Progress in Combating Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. Government Response to Modern Slavery (as of February 2013)

April 9, 2013


Progress In Combating Trafficking In Persons: The U.S. Government Response To Modern Slavery 150 Years After The Emancipation Proclamation

 The Face of Modern Slavery 

Sex Trafficking
When an adult is coerced, forced, or deceived into prostitution – or maintained in prostitution through one of these means after initially consenting – that person is a victim of trafficking. Under such circumstances, perpetrators involved in recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for that purpose have been prosecuted for trafficking crimes. 

Child Sex Trafficking
When a minor (a person under 18 years of age) is induced to perform a commercial sex act, proving force, fraud, or coercion is not required. It has been estimated that as many as two million children are subjected to prostitution in the global commercial sex trade. The use of children in the commercial sex trade is prohibited both under U.S. law and by legislation in most countries around the world.

Labor Trafficking
Labor trafficking encompasses the range of activities – recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining – involved when a person uses force or physical threats, psychological coercion, abuse of the legal process, deception, or other coercive means to compel someone to work. Once a person’s labor is exploited by such means, the person’s previous consent or effort to obtain employment with the trafficker does not preclude the person from being considered a victim, or the government from prosecuting the offender.

Bonded Labor or Debt Bondage
U.S. law prohibits the use of a bond or debt as a form of coercion and criminalizes it as a form of trafficking in persons. Some workers inherit debt, while others fall victim to traffickers or recruiters who unlawfully exploit an initial debt assumed as a term of employment.

Debt Bondage among Migrant Laborers
Although contract violations and hazardous working conditions for migrant laborers do not necessarily constitute human trafficking, the burden of illegal costs and debts on these laborers can contribute to a situation of debt bondage. Such circumstances may occur in the context of employment-based temporary work programs when the workers’ legal status in the country is tied to the employer and workers fear seeking redress.

Involuntary Domestic Servitude
In the case of involuntary domestic servitude, the circumstances of providing services in a residence create unique vulnerabilities. Domestic workplaces are informal, connected to off-duty living quarters, and not often shared with other workers. Such an environment, which often isolates domestic workers, is conducive to exploitation because authorities cannot inspect private property, such as homes, as easily as formal workplaces.

Forced Child Labor
Although children may legally engage in certain forms of work, forms of slavery or slave-like practices – including the sale of children, forced or compulsory child labor, and debt bondage and serfdom of children – continue to exist as manifestations of human trafficking, despite legal prohibitions and widespread condemnation. U.S. law prohibits the importation of goods produced by forced labor, including forced child labor.

Unlawful Recruitment or Use of Child Soldiers
Child soldiering can be a manifestation of human trafficking where it involves the unlawful recruitment or use of children by armed forces – through force, fraud, or coercion – as combatants, or for labor or commercial sex. Perpetrators may be government forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups.

“Trafficking in persons,” or “human trafficking,” is the act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex acts through the use of force, fraud, or coercion. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-386), as amended, describes this compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor.

Human trafficking can include, but does not require, movement. Under the TVPA, people may be considered trafficking victims regardless of whether they were transported to the exploitative situation, previously consented to work for a trafficker, or participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked. At the heart of this phenomenon is the traffickers’ aim to exploit and enslave their victims and the myriad of coercive and deceptive practices they use.

Human trafficking is an opportunistic crime. Traffickers target all types of people: adults and children, women, men, and transgender individuals, citizens and non-citizens alike. No socioeconomic group is immune; new immigrants, runaway, homeless, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth are particularly vulnerable. One of the most common assumptions about “average” trafficking victims is that they are vulnerable simply because they come from the poorest, most isolated communities, whether overseas or in the United States. Indeed, many do. Yet some victims, from a variety of backgrounds, have reported that their suffering began with their aspirations for a better life and a lack of options to fulfill them.

That’s where the traffickers come in. Exploiting these realities, traffickers appear to offer a solution – to a good job, a brighter future, a safe home, or a sense of belonging, even love. They prey on their victims’ hope and exploit their trust and confidence, coercing them into using themselves as collateral for that chance.

In the United States, the President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (PITF) brings together federal departments and agencies to ensure a whole-of-government approach that addresses all aspects of human trafficking – enforcement of criminal and labor law, victim identification and protection, education and public awareness, international trade and development, enhanced partnerships and research opportunities, and international engagement and diplomacy. The member and invited agencies of the PITF are the Departments of State (DOS), Defense (DOD), Justice (DOJ), the Interior (DOI), Agriculture (USDA), Labor (DOL), Health and Human Services (HHS), Transportation (DOT), Education (ED), and Homeland Security (DHS), as well as the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the National Security Staff (NSS), the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), the Domestic Policy Council (DPC), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). As part of the PITF, these agencies convene routinely to coordinate federal policies that combat trafficking in persons and implementation of the TVPA.

In March 2012, President Obama called on the PITF to find ways to strengthen current efforts to combat trafficking. In September 2012, the President reinforced this call when he delivered a major policy speech on U.S. government efforts to end human trafficking, and announced a number of new and strengthened initiatives. The PITF heeded this call and is taking concrete steps to provide tools and training to identify and assist trafficking victims, enhance collaboration, and develop a comprehensive plan for future action. The pages that follow reflect an ever-deepening commitment to combating modern slavery. From creating the nation’s first-ever federal strategic action plan to coordinate and strengthen services for trafficking victims in the United States, to implementing an Executive Order that enhances standards for government contracting, PITF agencies are enabling both law enforcement and service providers to deploy resources more effectively.

The President also directed federal agencies “to expand on partnerships with civil society and the private sector, to bring more resources to bear in fighting this horrific injustice.” Although the primary responsibility for fighting this crime and protecting its survivors lies with governments, governments alone cannot solve this problem, and traditional responses alone are inadequate. Everyone has a role – from local law enforcement and first responders to the heads of major corporations and average citizens. Effective anti-trafficking strategies require partnerships that integrate the experiences and guidance of survivors and reach industries, local communities, schools, religious congregations, and multilateral partners. The U.S. government, for example, supports the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC), a national hotline (1-888-3737-888) providing emergency assistance every day of the year, and anti-trafficking task forces in which law enforcement and victim service providers combine efforts to respond to this crime in their communities. Significant partnerships and support for non-governmental efforts are also being developed, including partnerships with Amtrak to train employees and Amtrak police officers to identify and report human trafficking; with Humanity United on its Partnership for Freedom Innovation Awards; with the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health on research that will focus on the prevention of child sex trafficking and treatment for survivors; and with the U.S. Travel Association in the development of their “toolkit” with anti-trafficking materials for travel professionals.

The Task Force has drawn strength and direction from these partnerships, which have brought procurement officers and CEOs, professors and human resources professionals to join with law enforcement and victim advocates in the service of freedom. The effectiveness of this collaboration has led to concrete results in the United States’ efforts to advance government priorities and combat modern slavery both domestically and globally. This compilation of the Obama Administration’s accomplishments represents merely a snapshot, as of February 2013, of the work made possible by the multifaceted approach the United States has adopted to combat trafficking in persons. Each day, the Obama Administration strives to improve its strategy and to enhance its partnerships in order to fulfill not only the mandates of the TVPA, but also the promise of the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

A comprehensive listing of each agency’s accomplishments can be viewed at // What follows are selected highlights and individual agency accomplishments as they relate to U.S. government priorities organized by the following strategic objectives:

1. Investigate and prosecute traffickers and dismantle the criminal networks that perpetrate trafficking in persons.

2. Enhance victim identification and the provision of relief and services for all victims of trafficking.

3. Enhance training of stakeholders, including civil society, law enforcement, and government officials, to increase identification of victims.

4. Encourage foreign governments to combat trafficking through international diplomacy and engagement.

5. Forge and strengthen partnerships and other forms of collaboration to counter trafficking in persons.

6. Fund domestic and international anti-trafficking programs focusing on victim identification, prevention, and outreach.

7. Integrate anti-trafficking components into relevant government programs.

8. Promote public awareness about modern slavery.

9. Spur innovation and improve capacity to combat modern slavery through data collection and research.

10. Gather and synthesize actionable intelligence to increase the number of domestic and international trafficking prosecutions.  

1) Investigate and prosecute traffickers and dismantle the criminal networks that perpetrate trafficking in persons.

• DOJ, DHS, and DOL continued their collaboration in developing high-impact human trafficking investigations through the six pilot Anti-Trafficking Coordination Teams (ACTeams) that collaborate with national human trafficking subject matter experts, and developed an interagency Operations Guide to implement a coordinated strategy.

• DOJ, DHS, and DOL created an advanced human trafficking training course for the ACTeams. The first training was held in September 2012 and included expert instructors from each agency. This highly interactive course utilizes adult learning techniques and focuses on complex issues of human trafficking, such as evidence gathering, including obtaining search warrants, interviewing both cooperative and uncooperative witnesses, immigration relief for victims, discovery issues, and trial strategies.

• DOJ, through the United States Attorney’s Offices (USAOs), led or participated in human trafficking task forces in each of the federal judicial districts within the United States and its territories. The USAO task forces focused on criminal investigation and prosecution and on regional coordination and information-sharing, as well as trafficking victims’ unique needs.

• DOJ’s Civil Rights Division and the USAOs together brought 55 forced labor and adult sex trafficking prosecutions in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, the highest number of human trafficking cases on record.

• DOL and DHS participate in 23 funded task forces that are operating in nine states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands. These task forces, composed of both federal law enforcement agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), are working to strengthen trafficking investigations and prosecutions. Additionally, DOL is participating in 13 non-DOJ funded task forces located in nine states.

• DHS conducted a record number of investigations containing a nexus to human trafficking, resulting in 894 initiated cases, 381 convictions, and seized assets of over $1 million.

• DHS adopted and modified the “I Speak” pocket guide and poster, which DHS personnel and law enforcement can use in identifying the language of victims with whom they are interacting. The Blue Campaign created these versions of the “I Speak” materials in response to stakeholder feedback that language and cultural barriers may impede the identification of human trafficking victims.

• The USAO for the District of North Dakota and the Human Trafficking Working Group covering the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation collaborated to secure the April 2012 conviction of a local man on 16 counts of sex trafficking, sexual abuse, drug trafficking, and witness tampering. This prosecution demonstrates that innovative, cooperative efforts are a key to battling organized criminal activity in Indian Country.

• DOS increased efforts this year to promote its ability to handle trafficking cases with a nexus to visa fraud and to assist other law enforcement agencies overseas and domestically. Outreach to the NGO community has resulted in a significant increase in referrals.

• ED partnered with DHS and the FBI to provide training for school resource officers and security staff.

2) Enhance victim identification and the provision of relief and services for all victims of trafficking.

• HHS, DOJ, and DHS co-chaired the drafting process for a five-year Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States, in partnership with PITF member and invited agencies, which will be released for public comment before being finalized in 2013.

• HHS hosted a national Technical Working Group meeting with non-federal stakeholders at the White House, with support from DOJ and DHS, to gather information for the federal strategic action plan on victim services in the United States.

• HHS awarded $4.7 million to provide comprehensive case management to foreign victims and potential victims of trafficking seeking HHS certification, and issued guidance to expand services for foreign national victims to include legal assistance and victim advocacy.

• HHS supported training, services, and advocacy for all trafficking victims who come in contact with domestic violence programs and runaway and homeless youth programs.

• DOJ’s Legal Assistance Capacity Building Initiative continued to strengthen crime victims’ access to legal help by working with organizations to identify, train, mentor, and provide oversight of attorneys who volunteer to provide pro bono legal assistance to victims.

• DOJ added seven new enhanced model task forces, with funding to law enforcement agencies and victim services organizations, to support a comprehensive, victim-centered approach to combating all forms of trafficking.

• DHS expanded programs dedicated to protecting victims of trafficking, such as the Forensic Interviewing Program for trafficked minors and other child and special needs victims and the Victim Assistance Program to ensure that each U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Homeland Security Investigations office has at least one full time Victim Assistance Specialist.

• DOS invited domestic workers employed by foreign diplomatic personnel in the DC area to a briefing on their legal rights and responsibilities, and on written contracts of employment and visa matters.

• DOS hosted a briefing for foreign Deputy Chiefs of Mission to update them on new requirements relevant to the employment of domestic workers by foreign mission personnel and to promote a continued dialogue to address these issues.

• ED awarded a Safe Schools/Healthy Students supplement grant to a California school district to develop a guide for schools across the nation.

• DOS funds the Return, Reintegration, and Family Reunification Program for Victims of Trafficking, which helped 209 eligible family members join trafficking victims with T visa status in the United States and assisted two survivors to voluntarily return home.

• DOL continues to offer employment and training services to trafficking victims, and updated guidance about the importance of providing these services to trafficking victims. DOL will provide a related webinar training for the workforce investment system in 2013.

• DOL computes back wages to help trafficking victims gain full restitution for labor performed.

• DOL hired U visa coordinators in each region to implement the protocols for certifying U visa Supplement B forms.

• EEOC continues to litigate several large civil cases in district courts involving labor trafficking victims. EEOC has increased training of staff on how to identify and develop these cases and has trained state and local fair employment practices agency staff on immigrant workers, including human trafficking issues and information about U and T visas.

• USAID/Bangladesh works with the government and local NGOs to empower survivors of trafficking, expand public awareness, and improve the legal framework for survivors.

• USAID/Ukraine provided assistance to NGOs and government officials to enhance identification, referral, and assistance to victims by facilitating the development of a National Referral Mechanism and by establishing a network of service providers.

3) Enhance training of stakeholders, including civil society, law enforcement, and government officials, to increase identification of victims.

• DHS has worked with six states to get its state and local law enforcement human trafficking web-based training on statewide law enforcement training systems or in police academies. The International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training also distributed the training to its members.

• DHS produced two roll-call videos for state and local law enforcement that explain how immigration relief for victims of human trafficking can be beneficial to their investigations.

• DHS mandated that all employees likely to encounter victims of human trafficking in the course of their duties take specialized human trafficking awareness training, and made training on the human trafficking provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) mandatory for all DHS contracting professionals.

• DHS developed a training module on trafficking for new officers at the USCIS Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations Directorate. Each asylum office has designated a human trafficking point of contact.

• DOJ’s grantees conducted professional training with community stakeholders within their geographic regions.

• DOJ supported the development of three skill-based trainings for law enforcement agencies, including: 1) Human Trafficking Training for State Prosecutors; 2) Human Trafficking Training for State Judges; and 3) Advanced Human Trafficking Investigation Training.

• The Blue Lightning Initiative, in a partnership between DOT and DHS, provides U.S. commercial airlines and their employees a voluntary mechanism to identify potential human trafficking victims and notify federal authorities.

• ED posted and disseminated a fact sheet that describes human trafficking, how human trafficking affects schools, how to identify potential victims, and how to report incidents and help victims of trafficking.

• DOS supports five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) overseas; they trained over 500 foreign law enforcement officials to help combat human trafficking.

• DOS supported a pilot training program for law enforcement officials to explain how the current gaps in legislation and law enforcement have led to the occurrence of forced labor in Jordan.

• DOD established a Combating Trafficking in Persons (CTIP) Manager and approved an agency-wide charter to develop an integrated CTIP process that is codified into agency policy.

• Over 75 percent of DOD components reported taking CTIP awareness training in 2012.

• DOL developed and delivered a web-based trafficking awareness and referral training for Wage and Hour Division investigators throughout the country and is modifying the training for other enforcement agency staff.

• HHS provided print, in-person, and web-based training to frontline professionals working with victims of human trafficking through anti-trafficking, refugee resettlement, runaway and homeless youth, child welfare, domestic violence, and health care provider programs.

• HHS continued to partner with FBI Innocence Lost Task Forces in a pilot initiative to integrate anti-trafficking components into policies and to strengthen outcomes for trafficked children and youth through four runaway and homeless youth programs.

• USAID/Haiti builds the capacity of government institutions and supports local NGOs to increase access and quality of services provided to child victims of trafficking.

• DOT mandated that all 55,000 employees take human trafficking awareness training. By the end of calendar year 2012, nearly all DOT employees completed the training.

• DOT contract and acquisition specialists received specialized training on the policies and responsibilities for combating human trafficking in accordance with Executive Order 13627, Strengthening Protections against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts.

• DOI received and distributed trafficking awareness training DVDs to all DOI law enforcement divisions.

4) Encourage foreign governments to combat trafficking through international diplomacy and engagement.

• DOS released the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report covering 186 countries and territories, including the United States. Research indicated a correlation between low tier rankings and subsequent criminalization of trafficking in persons. During the year following a downgrade, governments are approximately twice as likely to pass an anti-trafficking law than in previous years.

• The Governments of the United States and Burma issued a Joint Plan on Trafficking in Persons that provides a framework to bolster the capacity of the Burmese government and its civil society partners to address all forms of trafficking through the sharing of best practices and technical assistance and training provided by the United States government and its partner entities. Both governments are committed to working together to identify trafficking offenses, to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenders, to provide victim services, and to implement measures to prevent Burmese citizens from being trafficked within the country’s border or abroad.

• DOS pledged $500,000 for technical assistance and training for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) at the ASEAN-U.S. Leaders’ Meeting, held in Cambodia, where President Obama and the 10 ASEAN heads of state agreed to improve cooperative efforts to tackle all forms of modern slavery.

• DOL signed Joint Declarations and Letters of Arrangement with the governments of Ecuador, Peru, the Philippines, and Honduras. The Declarations, now 10 in total, aim to ensure that foreign workers in the United States are informed of their labor rights through information sharing, outreach, education, training, and the exchange of best practices.

• DHS signed statements of intent on combating human trafficking with the governments of the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, New Zealand, Panama, and Brazil.

• DHS provided international training and outreach to more than 6,000 foreign law enforcement officials in FY 2012 to enhance prosecution, protection, and prevention efforts.

• DOJ and DHS collaborated with Mexican law enforcement through the U.S./Mexico Human Trafficking Bilateral Enforcement Initiative to bring high-impact prosecutions under U.S. and Mexican law to dismantle human trafficking networks and rescue victims.

• DOJ, with DOS support, provided AMBER Alert training and technical assistance to Mexican counterparts to assist in combating cross-border human trafficking. Mexico has adopted Alerta AMBER México, a system similar to the U.S. AMBER Alert Program.

• DOS, DOJ, and DHS continued to conduct anti-trafficking programs around the world, and, along with HHS, briefed hundreds of foreign visitors on U.S. anti-trafficking efforts.

• DOJ and the Mexican Attorney General’s Office created a model curriculum for all federal and state law enforcement, prosecutors, and judges on new anti-human trafficking legislation.

• DOS and DOJ implemented an Advanced Human Trafficking Investigator course at the FBI Training Academy for law enforcement from 10 South and Central American countries.

• USAID/Afghanistan established and chairs an interagency working group to combat trafficking in persons.

• DOD participated on an International Round Table on Combating Human Trafficking held in Moscow to discuss counter trafficking measures for peacekeeping operations.

• HHS hosted 11 international delegations and provided briefings on its efforts to combat human trafficking and to assist victims in the United States.

5) Forge and strengthen partnerships and other forms of collaboration to counter trafficking in persons.

• Driven by the United States’ Chief Technology Officer and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the White House continues to convene advocates, law enforcement leaders, technology companies, and researchers to brainstorm ways to share information more effectively with law enforcement, and explore other innovative approaches to provide victims with the help they need.

• DOL released “Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor: A Toolkit for Responsible Businesses,” a free online resource that provides guidance and shares case studies of effective business practices for reducing child labor and forced labor in global supply chains.

• ED provided resources to inform school leaders, staff, students, and parents about human trafficking; help school administrators understand why it is an important issue for schools to address; provide school security and police with information, additional assistance, and resources; and assist federal agencies by disseminating information about their efforts.

• DOT launched the Transportation Leaders Against Human Trafficking partnership – an open membership group comprised of transportation and travel industry stakeholders – to maximize the transportation industry’s collective impact in combating human trafficking. The partnership developed a strategy for raising awareness and educating employees and created an online collaborative workspace with specific measures to evaluate progress.

• DHS, DOT, and Amtrak announced a new partnership whereby DHS and DOT will work with Amtrak to train employees, and with Amtrak Police Department officers to identify and recognize indicators of human trafficking, as well as how to report suspected cases.

• In response to law enforcement concerns about possible human trafficking on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, the USAO for the District of North Dakota, the FBI, and multiple tribal organizations created a Human Trafficking Working Group to address the abuse of women and children through prostitution on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation.

• EEOC’s new Strategic Plan for FY 2012-2016 provides that EEOC will target outreach to vulnerable workers and underserved communities, such as victims of human trafficking. The Commission has developed and maintained significant partnerships with several organizations to further efforts to combat human trafficking.

• DOD produced a new CTIP guidance document for the NATO Alliance, instructing the 28 different nations of the Alliance on monitoring contractors and recognizing human trafficking indicators. DOD incorporated a CTIP contract clause for all NATO contracts.

• DHS signed an agreement to allow INTERPOL to distribute Blue Campaign materials to each of its 190 member countries.

• USAID adopted an Agency-wide Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) to prevent and respond to human trafficking abuses by contractors, sub-contractors, assistance recipients, and sub-recipients that includes training and response protocol to report suspected trafficking-related activities.

• USAID’s regional programs in five countries in Central Asia and ten countries in southeastern Europe improve coordination between government and civil society actors to prevent trafficking and provide assistance to victims.

• DOS collaborated with business partners such as Carlson and Sabre Holdings to raise awareness on human trafficking through their high profile national conferences.

• DOS provided additional support to the International Business Leaders’ Forum’s pilot project to provide job- and life-skills training to trafficking survivors in hotel sites abroad.

• DOS, DOD, DOJ, DOL, HHS, DOT, DHS, USAID, and EEOC individually continue to meet with federal and private sector partners, as well as non-governmental, community, and faith-based organizations, to receive stakeholder feedback, to help shape future initiatives, and to collaborate on counter-trafficking prevention, protection, and prosecution efforts.

6) Fund domestic and international anti-trafficking programs focusing on victim identification, prevention, and outreach.

• Relevant agencies continued to share information on matters relating to grants, grant policies, and other significant actions regarding international trafficking in persons to inform funding decisions and ensure programs are not duplicative.

• USAID has supported MTV-End Exploitation and Trafficking (MTV-EXIT), a global multimedia campaign that raises awareness of trafficking among youth and vulnerable populations to prevent human trafficking in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Ukraine, Vietnam, and Burma.

• DOD funded an outreach program to assist with public engagements, with the development of awareness products, and with workshops to educate DOD service members on preventive methods, on how to identify victims, and on procedures for reporting trafficking violations.

• DOD updated and distributed awareness brochures and wallet-sized cards in eight different languages to Third Country Nationals (TCN’s) and Senior Contracting Officials on U.S. contracting commands within Afghanistan and Iraq that spell out workers’ rights and provide hotline information to report suspected human trafficking violations.

• DOS conducted fair, transparent, and competitive grant reviews to support grassroots prevention, prosecution, and protection projects worldwide to address both sex and labor trafficking and support efforts focused on child sex tourism, demand reduction, debt bondage, and forced child labor, among other topics. As of December 2012, DOS had 118 open and active projects in 64 countries totaling over $60 million.

• HHS awarded $799,333 for a third-year continuation grant to Polaris Project to operate the NHTRC. The NHTRC is a dedicated, toll-free, national telephone hotline (1-888-3737-888) that provides emergency assistance, makes victim service referrals, passes on tips to law enforcement, and provides training 24 hours a day, seven days a week, every day of the year.

• HHS awarded $3 million for second-year continuation grants for the Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Regional Program to 11 organizations to lead or participate in an anti-human trafficking coalition, to conduct public awareness activities, and to provide training and technical assistance on human trafficking issues to local organizations. HHS awarded approximately $37.6 million through the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, which included explicit language enabling victims of human trafficking to be served through its various programs.

• Through its Services for Victims of Human Trafficking Program, DOJ made grant awards to seven victim service organizations with a demonstrated history of providing trauma-informed, culturally competent services to male and female victims of human trafficking.

• DOJ initiated two projects to strengthen crime victims’ access to needed legal assistance.

• DOL funded a project through the International Labor Organization (ILO) to strengthen efforts in Brazil and Peru to combat forced labor, including forced child labor.

7) Integrate anti-human trafficking components into relevant government programs.

• EEOC adopted a new Strategic Plan for FY 2012-2016 in February 2012. Two of the three Strategic Objectives directly relate to the Commission’s efforts to combat human trafficking. Further, the EEOC’s Strategic Enforcement Plan, which was adopted pursuant to the Strategic Plan, specifically lists as an enforcement priority the protection of vulnerable workers, including human trafficking victims, who may be unaware of their rights under the equal employment laws, or reluctant or unable to exercise them.

• ED consolidated and augmented its existing work around child safety to build a more comprehensive program to educate school districts about human trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. The Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program was added to the outreach and awareness activities.

• DOD established a multidisciplinary Strategic Planning Task Force to provide advice and recommendations for improving current implementation, execution, and oversight of CTIP in DOD contracts. DOD deployed two personnel to Afghanistan to establish an Outside the Continental United States (OCONUS) CTIP Task Force to resolve issues related to contractors exploiting their workers overseas.

• DOT has conducted research on how commercial driver’s license authority could be used to disqualify commercial driver’s license holders who have committed human trafficking-related crimes using commercial motor vehicles.

• DHS increased its capacity to combat human trafficking through the strengthening of the Blue Campaign, which is the unified voice for DHS’s efforts to combat human trafficking.

• DHS continued to proactively address concerns and ensure that age-appropriate care and services, including human trafficking screening, are provided to unaccompanied alien children encountered by DHS personnel through its cross-component working group.

• HHS screened 13,625 unaccompanied alien children for human trafficking and conducted several trainings on child trafficking, including a training session at On Their Own, a conference on unaccompanied alien children in Washington, DC.

• In 2012, HHS hosted an internal training event with representatives from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Indian Health Services, who shared on how they integrated anti-trafficking training into their work. HHS also hosted screenings of the anti-trafficking film, Not My Life, which was viewed by over 100 HHS staff in Washington, DC and regional offices.

• DOS distributed an anti-trafficking brochure to all recipients of visas in visa classes particularly vulnerable to trafficking, which has generated nearly 3,200 calls to the NHTRC.

• DOS published an Interim Final Rule in the Federal Register on the J-1 visa Summer Work and Travel Program, which provides additional protection to program participants by describing appropriate types of job placements and by expanding the list of prohibited jobs, as well as reinforcing the cultural exchange aspect of the program.

• DOS trained overseas consular officers on the special handling required for T and U visa processing at U.S. embassies and consulates. T and U visa training was also incorporated into the new five-day Foreign Service Institute course for mid-level consular officers.

• USAID is supporting a program to prevent children from being conscripted into combat in the Democratic Republic of Congo. To date, this program has rescued over 1,100 children from the armed forces and provided them with rehabilitation and reintegration services.

8) Promote public awareness about modern slavery.

• DOD conducted interviews with American Forces Press Service and the Pentagon Channel to further educate deployed troops. U.S. Forces Korea posted new public service announcements on American Forces Network and YouTube to discourage human trafficking.

• DHS provided a suite of materials to enhance public awareness and explain the types of services and resources that are available to victims of human trafficking, including public service announcements (PSAs), human trafficking tear cards and shoe cards, and pamphlets on immigration options for victims (available online in several languages).

• DHS launched an awareness campaign for children and their families from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador to promote awareness of the dangers posed to children, including human trafficking, in attempting to illegally immigrate to the United States.

• HHS distributed more than 714,000 public awareness materials publicizing the Rescue & Restore awareness-raising campaign materials. It funded 11 Rescue and Restore Regional Programs and coordinated with a total of 44 Rescue and Restore Coalitions nationwide.

• In FY 2012, the HHS-funded NHTRC created eight online trainings and sent 12 monthly newsletters on trafficking issues to its listserv of over 8,000 members.

• In 2012, EEOC conducted 193 outreach events that dealt with the issue of human trafficking that reached 10,622 people. EEOC added a page to their public website, which provides resources for victims of human trafficking and information on how the laws enforced by the EEOC are an integral part of the fight against human trafficking.

• DOS launched a public awareness campaign with more than two dozen American embassies to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

• DOS provided supplemental funding to The Fair Trade Fund to continue developing Slavery Footprint (, a web- and mobile-based application, which has been visited by nearly 4.6 million users in 190 countries since its launch in 2011.

• DOT disseminated information on its efforts to combat human trafficking on its blog in October and December 2012 that reached an estimated 101,000 people.

• ED incorporated human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children issues into its National Conference in 2012.

• ED held a special policy briefing for federal and non-federal staff, NGOs, and educational organizations on Ending Modern-Day slavery and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of School-Aged Youth on February 7, 2013.

• In Central Asia, USAID is assisting government entities and civil society actors in their efforts to respond to the problem of human trafficking through gender-mainstreamed awareness-raising campaigns on key human trafficking issues.

• DOL principals and staff engaged in a number of anti-trafficking related events around the country in 2012, promoting an awareness of labor trafficking and of the broader continuum of labor exploitation in which trafficking may occur.

• DOJ disseminated press releases on all trafficking prosecutions and sentencing proceedings. DOJ employees regularly participate on panels, deliver speeches, and provide media interviews across the country to promote public awareness of all types of trafficking.

• DOS and DHS continue to offer a 15-minute online, interactive general awareness training on human trafficking on their websites.

• USAID/Belarus conducted 404 educational events on the dangers of human trafficking for people at the highest risk for being trafficked, including men who are trafficked for purposes of labor. Efforts included PSAs on national TV and 35 billboards placed across the country. Local NGOs also provided job skills training for those who were trafficked or at risk.

9) Spur innovation and improve capacity to combat modern slavery through data collection and research.

• President Obama announced a partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health to advance research efforts and to identify gaps in knowledge and evidence that need to be filled in order to craft effective policy and service recommendations regarding domestic efforts to end child sex trafficking.

• USAID launched the Countering Trafficking in Persons (C-TIP) Campus Challenge as a direct response to President Obama’s call to employ new and innovative ways to end modern slavery. The Campus Challenge engaged students and scholars in a global on-line community at, which now has over 2,200 members from more than 13 countries, and hosted a technology contest for students, an on-going research competition for scholars, and a forum to connect contest winners with counter-trafficking organizations.

• DOL released updates to three reports on child and forced labor, including the TVPRA List which added four goods (baked goods, beef, fish, and thread/yarn) and three countries (South Sudan, Suriname, and Vietnam) for a total of 134 goods from 74 countries.

• DOL, pursuant to mandates under the TVPRA, continues to support research related to child labor and forced labor that is in violation of international standards. For instance, in June 2012, the ILO published a revised global estimate of 21 million people trapped in conditions of forced labor. This assessment was partly based on national surveys conducted with DOL funding, using the methodologies outlined in a manual funded by DOL (along with the United Kingdom and Ireland), “Hard to See, Harder to Count: Survey Guidelines to Estimate Forced Labour of Adults and Children.”

• DOL-funded research on forced labor in the production of goods in seven countries was published by Verité, Inc. This multi-country study tests new methodology to identify indicators of forced labor and shares lessons about studying this phenomenon.

• DOJ funded the Institute of Medicine and the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council to study the commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. The committee will recommend strategies to respond to these problems; new legislative approaches, if necessary; and a research agenda to guide future studies in this field.

• Through state and major urban area fusion centers, DHS is helping build the capacity of state and local partners to identify and report human trafficking to federal law enforcement.

• DOS funded ongoing research projects and supported both rigorous program evaluations and evidence-based research to identify trends, close knowledge gaps on human trafficking, and inform policy and practice. One such project is a case study that assesses approaches to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases and the protection of victims in four countries given a Tier 1 ranking in the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report.

• The DOD Inspector General issued its report to Congress on DOD contracts performed in Afghanistan. As a result of the four contract assessment reports, inclusion of the FAR CTIP clause in DOD contracts increased from 50 percent to 95 percent.

• HHS funded a two-year demonstration project on enhanced employment services for pre-certified foreign national victims of human trafficking to examine whether engaging trafficking victims in these services can improve self-sufficiency outcomes.

• EEOC is altering its data systems to facilitate research and data collection on human trafficking charges of employment discrimination throughout the investigative and litigation process. EEOC is also tracking outreach events focused on combating human trafficking.

10) Gather and synthesize actionable intelligence to increase the number of domestic and international trafficking prosecutions.

• The Intelligence Community, PITF member agencies, and the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC) continue to build processes to improve, review, and share intelligence reporting with a focus on preventing human trafficking, protecting victims, and contributing to prosecutions. In 2012, ODNI highlighted these efforts and available resources at the federal government’s annual conference on Transnational Organized Crime.

• To expand reporting on global trafficking in persons using existing law enforcement reporting mechanisms, DOS is encouraging Posts with active Law Enforcement Working Groups (LEWGs) to add human trafficking to their portfolios and to ensure that any relevant trafficking-related information discovered in the normal course of business is shared with the appropriate law enforcement contacts. Overseas missions are also being asked to harness LEWG expertise and relationships with host country law enforcement to bolster the U.S. government’s foreign anti-trafficking assistance and cooperation programs.

• The Intelligence Community is developing an all-source intelligence collection strategy for trafficking in persons.

• DOS has documented a significant increase in the number of trafficking-related intelligence, and the reporting is now more evenly distributed globally.

• DOS hired the only trafficking-specific analyst in the intelligence community, and this has contributed to interagency coordination in expanding anti-trafficking related education, research, and analysis.

• The DHS Tip Line received more human trafficking tips than ever before, receiving 588 tips in FY 2012 – up from 384 in FY 2011 and 231 in FY 2010.

• DHS continued to play a leading role in the HSTC by providing substantial support and staffing.

• The HSTC drafted a Collection Support Brief on human trafficking, intended to complement ODNI’s expanded human trafficking intelligence strategy.

• HSTC personnel conducted outreach and training to federal, state, and local law enforcement and intelligence officials, as well as foreign partners, to increase understanding of human trafficking and to promote the exchange of human trafficking-related information.

• HSTC established an interagency working group to collect data from more than a dozen federal agencies for a first-ever, interagency domestic human trafficking assessment for law enforcement, policymakers, and other federal stakeholders. The assessment will help the U.S. Government allocate law enforcement and other resources by identifying existing and emerging hotspots for trafficking activity across the United States and by revealing trends and patterns in victim recruitment and exploitation.