured loans from family and friends to pay their travel expenses and substantial recruitment fees associated with their coming to work in the United States. These payments were made to a Thai recruitment agency working with Kim’s company. The workers applied for and were granted T status by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). The case was prosecuted by the USAO for the Central District of California (Los Angeles).
• United States v. Srinivas Doppalapudi: As a result of a joint International Revenue Service-Criminal Investigation Division (CID), ICE, USCIS and DOL-OIG investigation, Srinivas Doppalapudi, owner of an employment leasing company, was sentenced on September 26, 2012, to more than one year in prison for his role in an H-1B visa fraud scheme. He had previously pled guilty to visa fraud and money laundering, and had agreed to forfeit $345,000 in proceeds from the fraud. From April 2008 through December 2010, Doppalapudi submitted 31 fraudulent H-1B visas for non-existent information technology positions with his employment leasing company. As part of the scheme, he created fictitious service contracts with forged signatures. After the foreign nationals received their visas, Doppalapudi did not employ them. Some of the foreign nationals were able to find jobs in the IT industry; however, Doppalapudi further exploited them by requiring that they pay him 25 percent of their salaries since he was the holder of their H-1B visas. Doppalapudi transferred more than $1 million derived as a result of this scheme to his personal bank account in India. This case was prosecuted by the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Delaware.
• In 2011, WHD announced protocols for certification of the Supplement B form in the U visa application for immigrants who are victims of crimes and who have suffered substantial abuse as a result of being victims of certain eligible crimes and who are willing to assist in the investigation or prosecution of those crimes. In 2012, WHD finalized the hiring of U visa coordinators in each WHD region, who implement WHD’s protocols for certifying Supplement B forms.
• In 2012, DOL developed and delivered a web-based trafficking awareness and referral training for WHD investigators throughout the country in an effort to enhance the capability to detect and refer cases of trafficking in persons. This training is in the process of being modified for other enforcement agency staff in 2013.
Transnational Engagement, Monitoring, and Research
• On June 11, 2012, DOL signed Joint Declarations and Letters of Arrangement with the governments of Ecuador, Honduras, the Philippines, and Peru. The Declarations aim to ensure that foreign workers in the United States are informed of their labor rights through information sharing, outreach, education, training, and the exchange of best practices. Such information can assist vulnerable workers, including those who may have been trafficked. The Declarations also represent a step towards enhancing coordination and cooperation with these governments on labor-related issues. The new Declarations in 2012 have brought the total number of such transnational partnerships to ten.
• In September 2012, DOL’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) released updates to three reports on child labor and forced labor: 1) the 2011 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (Trade and Development Act Report); 2) the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor per the TVPRA of 2005 (TVPRA List), and; 3) the Executive Order 13126 List of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor (Executive Order List). This year, for the first time, each country profile in the Trade and Development Act Report begins with an assessment that will allow DOL to track better, from year to year, whether and to what degree a country has advanced toward eliminating the worst forms of child labor. ILAB updated the TVPRA List to add four new goods (baked goods, beef, fish, and thread/yarn) and three new countries (South Sudan, Suriname, and Vietnam) for a total of 134 goods from 74 countries. ILAB also published in the Federal Register a new initial determination proposing to add four new products (dried fish, wolframite, cattle, and fish) and three new countries (Bangladesh, South Sudan, and Vietnam) to the Executive Order List. These reports continue to serve as important resources for DOL to assess future technical assistance and research priorities as it seeks to combat child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor around the world.
• Pursuant to mandates under the TVPRA, ILAB continues to support research related to child labor and forced labor in violation of international standards. For instance, in June 2012, the ILO published a revised global estimate of 21 million people trapped in conditions of forced labor. This assessment was partly based on national surveys conducted with ILAB funding, using the methodologies outlined in a manual funded by ILAB (along with the governments of the United Kingdom and Ireland), Hard to See, Harder to Count: Survey Guidelines to Estimate Forced Labour of Adults and Children.
• Also in September 2012, Verité published DOL-funded research on forced labor in the production of goods in seven countries. This multi-country study tests new methodologies to identify indicators of forced labor and shares lessons learned about studying this hard-to-capture phenomenon.
• DOL funds projects to combat exploitative child labor, including child trafficking. While DOL/ILAB did not fund new child trafficking projects in FY 2012, the child labor projects funded support efforts to provide assistance to children in or at risk of the worst forms of child labor, including those that could potentially be victims of trafficking. DOL also funded a project through the International Labor Organization to strengthen efforts in Brazil and Peru to combat forced labor, including forced child labor.
• In October 2012, DOL hosted an ILO workshop for U.S. government personnel on forced labor concepts and research methodologies, which was attended by approximately 75 staff from DOL, DOS, the Office of the United States Trade Representative, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and DHS.
• Pursuant to a TVPRA mandate, ILAB launched an important new online resource, Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor: A Toolkit for Responsible Businesses, on December 14, 2012. This free, easy-to-use toolkit can help businesses combat child labor and forced labor in their global supply chains. The toolkit highlights the need for an integrated social compliance system and provides practical, step-by-step guidance on the critical elements, including: engaging stakeholders and partners; assessing risks and impacts; developing a code of conduct; communicating and training across the supply chain; monitoring compliance; remediating violations; independent review; and reporting performance. The Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor online toolkit is the first guide for businesses focusing on child labor and forced labor developed by the U.S. government.
• DOL’s Employment and Training Administration’s (ETA’s) network of approximately 2,700 American Job Centers and its Job Corps Program continue to offer employment and training services to victims of severe forms of trafficking, as required under the TVPA.
• In October 2012, ETA issued Training and Employment Guidance Letter (TEGL) 9-12, which provides information to the workforce investment system about the importance of providing workforce, training, and referral services to victims of human trafficking and updates guidance on how to deliver these services under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and the TVPA and subsequent reauthorizations. The TEGL also provides contacts and information about how to connect with the NHTRC hotline and access local service providers.
• Complementing TEGL 9-12, DOL has initiated a follow-up process engaging with managers, Workforce Investment Board directors, and workforce associations at the local and national level. DOL will continue to engage and host a series of follow-on conference calls for practitioners to share best practices and discuss employment and training issues relevant to serving victims of trafficking. A webinar for the workforce investment system is planned for 2013.
• DOL’s WHD assists victims of human trafficking to gain full restitution for the labor they performed by computing back wages and liquidated damages.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
• HHS continues full implementation of Section 212(a)(2) of the TVPRA, which requires the HHS Secretary to promptly determine if an alien child in the United States, who may be a victim of trafficking, is eligible for interim assistance. The HHS Secretary delegated authority to implement this provision to the Assistant Secretary for Children and Families, who further delegated it to the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR). The ORR Division of Children’s Services screened 13,625 unaccompanied alien children for human trafficking in FY 2012 (an increase from 6,560 children in FY 2011). ORR conducted several trainings on child trafficking, including a training session at On Their Own, a conference on unaccompanied alien children in Washington, DC.
• ORR issued 366 Certification Letters to foreign trafficked adults (decreased from 463 certifications in FY 2011). ORR issued 103 Eligibility Letters to foreign trafficked children for benefits and services (an increase from 101 Letters in FY 2011). ORR has two Child Protection Specialists dedicated to reviewing requests and to facilitating the prompt delivery of assistance to eligible children. Child Protection Specialists have conducted training and outreach activities regarding services for foreign child trafficking victims and have traveled to 16 locations, including to Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC) programs. They met with the local Federal Field Specialists and provided the “Responding to Foreign Child Victims of Trafficking” training to staff at the Division of Children’s Services’ facilities, as well as met with law enforcement, child welfare agencies, and other local stakeholders.
• ORR awarded $799,333 for a third-year continuation grant to Polaris Project, a DC-based anti-trafficking organization, to operate the NHTRC. The NHTRC received 21,287 calls in FY 2012 (an increase from 16,244 calls in FY 2011). Over seven thousand six hundred potential victims have been referenced through 65,066 calls between December 7, 2007 and December 31, 2012. The NHTRC is a dedicated, toll-free, U.S. national telephone hotline (1-888-3737-888) that provides emergency assistance 24 hours a day, seven days a week, every day of the year. The NHTRC provides service referrals for victims, passes on tips to law enforcement agents, and provides information and training on human trafficking. Internet users can also report possible tips of trafficking cases to the NHTRC via an online reporting form. Polaris Project has been operating the hotline since December 2007.
• ORR awarded $3 million for second-year continuation grants to 11 organizations for the Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Regional Program. All organizations received continued funding during 2012 to proceed with projects in Fresno, Sacramento, and San Francisco, California; Denver, Colorado; Honolulu, Hawaii; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; St. Louis, Missouri; New York, New York; Dallas and Houston, Texas; and Seattle, Washington. The central purpose of these grants is to maximize and increase the identification and protection of human trafficking victims in the United States and to increase public awareness about human trafficking. The grantees are responsible for leading or participating in an anti-human trafficking coalition, conducting public awareness activities, and providing training and technical assistance on human trafficking issues to local organizations. Each grantee must sub-award at least 60 percent of grant funds received to local organizations that can identify and/or work with victims of human trafficking.
• There were 29 Rescue and Restore Coalitions across the country, including unfunded coalitions, that support public awareness by distributing campaign materials through local outreach activities.
• HHS initiated the drafting process for a five-year coordinated Federal Strategic Action Plan on services to victims of human trafficking, co-chaired with DOJ and DHS and working with other federal partners. HHS hosted a national Technical Working Group meeting in December 2012 at the White House to help inform the process.
• HHS awarded $4.7 million for second-year continuation funds to three organizations for its National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program (NHTVAP), originally awarded on September 27, 2011. The central purpose of these grants is to provide comprehensive case management services on a per capita basis to foreign victims and potential victims of trafficking seeking HHS certification in any location in the United States.
• NHTVAP grantees served a total of 762 clients (increased from 729 clients in FY 2011). The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants and its sub-awardees served 480 clients (371 victims and 109 derivatives). Tapestri, Inc. and its sub-awardees served 93 clients (66 victims and 27 derivatives). Heartland Human Care Services, Inc. and its sub-awardees served 189 clients (153 victims and 36 derivatives).
• HHS issued guidance on August 28, 2012 that expanded grant-funded services for foreign national victims to include specific types of legal assistance and victim advocacy.
Training and Technical Assistance
• The HHS Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) supported training, services, and advocacy for both domestic and foreign victims of trafficking who come in contact with domestic violence programs through 1,600 shelters, 1,100 non-residential service sites, and 54 state and territorial coalitions.
• FYSB-supported Family Violence Prevention and Services Act provided grants to state and territorial domestic violence coalitions. Several coalitions worked to improve victim services through state-level coordination of services and advocacy for victims of trafficking. For example:
• In response to state anti-trafficking legislation, state domestic violence coalitions in Georgia and Vermont offered specialized training to domestic violence programs for building their capacity to respond to the very specific needs of trafficking victims, and worked on a public awareness campaign.
• Coalitions in Nebraska, Idaho, and Wisconsin facilitated state-wide task forces or networks to coordinate anti-trafficking efforts. Several other state coalitions (Kansas, Arizona, and North Carolina) participated in such initiatives.
• Several state domestic violence coalitions and their local member domestic violence programs provided targeted training and technical assistance for local programs, as well as victim advocacy and legal immigration services for victims of trafficking.
• FYSB-supported Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence provided a human trafficking section on its website with issue briefs on the intersection between domestic violence and human trafficking, including health, mental health, and legal service needs.
• HHS provided trainings including 23 in-person presentations on a range of victim service topics, reaching 868 frontline responders (e.g., Office of Women’s Health, National Runaway and Homeless Youth Conference; Houston Anti-Trafficking Task Force; Global Center for Women and Justice Conference on Child Sexual Exploitation; FBI and DHS Los Angeles, San Diego, and Honolulu offices; County of San Diego Child Welfare Services; White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; and the Louisiana Human Trafficking Task Force).
• FYSB funded the Runaway and Homeless Youth Training and Technical Assistance Center (RHYTTAC), which provided a specific resource section on human trafficking with 25 resources and articles on the relation between human trafficking and runaway and homeless youth. RHYTTAC provided direct training through six institute events, three webinars, and a five-course e-learning module on human trafficking. Human trafficking was the featured topic in two workshop sessions at the national Runaway and Homeless Youth conference. RHYTTAC’s Community of Practice site has 612 active members and had several discussion threads regarding human trafficking in FY 2012.
• The HHS Children’s Bureau created a “spotlight” page providing links and resources to child welfare-related personnel on responding to the human trafficking of children through the Child Welfare and Information Gateway.
• HHS’s Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) hosted 11 international delegations and provided briefings on ORR’s efforts to combat human trafficking and assist victims in the United States.
• ORR coordinated an HHS Trafficking in Persons In-Reach Campaign event with representatives from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from the Indian Health Services who discussed how they integrate anti-trafficking in persons training into their work.
• ORR distributed 714,127 public awareness materials (posters, brochures, etc.) publicizing the Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking (Rescue & Restore) public awareness campaign. The Rescue & Restore training video, Look Beneath the Surface, is posted online in English and Spanish.
• ORR funded the NHTRC, which created eight online trainings and sent 12 monthly newsletters on trafficking issues to its listserv of 8,375 members in FY 2012 (increased from 5,522 members in FY 2011).
Department of Transportation (DOT)
• In July 2012, DOT launched human trafficking awareness training for all 55,000 of its employees. By the end of calendar year 2012, nearly all DOT employees completed the training.
• In July, Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood hosted a roundtable with more than 30 transportation stakeholder organizations to discuss strategies within the transportation and travel industry to combat human trafficking.
• In September 2012, Secretary LaHood recorded a video message in support of the travel technology company Sabre Holdings signing the End Child Prostitution and Trafficking Code of Conduct and of the kick-off of their employee human trafficking awareness training.
• In September 2012, the Transportation Leaders Against Human Trafficking partnership was formed in order to maximize the transportation industry’s collective impact in combating human trafficking. The partnership is an open membership group comprising transportation and travel industry stakeholders. It identified four key focus areas: industry leadership, industry training and education, public awareness, and information sharing and analysis. The partnership created an online collaborative workspace – the first of its kind on human trafficking – where stakeholders can exchange ideas and best practices, measure the progress of the partnership, coordinate activities, share training programs and materials, and build on the momentum the partnership has created in the transportation sector.
• DOT contract and acquisition specialists received specialized training on the policies and responsibilities for combating human trafficking in accordance with Executive Order 13627, Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts.
• In October 2012, Secretary LaHood participated in a press conference with DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano and Amtrak Chairman Joe Boardman to announce a new partnership to train all 20,000 of Amtrak employees on identifying and reporting human trafficking.
• In November 2012, Secretary LaHood spoke at the launch of the Transportation Leaders Against Human Trafficking partnership at the White House, and issued a “call to action” for industry leaders to train their employees on human trafficking and increase anti-trafficking public awareness activities.
• Secretary LaHood blogged about DOT’s efforts to combat human trafficking in October and December 2012 and reached an estimated 101,000 people.
• In December 2012, Secretary LaHood shared DOT’s anti-trafficking efforts with many of the major airline Chief Executive Officers and encouraged them to join the Blue Lightning Initiative. The Blue Lightning Initiative, in a partnership with DOT, the Federal Aviation Administration, DHS, and CBP, provides U.S. commercial airlines and their employees with a voluntary mechanism to identify potential human trafficking victims and notify federal authorities.
• In February 2013, Secretary LaHood spoke to the Association of Flight Attendants thanking them for passing a resolution to educate flight attendants on ways to end human trafficking and to seek the addition of industry-wide training that "helps identify, report, and stop human trafficking in its tracks."
Department of Education (ED)
• Department of Education’s Office of Safe and Healthy Students (OSHS) consolidated and augmented its existing work around child safety to build a more comprehensive program to educate school districts about human trafficking and CSEC.
• OSHS held its National Conference, “Meeting the Challenge: Building and Sustaining Capacity to Improve Conditions for Learning,” in Washington, DC on August 8-9, 2012. The Conference explored five prevailing and emerging issues that influence conditions for learning – school discipline, gender-based violence, behavioral health, bullying, and school safety. Human trafficking and CSEC were explored, when appropriate, in the context of these tracks.
• The Department awarded a Safe Schools/Healthy Students supplement grant of $20,000 to Grossmont Union High School District in San Diego, California on August 31, 2012 to develop an anti-trafficking guide for schools. ED anticipates that the project will be completed within a year of the grant announcement.
• The guide includes the following:
• Why It Is Vital that Schools Address CSEC
• School climate and culture
• Physical and emotional safety
• How We Talk About CSEC
• Working definition of CSEC
• Why terminology is important
• How CSEC Affects Schools
• Impact on student performance
• Impact on teachers and administration
• Campus recruitment
• The Importance of Collaboration and Partnership
• Why this issue requires community collaboration
• Who should be at the table
• How to Identify a Victim of CSEC
• Warning signs - It goes beyond physical appearance
• Caution with regard to labeling
• How to Report a Suspected Incidence of CSEC
• Issue of mandated reporting
• Need for partnerships with law enforcement, mental health and victim service providers, and child welfare
• Protocol to Follow when a Case of CSEC is Suspected
• Importance of policy and protocol
• Provide examples, models, and tools
• Available CSEC Resources
• ED partnered closely with the FBI and DHS and scheduled opportunities for these agencies to train/present at national conferences for school resource officers and school security staff.
• OSHS developed web pages under the heading: “The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Forced Child Labor or Human Trafficking.” The web pages are presented on the Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center’s website. The web pages include interactive links and information regarding federal agencies and organizations involved with human trafficking issues, available resources, and related publications and reports. Information on “Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Forced Labor or Human Tracking” is also posted on the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments’ website.
• Announcements about training opportunities, reports, and other publications about human trafficking and CSEC were included in program office publications, including the Safe and Supportive Schools Newsletter and the Prevention Newsletter. The newsletters were distributed through a very large and active listserv that is used as a mechanism to notify individuals about training opportunities, ongoing research, new publications, and grant opportunities.
• ED posted and disseminated a fact sheet that describes how human trafficking affects schools, the signs that school staff should be aware of, and how to report incidents of trafficking.
• In addition to the accomplishments listed, ED continued to focus on the following: providing outreach to schools to inform school leaders, staff, students, and parents about the issue of human trafficking; helping schools understand how the issue is related to teaching and learning and why it is important for schools to address; providing school security and police with information, additional assistance, and resources; and assisting other federal agencies in the dissemination of information about their efforts.
• ED held a Policy Briefing on “Ending Modern-Day Slavery & Commercial Sexual Exploitation of School-Aged Youth.” The policy briefing explored the problem, where it is happening, and what is being done. The session was held at ED and on Mediasite with live captioning on February 7, 2013. DHS participated in the session with ED. The briefing was attended by federal and non-federal staff, NGOs, and the press.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
• DHS increased its capacity to combat human trafficking through the strengthening of the DHS Blue Campaign. The Blue Campaign is the unified voice for DHS’s efforts to combat human trafficking. Working in collaboration with law enforcement, government, and non-governmental and private organizations, the Blue Campaign strives to protect the basic right of freedom, and to bring traffickers to justice.
• DHS works diligently to expand the reach of its state and local web-based training.
• DHS has worked with the International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training to make the training available to all of its members, which includes representatives from state and local law enforcement training academies.
• Six states have loaded the DHS state and local law enforcement training onto their statewide training systems, or are utilizing this training in their police academies.
• DHS produced two roll-call videos for state and local law enforcement that explain how DHS immigration relief (Continued Presence, T visas, and U visas) for victims of human trafficking can be beneficial to state and local law enforcement investigations. Each video is under 10 minutes in length and includes a subject matter expert panel consisting of DHS experts from ICE and USCIS, as well as a police officer from Salem, Massachusetts who has experience working on such immigration relief issues.
• DHS mandated that all employees who are likely to encounter victims of human trafficking take specialized training. The computer-based training module explains DHS employees’ anti-trafficking roles and responsibilities.
• DHS made training on the human trafficking provisions of the FAR mandatory for all DHS contracting professionals. As of July 2012, DHS has trained 100 percent of its contracting professionals.
• DHS sponsored a human trafficking seminar for approximately fifty state and major urban area fusion center analysts that included an in-depth review of human trafficking indicators, briefings on trafficking trends and tactics, and a panel discussion on resources available to support state and local analysts.
• The DHS Blue Campaign trained more than 2,000 lawyers and members of the American Bar Association on the nexus between protection of human trafficking victims and successful law enforcement investigations. Participants also learned about the services available to victims, how to identify victims, and how to report suspected human trafficking to law enforcement.
• CBP worked with DOT to release the Blue Lightning Initiative, a training module and pocket guide that educates airline employees on how to identify human trafficking in airports or during flights and how to notify law enforcement. This voluntary, advanced reporting allows CBP to research and formulate an appropriate response, including coordinating with other federal agencies as needed. Airlines were consulted in the development of the training, and several U.S. carriers with international routes have expressed an interest in participating in the Blue Lightning Initiative.
• FLETC conducted numerous in-person trainings on identifying indicators of human trafficking, case-studies of trafficking cases, and immigration relief options available to trafficked victims as part of its State and Local Law Enforcement Training Symposiums. FLETC trained over 1,600 officers who attended these symposiums in Akron, Ohio; Glynco, Georgia; Gulf Shores, Alabama; Hampton, Virginia; Laredo, Texas; Maui, Hawaii; Miami, Florida; and Traverse City, Michigan.
• USCIS conducted numerous in-person and web-based trainings and presentations on combating human trafficking and on immigration relief options for victims. Participants included federal, state, and local law enforcement, NGOs, immigration advocates, attorneys, judges, and others. Personnel conducted in-person trainings in cities and regions across the United States, including Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; Nashville, Tennessee; New York, New York; northern Virginia; San Antonio, Texas; Vermont, and Washington, DC.
• USCIS conducted bi-monthly webinar trainings for federal, state, and local law enforcement focused on issues unique to law enforcement’s role, rights, and responsibilities in the T and U visa programs, while also highlighting the certification process on the I-914B and I-918B law enforcement certification forms.
• USCIS Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations Directorate (RAIO) developed a training module on trafficking that is used to train all new officers at RAIO. RAIO’s Asylum Division conducted additional training for new asylum officers at the Asylum Division Officer Training Course, which is required for all newly hired asylum officers. The training covers the TVPRA, making UAC determinations, detecting indicators of trafficking, and what asylum officers should do if they suspect that an asylum applicant has been or is being trafficked. Each asylum office has designated a human trafficking point of contact, who have each established communication with their local ICE Special Agent in Charge (SAC) trafficking points of contact and local ICE Victim Assistance Coordinators in order to establish referral and information-sharing mechanisms on human trafficking-related cases.
• USCIS partnered with the ICE HSI Victim Assistance Program and the Law Enforcement Parole Section to conduct a joint comprehensive training covering Continued Presence, T visas, U visas, and DHS resources available to federal, state, and local law enforcement.
• ICE conducted trainings and distributed materials throughout the United States and around the world to raise awareness among law enforcement and the public about how to identify human trafficking and provide tips to law enforcement. In FY 2012, ICE trained or provided anti-human trafficking materials to over 49,000 people.
• In FY 2012, ICE provided training and outreach on international forced child labor, human trafficking, and child sex tourism to over 6,000 foreign officials in Aruba, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Curacao, Chile, Dominican Republic, France, Haiti, Hong Kong, Israel, Jamaica, Lebanon, Macau, Malaysia, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Poland, Spain, Thailand, and Uruguay. ICE collaborated with foreign Cabinet-level officials in the respective host countries to engage appropriate and specialized law enforcement entities to participate in these prosecution, prevention, and protection efforts. This collaboration led to several joint or ICE-assisted foreign investigations.
• Working jointly with DOS, ICE conducted training on cybercrimes investigations and child exploitation for first responders in Bulgaria, Cambodia, and Thailand.
• ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO) hosted a three-day training in January 2013 focusing on the response to UACs apprehended while illegally crossing U.S. borders. The Blue Campaign has worked with ICE ERO and with CBP to revise and expand the training to include child sensitive interview techniques. Approximately 100 law enforcement officers were trained, including ICE’s Field Office Juvenile Coordinators and CBP’s Offices of Border Patrol and Field Operations. USCIS personnel also attended.
Public Awareness and Engagement
• The Blue Campaign conducted a stakeholder meeting in July 2012. During the meeting, DHS announced new initiatives and resources, and listened to stakeholder feedback on how to effectively prevent and combat human trafficking.
• DHS provides a suite of materials to enhance public awareness and explain the types of services and resources that are available to victims of human trafficking. These materials are disseminated across the United States and are available for order or free download. DHS and the DOS TIP Office collaborate to distribute awareness-raising materials to foreign government counterparts and foreign anti-trafficking advocates.
• ICE distributed outreach material to over 49,000 stakeholders.
• CBP distributed 31,700 human trafficking tear cards, 1,472 shoe cards, and 650 posters to stakeholders.
• USCIS distributed over 5,000 pamphlets on immigration relief options for victims of crimes. These pamphlets are available online in English, Spanish, Chinese, and Russian.
• DHS continues to meet individually with its federal partners, nongovernmental and community organizations, and private sector partners to receive stakeholder feedback on its anti-trafficking programs and to help shape future initiatives. The semi-annual stakeholder meetings facilitate targeted outreach efforts, including engagement with emergency management and medical professionals.
• Between November 14-17, 2012, the ICE Hidden In Plain Sight campaign aired a thirty second Human Trafficking PSA on English and Spanish language radio stations in all 26 HSI SAC office cities. The English version played in every city except San Juan, Puerto Rico, while the Spanish language version aired in 21 cities with the exception of Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Detroit, Michigan; Honolulu, Hawaii; and New Orleans, Louisiana. The PSA played 20 times (five times per day) between the hours of 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. on each station during this four-day period.
• The DHS Office of Health Affairs (OHA) conducted more than five briefings and webinars on human trafficking at the request of state and national medical first responder associations and groups.
• In March 2012, OHA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the U.S. Fire Administration held a stakeholder event for first responders with more than 35 participants from federal agencies, NGOs, the private sector, industry associations, and state and local government entities. As part of the event, DHS held a moderated listening session on issues related to ongoing efforts by first responders to prevent and combat human trafficking.
• The DHS Office of Faith Based and Neighborhood Partnerships conducted outreach to the faith-based community, including meeting with stakeholders and providing presentations at conferences. The office distributed approximately 300 informational pamphlets on combating human trafficking customized to the specific needs and interests of faith-based constituencies.
• USCIS developed a poster for the public on the immigration relief options available to victims of human trafficking and domestic violence. The “Don’t Be Afraid to Ask for Help” poster includes hotline phone numbers to request assistance, along with other government sources of information, and is available in English and Spanish.
• CBP launched a public awareness campaign aimed at children and their families from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. The campaign will use multiple formats (print, radio, television, and more) to promote awareness of the dangers, including human trafficking, posed to children in attempting to illegally immigrate to the United States. The campaign went live in Central America in January 2013 and continued through the first week of April 2013. The campaign was coordinated across DHS components, with interagency partners, NGO representatives, and Central American Embassy representatives to ensure that the message resonates with the target population.
Victim Assistance and Perpetrator Justice
• In collaboration with DOJ and DOL, DHS created an advanced human trafficking training course for the ACTeams. The first training was held in September 2012 and included expert instructors from DOJ, FBI, ICE HSI, and DOL. This highly interactive course focuses on complex issues of human trafficking (such as discovery issues, immigration relief and strategies concerning which witnesses to call to testify, search warrant information, interviewing both cooperative and uncooperative witnesses, and evidence gathering). ACTeams from Atlanta, Georgia and Los Angeles, California participated in the training. There were a total of 25 trainees.
• The Blue Campaign adopted and modified the “I Speak” pocket guide and poster, created by the DHS Office of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties, which is used by DHS personnel and law enforcement to identify the language spoken by people with whom they are interacting. Law enforcement officers and others can show the “I Speak” pocket guide or poster to potential victims of human trafficking. The Blue Campaign created these versions of the “I Speak” materials in response to stakeholder feedback that language and cultural barriers may impede the identification of human trafficking victims. The “I Speak” materials were distributed to ICE victim specialists in HSI SAC offices and have been made available to the public via the Blue Campaign website. Victims can also obtain assistance from the ICE HSI Tip Line, which is available 24 hours a day with capability in more than 300 languages and dialects.
• Through its cross-component working group, DHS continued to proactively address concerns and ensure that age-appropriate care and services are provided to UACs encountered by DHS personnel. The DHS UAC working group contains subcommittees tasked with addressing three primary areas for improvement in the management of UACs: screening and training, including on child-trafficking victims; short-term care and custody; and external coordination. Currently, DHS is implementing best practices to improve the short-term care and custody of UACs, testing newly developed products including a video that explains what a UAC can expect while in CBP custody, and making improvements to existing materials and forms.
• The ICE HSI Tip Line received more human trafficking tips than ever before – 588 tips in FY 2012 – up from 384 in FY 2011 and 231 in FY 2010. Individuals around the world can report suspicious criminal activity, including human trafficking, by phone or by online form, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Highly trained specialists take reports from both the public and law enforcement on possible violations of more than 400 laws enforced by ICE. Report at 866-347-2423 or on the web.
• ICE conducted more investigations containing a nexus to human trafficking in FY 2012 than ever before, resulting in 894 initiated cases, 381 convictions, and the seizure of over $1,000,000 in assets.
• ICE HSI participated in the Northern Virginia Human Trafficking Task Force, which, from FY 2011 to the present, prosecuted 44 defendants in 25 cases in the Eastern District of Virginia for human trafficking and trafficking-related conduct involving at least 32 victims.
• For the third year in a row, USCIS reached the annual statutory cap for U visas (10,000), which provide relief for victims who cooperate in the investigation or prosecution of certain crimes, including human trafficking and domestic violence. USCIS also saw an increase in T visa applications, which are set aside specifically for victims of a severe form of human trafficking.
• In recognition of the needs and unique challenges of interviewing trafficked victims, children, and other special needs victims, ICE expanded its Forensic Interviewing Program. There are currently four full time Forensic Interview Specialists (FISs). FISs are available to conduct developmentally-appropriate, legally-defensible, victim- and culturally-sensitive forensic interviews for all ICE investigations, domestically and internationally. Interviews can be conducted in English and Spanish, or in any other language through an interpreter.
• ICE expanded its Victim Assistance Program to ensure that each ICE HSI SAC office has at least one full-time Victim Assistance Specialist. There are currently 27 full-time specialists and more will start in 2013. ICE Victim Assistance Specialists are responsible for assessing victims’ needs for all victims linked to an HSI investigation, working with agents to integrate victim assistance considerations at the beginning and throughout the duration of the criminal investigation. Specialists ensure that potential trafficking victims are rescued, transferred to safe locations, and provided with referrals for medical, mental health, and legal assistance, including for long-term immigration relief, case management, and other services.
• ICE designated 51 specially-trained human trafficking subject matter experts – at least one in every ICE HSI SAC office. These individuals are trained to handle human trafficking leads, address urgent victim needs appropriately, and serve as designated points of contact for local officers and leads.
• The Coast Guard increased awareness of human trafficking across its service. The Coast Guard Investigative Service incorporated training on recognition of human trafficking indicators. The Coast Guard Intelligence Directorate created a standing intelligence requirement and an indicators list to ensure field personnel can identify human trafficking.
• ICE continues to play a leading role in the HSTC by providing substantial support and staffing, including 21 full-time analysts and special agents.
• In December 2012, an MS-13 clique leader of Alexandria, Virginia was sentenced to more than 17 years for his role in gang-run child sex trafficking, and was personally responsible for prostituting at least one juvenile female at various motels and apartments in Alexandria, Arlington, Fairfax, and Falls Church, Virginia; and Maryland. The sentencing follows an investigation by ICE HSI in Washington, DC, and the FBI Washington Field Office with assistance from the Fairfax County Police Department and the Northern Virginia Human Trafficking Task Force.
• In November 2012, a former Sacramento, California woman was sentenced to nine years in federal prison on charges stemming from a probe by ICE HSI and the FBI that linked her to a scheme to sex traffic teenage girls. The joint investigation was conducted by ICE HSI San Francisco; FBI; South San Francisco Police Department; the San Mateo County District Attorney's Office; DOJ HTPU; and DOJ CEOS.
• In November 2012, a former massage parlor owner from Illinois was sentenced to life in federal prison on charges of sex trafficking, forced labor, harboring illegal aliens, confiscating passports to further forced labor, and extortion. The joint investigation was conducted by ICE HSI and the Cook County Sheriff's Office. The Cook County State's Attorney Office assisted in the investigation, which was coordinated by the Cook County Human Trafficking Task Force.
• In November 2011, a man residing in Maryland pleaded guilty to sex trafficking a 15-year-old runaway as part of a multi-state conspiracy that prostituted hundreds of women and girls since at least 2008. After receiving a portion of the proceeds from the women providing sexual services to his customers, the trafficker paid "rent" to MS-13 gang members under threats of violence, and he also sent some proceeds to co-conspirators living in Mexico. The case was investigated by ICE HSI in Washington, DC, with assistance from the Northern Virginia Human Trafficking Task Force.
• In November 2011, a Florence, Alabama man, who was found guilty for sex trafficking a 15-year-old girl, was sentenced to more than 15 years in prison following an investigation by ICE HSI. According to court records, the trafficker harbored the girl in Lauderdale County, Alabama and caused her to engage in commercial sex acts between August 25 and September 8, 2009. The investigation leading to the guilty verdict was conducted by ICE HIS, with the assistance of the FBI and the Florence Police Department.
• Secretary Janet Napolitano increased DHS’s anti-trafficking engagement with the international community by signing statements of intent on combating human trafficking with the governments of the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, New Zealand, Panama, and Brazil in 2012. Secretary Napolitano and Attorney General Holder also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Canadian Minister of Public Safety Vic Toews between the HSTC and the Canadian Human Trafficking National Coordination Center. Secretary Napolitano continues to meet with international counterparts to enhance collaborative efforts to combat human trafficking.
• Secretary Napolitano, Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood, and Amtrak President and CEO Joseph Boardman announced a new partnership among DHS, DOT, and Amtrak to combat human trafficking. Under this partnership, DHS and DOT will work with Amtrak to train employees and Amtrak Police Department officers to identify and recognize indicators of human trafficking, as well as how to report suspected cases of human trafficking.
• Secretary Napolitano signed an agreement with INTERPOL Secretary General Ron Noble to allow INTERPOL to distribute Blue Campaign materials to each of its 190 member countries.
• Through state and major urban area fusion centers, DHS is helping build the capacity of state and local partners to identify and effectively report human trafficking to federal law enforcement. This enhanced capacity should improve DHS’s ability to investigate organizations and individuals involved in this crime.
• DHS continues to partner with other federal agencies to provide enhanced anti-trafficking coordination, trainings, and resources.
• ICE HSI provided international training and outreach to over 6,000 foreign officials in FY 2012, and engages foreign law enforcement partners to enhance prosecution, protection, and prevention efforts.
Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
• ODNI ensured intelligence priorities for trafficking in persons are aligned with the current threats.
• The Intelligence Community is developing an all-source intelligence collection strategy for trafficking in persons.
• PITF member agencies and the HSTC are building a process to systematically review and share intelligence reporting with a focus on preventing human trafficking to add to the considerable work on protection and prosecution.
• ODNI continued to emphasize to the Intelligence Community the national and international security threat of trafficking in persons. This issue was highlighted at the yearly Transnational Organized Crime Conference at both the plenary and a two-hour breakout session specifically focused on human trafficking. Over 200 representatives from the Intelligence Community, Law Enforcement, DOD, and other government and private agencies participated in this event.
• DOS TIP Office, INR, and HSTC representatives are included in the integrated planning sessions on combating transnational organized crime.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
• C-TIP Policy: Since the launch of the USAID Counter-Trafficking in Persons (C-TIP) Policy on February 23, 2012, USAID has vigorously pursued the implementation of the policy through the following strategic programming principles and objectives: invest in innovation and technology; increase integration of C-TIP activities into development programs across sectors, including the introduction of a C-TIP Field Guide; apply more rigorous monitoring and evaluation methodologies; employ USAID’s comparative advantage including awareness raising activities; develop regional approaches, promote greater institutional accountability within USAID; and place an increased focus on addressing trafficking in critical challenge countries and conflict- and crisis-affected environments. USAID categorizes this year’s accomplishments based on these principles and objectives.
• Innovation and Technology: In October 2012, USAID launched the C-TIP Campus Challenge as a direct response to President Obama’s call to employ new and innovative ways to end modern slavery. The Campus Challenge engaged students and scholars in a global on-line community at Challengeslavery.org, that now has over 2,200 members from countries including Uganda, Ghana, Nigeria, Mexico, Chad, Bosnia, the Philippines, Kenya, Bolivia, Argentina, Georgia, Ecuador, and Morocco, and hosted a technology contest for students, an on-going research competition for scholars, and a forum to connect contest winners with counter-trafficking organizations.
• Integration: USAID is currently developing integration tools and will deploy experts to help Missions continue to integrate C-TIP activities into development programs within specific sectors and initiatives.
• Field Guide: In Spring 2013, USAID will disseminate a C-TIP Field Guide to educate USAID Mission personnel and partners about trafficking and provide technical assistance to integrate, design, implement, and monitor effective programs.
• A USAID/Ghana Feed the Future program is incorporating language into its agreements and contracts to help ensure that activities do not exacerbate the worst forms of child labor in agriculture.
• The USAID Ghana Feed the Future program is incorporating language into its agreements and contracts to help ensure that activities do not exacerbate the worst forms of child labor in agriculture.
• USAID/Mozambique integrated C-TIP principles and strategies into its media strengthening program by building on existing networks of community radio stations to disseminate prevention information about human trafficking. The networks informed citizens on the Mozambican legislation and international agreements condemning trafficking, and communicated critical messages about respecting basic human rights and the perverse effects of trafficking on society.
• Evaluation and Research: USAID is currently creating an assessment and impact evaluation for the mining sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The resulting data will inform future prevention and protection programming efforts.
• This spring, USAID will conduct an experimental C-TIP Assessment and Victim Identification Survey in Guatemala to assess current knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to trafficking threats and resources, and to identify trafficking victims in sufficient numbers to explore in depth their backgrounds and experiences.
• Awareness Raising: USAID has supported MTV-End Exploitation and Trafficking (MTV-EXIT), a global multimedia campaign that raises awareness of trafficking among youth and vulnerable populations to prevent human trafficking in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Ukraine, Vietnam, and, recently, Burma, through a public concert held in Rangoon’s People’s Square, which was attended by over 70,000 Burmese. USAID’s longstanding partnership with MTV-EXIT to combat trafficking reaches 300 million households worldwide and 750,000 young people through concerts. This $8 million USAID investment has leveraged $100 million in contributions from other donors.
• Regional Impact: In Central Asia, USAID is assisting government entities and relevant civil society actors in their efforts to respond to the problem of human trafficking through gender-mainstreamed, awareness-raising campaigns on key human trafficking issues that include national level advocacy, policy debate, and informational activities through civil society and governmental actors. This regional project also protects both female and male victims of trafficking by providing appropriate and comprehensive direct assistance and services.
• USAID worked with 10 countries in southeastern Europe to develop transnational referral mechanism (TRM) guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) to assist cross-border collaboration in providing assistance to and repatriating trafficking victims in the region.
• Institutional Accountability: In June 2012, USAID adopted an Agency-wide SOP to prevent and respond to human trafficking abuses by USAID contractors, sub-contractors, assistance recipients, and sub-recipients. The SOP was developed by a special C-TIP Working Group on Contractor/Recipient Compliance made up of representatives from the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), the Office of the General Counsel (OGC), the Office of Acquisitions and Assistance (OAA), the Office of Inspector General (OIG), and various regional bureaus. The SOP focuses on three paths of action: training for agency personnel on recognizing and reporting trafficking in persons; due diligence prior to awarding contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements; and responding to allegations of trafficking-related abuses. The SOP supports and maps to Executive Order 13627, Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts.
• USAID developed a Procurement Executive Bulletin (PEB) on C-TIP, which is scheduled to be released in early 2013. The PEB will apply to all USAID Contracting Officers and Agreement Officers, as well as Acquisitions & Assistance staff worldwide. The purpose of the PEB is to remind Contracting and Agreement Officers of their responsibilities to implement the requirements of the several federal trafficking in persons statutes and to provide additional guidance for more effective compliance of contracts and agreements.
• USAID integrated C-TIP training into the mandatory employee orientation, training over 250 civil servants and more than 70 new Foreign Service Officers.
• USAID integrated C-TIP into its mandatory Agency-wide ethics training and provided the OIG with a C-TIP informational packet to serve as a resource for investigators.
• In May and November 2012, USAID convened its first two C-TIP Policy Steering Committee meetings. The Steering Committee comprises senior USAID leaders, and has the following responsibilities: oversees the implementation of the policy; provides technical leadership and support to USAID Missions; leads knowledge collection and management; supports planning, strategy, and coordination; oversees reporting requirements; ensures alignment and input into existing USAID programming, budgeting, and project cycles; assesses policy and program success; and considers solutions to specific challenges.
• C-TIP in Critical Challenge and Conflict Countries: USAID is designing a comprehensive multi-million dollar C-TIP project in Afghanistan.
• USAID/Afghanistan has established and chairs an interagency working group on counter-trafficking.
• USAID is supporting a program to prevent children from being conscripted into combat in the Democratic Republic of Congo. To date, this program has rescued over 1,100 children from the armed forces, and provided them with rehabilitation and reintegration services.
• USAID is recalibrating its approach to engage critical human trafficking challenge countries. Starting in 2013, up to $500,000 in dedicated C-TIP resources will be channeled through the Human Rights Grants Program. All Missions are eligible to apply for this specific C-TIP funding, and DCHA will be seeking collaborative opportunities for joint evaluation activities to build the evidence base in prevention and protection programming.
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
• The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person's race, color, religion, sex (including sexual harassment and pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability, or genetic information. It is also illegal to discriminate against a person because the person complained about discrimination, filed a charge of discrimination, or participated in an employment discrimination investigation or lawsuit. Most employers with at least 15 employees are covered by EEOC-enforced laws (20 employees in age discrimination cases). Most labor unions and employment agencies are also covered. The laws apply to all types of work situations, including hiring, firing, promotions, harassment, training, wages, and benefits.
• Because its core mission is to protect people from unlawful employment discrimination, the EEOC is well-situated to partner with its sister agencies in combating trafficking. What first presents itself as sexual harassment, for example, may reveal, through investigation, a situation of coerced labor. Thus, the EEOC staff needs to be well-versed in trafficking indicators. They can insure that attorneys representing clients before the Commission have access to training, that the resources of state and local fair employment agencies are brought to bear, and that those offices around the country can participate in the federally funded trafficking task forces. With these knowledge bases, and proper resources, the Commission and its partners in civil enforcement can dramatically increase the number of trafficking victims identified and the remedies obtained for those victims. Whether or not a criminal trafficking prosecution is pursued in a particular case, civil enforcement and litigation of anti-discrimination laws can be important to vindicating the federal interest and obtaining civil remedies, as has been the case in workplaces as diverse as egg farms, welding yards, and garment factories.
Strategic Approach to Combating Human Trafficking
• On February 22, 2012, the Commission approved a new Strategic Plan for FY 2012-2016, which established the framework for achieving EEOC’s mission to stop and remedy unlawful employment discrimination. Two of the three objectives adopted in the Strategic Plan directly relate to EEOC’s work combating trafficking in persons:
• Strategic Objective I - Combating Employment Discrimination Through Strategic Law Enforcement.
• When the Commission adopted the Strategic Plan, it committed to the development and implementation of a Strategic Enforcement Plan to establish EEOC enforcement priorities. On December 14, 2012, the Commission approved a Strategic Enforcement Plan, which identifies six national enforcement priorities to focus and coordinate EEOC’s programs to have a sustainable impact in reducing and deterring discriminatory practices in the workplace.
• EEOC identified the protection of vulnerable workers, including victims of human trafficking, as one of the national priorities that will be the focus of the agency’s integrated enforcement efforts.
• Strategic Objective II - Preventing Employment Discrimination Through Education and Outreach.
• The Strategic Plan identified that the Commission would target outreach to vulnerable workers, specifically including victims of human trafficking, to ensure that members of the public understand and know how to exercise their right to employment, free from discrimination. EEOC’s performance under this Strategic Objective is based upon the number of significant partnerships established with vulnerable workers and underserved communities. The partnerships that directly relate to the work of the Commission to combat human trafficking are discussed below.
Related Litigation and Enforcement Activities
• During 2012, EEOC continued to work on the following lawsuits involving human trafficking issues:
• EEOC v. Global Horizons, Inc. (D. Haw.). This case, filed April 19, 2011, involves a labor contracting company that provided farming businesses with temporary agricultural workers brought from Thailand to work in the United States under H-2A visas. The EEOC’s lawsuit presents a Title VII claim of systemic discrimination by the labor contractor (Global Horizons) and six farming businesses (Captain Cook Coffee Company, Del Monte Fresh Produce, Kauai Coffee Company, Kelena Farms, Mac Farms of Hawaii, and Maui Pineapple Company) that operated as joint employers of a large class of over 250 Thai workers. The complaint alleges that the defendants subjected their Thai employees to harassment and a hostile work environment, disparate treatment in the terms and conditions of their employment, and constructive discharge on the basis of their national origin and/or race, as well as in retaliation for their opposition to such discriminatory employment practices. The human trafficking issues in this case involve allegations that the defendants exploited poor, non-English speaking workers by, among many other things, charging exorbitant fees, not paying them on time and for all work, keeping them in isolation from non-Thai employees and outside contacts, providing them with grossly substandard housing and inadequate food, and threatening them with physical violence and deportation for objecting to the defendants’ discriminatory practices. This case is currently pending before the district court for civil discovery by the parties.
• EEOC v. Global Horizons, Inc. (E.D. Wash.). This case is a closely related companion to EEOC’s Global Horizons lawsuit filed in Hawaii, except that the joint-employer defendants in this case are two grower businesses in the State of Washington, Green Acre Farms, Inc. and Valley Fruit Orchards, Inc. EEOC’s complaint alleges the same or very similar Title VII pattern-or-practice claims of systemic discrimination committed by the defendants against a large class of Thai H-2A temporary agricultural workers on the basis of their national origin and/or race, as well as retaliation against class members who opposed the defendant’s unlawful employment practices. This case is currently pending before the district court following an order which granted in part and denied in part the grower defendants’ motions to dismiss EEOC’s first amended complaint.
• EEOC v. Signal Int’l (E.D. La.). EEOC’s lawsuit alleges that the defendant, a large fabrication company headquartered in Pascagoula, Mississippi, had violated Title VII by discriminating against a large class of East Indian employees working in the United States under H-2B visas. Specifically, the complaint alleges that the defendant subjected these employees to adverse terms and conditions of employment and a hostile work environment because of their national origin and/or race, and forcibly detained and subsequently discharged two employees because they opposed the defendant’s discriminatory practices. The human trafficking issues in this case involve requiring the Indian employees to live in company-owned work camps and deducting exorbitant fees from the workers’ pay checks for housing, regardless of whether individual workers resided in the camps. The defendant also provided substandard housing and meals, deprived employees of their personal privacy, and subjected them to unwarranted discipline, unsafe living conditions, threats of deportation, criminal prosecution, forcible physical imprisonment, insults, travel restrictions, and other restrictions of their freedom.
• EEOC v. Hill Country Farms, d/b/a, Henry’s Turkey Service (Iowa). In April 2011, EEOC filed suit in federal district court in Iowa (No. 3:11-cv-00041) charging that Hill Country Farms, d/b/a, Henry’s Turkey Service, subjected a class of intellectually disabled workers to substandard working conditions, disparate treatment and harassment in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act, as amended. More specifically, EEOC alleges that the company paid the workers with disabilities $15 per week for working on an evisceration line at a turkey processing plant in Iowa, while non-disabled workers were paid $11-$12 per hour for the same or similar work. The workers with disabilities were also subjected to abusive conduct, physical and verbal harassment, undue restrictions on their freedom, and harsh punishments and other adverse terms and conditions of employment, such as requiring them to live in unsafe and inadequate housing and failing to provide proper health care. In September 2012, a federal district court judge found Henry’s Turkey liable for $1.37 million in lost wages. The remaining claims of disparate treatment and harassment are pending with a trial scheduled for March 2013.
Immigrant Worker Team
• EEOC has continued its efforts to strengthen enforcement of Title VII’s prohibitions against national origin discrimination and to implement coordinated efforts to combat discriminatory employment practices affecting immigrant workers, including human trafficking. The Immigrant Worker Team (IWT), which has been at the forefront of EEOC’s efforts in this area, is led by EEOC General Counsel P. David Lopez. The IWT is assessing the Commission's outreach to immigrant workers and related training, data collection, and enforcement activities. The IWT is using a collaborative model to bring together staff with expertise in these issues to enhance EEOC’s enforcement, litigation, and outreach related to national origin discrimination, including human trafficking.
Increased Training of EEOC Staff
• EEOC has focused increased attention on training staff on combating human trafficking. For example:
• During FY 2012, EEOC designed and piloted a training program in three district offices and the Washington Field office that will be delivered to employees throughout the country early in FY 2013, which is specifically geared towards EEOC investigators, attorneys, and Fair Employment Practices Agencies (FEPA) staff on ensuring access and providing services to the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community. The training focuses on enhancing employee awareness and understanding of the diversity within the AAPI communities and the issues which impact those communities, including human trafficking. The training provides an overview of the issue, including what constitutes human trafficking, recognizing the signs of it, understanding the trafficking victim, identifying the employer, and theories of employment discrimination applicable in trafficking cases.
• In February 2012, approximately 300 investigators and trial attorneys were trained on immigration issues that arise in EEOC cases. The training covered several topics, including human trafficking, U visas, and T visas. The trainers discussed various EEOC cases to highlight key facts and allegations involving human trafficking. They also gave a brief overview of visas for which immigrant workers, specifically trafficking and sexual assault victims, may be eligible, as well as information regarding the EEOC’s role in certifying U visas.
• In February 2012, approximately 30 enforcement and legal staff in the San Francisco District Office received training on human trafficking issues from the Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach organization and Workers Rights Clinic, Katharine & George Alexander Community Law Center. The training focused on how to identify and develop human trafficking cases and types of claims and remedies (under both federal and state laws) that a charging party may allege, as well as visas (including U and T) that are available for victims of trafficking.
• In May 2012, the General Counsel and the Regional Attorney in San Francisco conducted training for EEOC and FEPA staff on the topic of immigrant workers and employment discrimination. The training included a discussion of cases involving human trafficking, as well as information regarding U and T visas. There were approximately 100 participants.
Public Education, Outreach, and Training
• In FY 2012, the Commission conducted a total of 193 outreach events that dealt with human trafficking issues and reached 10,622 people. Efforts included media interviews, oral presentations, stakeholder input meetings, and training sessions. For example:
• EEOC General Counsel, P. David Lopez, spoke at the Alliance on Human Trafficking conference organized by the OSCE in Vienna, Austria as part of the U.S. delegation. The conference was one of the first international efforts to examine discrimination as a vulnerability factor contributing to human trafficking. The General Counsel gave a presentation, “U.S. Anti-Discrimination Laws: A Tool to Protect Victims of Trafficking,” wherein he discussed the Commission’s litigation involving human trafficking and described the Commission’s efforts to combat trafficking in the employment context.
• The Regional Attorney for the Los Angeles District Office spoke at a conference sponsored by the ABA, Labor and Employment Section, “The Real Cost of Human Trafficking – What it is and How U.S. Immigration Law can Help.” The Los Angeles Regional Attorney gave a presentation on the issue of human trafficking and an overview of EEOC cases involving victims of trafficking.
• EEOC Administrative Judge and Lead Coordinator of the IWT spoke at a Human Trafficking Training Conference sponsored by the South Bay Coalition to End Human Trafficking and The County of Santa Clara’s Office of Women’s Policy. The presentation addressed Equal Employment Opportunity laws as a tool to protect victims of human trafficking, and included a brief overview of the laws EEOC enforces, a description of trafficking cases litigated by EEOC, and an overview of settlements and remedies available to victims of trafficking. Approximately 200 participants attended the conference.
• An Administrative Judge in the San Francisco District Office trained 30 vice squad officers representing law enforcement agencies throughout California on identifying and investigating human trafficking cases and provided a brief overview of the laws enforced by EEOC.
• EEOC also conducted off-site intake and counseling expanded presence sessions, where staff visited targeted locations to provide information, conduct counseling, and receive charges of discrimination from potential charging parties. During these expanded presence sessions, EEOC interviewed approximately 350 people and informed them of their rights in the workplace. Further examples of EEOC’s expanded outreach to human trafficking victims include:
• Staff from the Los Angeles District Office managed an EEOC booth at the Thai New Year Festival. The booth was shared with DOL’s WHD. The event served the dual purpose of presenting information (in both Thai and English) to the mostly Thai attendees of the festival and also seeking to identify potential class members in its Global Horizons human trafficking lawsuit.
• Several EEOC Program Analysts and managers attended the National Farm Worker Conference in San Antonio, Texas. There, the analysts: networked with various state monitor advocates and farm worker service providers and organizations; attended plenary sessions and workshops that covered topics such as immigration, human trafficking, women farm workers issues, and more, and; developed several relationships that will result in many future outreach events.
• EEOC has taken additional steps to increase public awareness about human trafficking and equal employment opportunity law, including the addition to its public website of a page providing resources for victims of human trafficking and information on how the laws enforced by EEOC are an integral part of the fight against human trafficking.
• As part of EEOC’s effort to help bring awareness to the issue of human trafficking, educate vulnerable communities, and reach victims, the Commission has partnered with several organizations across the country. During 2012, EEOC continued its work partnering with organizations to combat human trafficking, including: the Human Trafficking Taskforce of San Antonio, the Houston Rescue and Restore Collection, L.A. Metro Human Trafficking Task Force, the Thai Community Development Center Human Trafficking Focus Group/Catholic Charities, the Bay Area Equal Pay Collaborative, the South Bay Coalition to End Human Trafficking, and Freedom House.
• During 2012, EEOC also worked on developing new partnerships with other organizations that deal with human trafficking issues, including: Tapestri, Inc., Savannahians Working against Human Trafficking, S.C. Legal Services, Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach, Northern Virginia Human Trafficking Taskforce, D.C. Human Trafficking Taskforce, and Polaris Project.
• EEOC continues to work collaboratively with representatives from sister federal agencies such as DOS, DOL, and DOJ on issues affecting immigrant workers, including victims of human trafficking.
• The EEOC also worked with its sister federal agencies on a thematic hearing related to human trafficking before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), “The Rights of Migrants and Farm Workers in the United States.” The EEOC responded to requests for information from the IACHR about its efforts to assist vulnerable migrant and farm workers, including efforts to combat human trafficking, and made staff available to participate in the hearing.
LIST OF ACRONYMS
DOS – Department of State
CA – Bureau of Consular Affairs
DRL – Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
DSS – Diplomatic Security Service
ECA – Education and Cultural Affairs
FSI – Foreign Service Institute
IFR – Interim Final Rule
ILEA – International Law Enforcement Academies
IVLP – International Visitor Leadership Program
LEWG – Law Enforcement Working Groups
S/GWI – Office of Global Women’s Issues
DOD – Department of Defense
CTIP – Combatting Trafficking in Persons
CENTCOM – United States Central Command
DCMA – Defense Contract Management Agency
DFARS – Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement
DLA – Defense Logistics Agency
DODIG – Department of Defense Inspector General
DPAP – Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy
NSA – National Security Agency
OCONUS – Outside the Continental United States
USFK – United States Forces Korea
DOJ – Department of Justice
BJA – Bureau of Justice Assistance
CEOS – Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section
FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation
HTPU – Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit
ICITAP – International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program
OJJDP – Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
OPDAT – Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training
OVC – Office for Victims of Crime
USAO – United States Attorneys’ Office
DOI – Department of the Interior
USAOND – United States Attorney’s Office in North Dakota
DOL – Department of Labor
ETA – Employment and Training Administration
FLC – Foreign Labor Certification
ILAB – Bureau of International Labor Affairs
TEGL – Training and Employment Guidance Letter
WHD – Wage and Hour Division
HHS – Department of Health and Human Services
FYSB – Family and Youth Services Bureau
ORR – Office of Refugee Resettlement
NHTVAP – National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program
ED – Department of Education
OSHS – Office of Safe and Healthy Students
DHS – Department of Homeland Security
CBP – Customs and Border Protection
HSI – Homeland Security Investigations
ICE – Immigration and Customs Enforcement
ERO –Enforcement and Removal Operations
FSIs – Forensic Interview Specialists
OHA – Office of Health Affairs
RAIO – Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations
SAC – Special Agent in Charge
USCIS – United States Citizenship and Immigration Services
USAID – United States Agency for International Development
AO – Agreement Officer
CO –Contracting Officer
C-TIP – Counter-Trafficking in Persons
DCHA – Bureau of Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance
OAA – Office of Acquisitions and Assistance
PEB – Procurement Executive Bulletin
EEOC – United States Equal Opportunity Commission
FEPA – Fair Employment Practices Agencies
IWT – Immigrant Worker Team
Other Government Agencies
DOT – Department of Transportation
ODNI – Office of the Director of National Intelligence
OFPP – Office of Federal Procurement Policy
OGC – Office of the General Counsel
OIG – Office of the Inspector General
AAPI – Asian American Pacific Islander
ABA –American Bar Association
ACTeams – Anti-Trafficking Coordination Teams
ASEAN – Association of Southeast Asian Nations
CGI – Clinton Global Initiative
CSEC – Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
FAR – Federal Acquisitions Regulation
FLETC – Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
HSTC – Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center
ILO – International Labour Organization
IOM – International Organization for Migration
LMS – Learning Management Systems
MTV-EXIT – Music Television End Exploitation and Trafficking
NAP –National Action Plan
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NGO – Non-Governmental Organization
NHTRC – National Human Trafficking Resource Center
OSCE – Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
PIB – Procurement Information Bulletin
PITF – President’s Interagency Task Force
SHAPE – Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe
SOP – Standard Operation Procedure
SPOG – Senior Policy Operation Group
TCN – Third Country National
TIP –Trafficking in Persons
TVPA – Trafficking Victims Protection Act
TVPRA – Trafficking Victims Protection Act Reauthorization Act
UAC – Unaccompanied Alien Children
UN – United Nations
UNODC – United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime