Crisis in Syria: the U.S. Response

Anne C. Richard
Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
U.S. Agency for International Development Assistant Administrator Nancy E. Lindborg
Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives
Washington, DC
March 20, 2013

As Prepared


Good morning, Chairman Royce, Ranking Member Engel, and Members of this committee. Thank you for hosting this hearing today on the humanitarian crisis inside Syria. I am pleased to be able to appear before the Committee with my colleague, Ambassador Robert S. Ford and USAID Assistant Administrator Nancy Lindborg. Our offices work closely together to provide critical humanitarian aid to those affected by the violence in Syria.

The two year anniversary of the Syria uprising coincides with another dark milestone: over one million refugees have now fled across Syria's borders into neighboring countries. More troubling news is that half of that number arrived in the last two months. The United Nations (UN) estimates that over 2.5 million people are displaced inside Syria and many more have been affected by the upheaval and fighting.

I would like to share with you the approach my bureau in the State Department is taking to address the crisis and how our efforts and USAID's work are complementary and mutually reinforcing... I shall first briefly comment on how the refugee crisis is affecting the neighboring countries, discuss the challenges we face in delivering humanitarian assistance to those in need throughout the region, and provide some specifics on the priorities of the Bureau for Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) and our diplomatic outreach to other countries.

Refugees in Neighboring Countries

Countries bordering Syria are approaching a dangerous saturation point with refugees. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in January of this year, 2,000 people fled Syria every day. In February, the number climbed to 5,000 a day; and in March, we've seen 8,000 people a day crossing from Syria into Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq and Turkey. In addition to serving as evidence that life inside Syria has become extremely dangerous for many, the number and the rate are overwhelming the capacity of humanitarian aid organizations to meet the needs of these victims and are sorely testing the limits of host countries' abilities to provide safe shelter. If international borders are closed to Syrians seeking refuge, the awful tally of human destruction will only increase.

Jordan: There are approximately 350,000 refugees in Jordan according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Approximately 70 percent of refugees in Jordan live outside of the refugee camps in cities and towns. Many have been taken in or helped by relatives, friends or even strangers. Only 30 percent live in the Za’atri refugee camp in northern Jordan. The Government of Jordan set up Za’atri in response to the large numbers of refugees crossing the border, and it has moved to set up another camp, as yet uninhabited, and initiated plans for another. Za’atri camp has been plagued by security problems and we have been in active conversations with the UNHCR and the Government of Jordan to improve the safety of refugees there as well as humanitarian workers.

Jordan is allowing refugees to cross its borders but is finding that its resources are stretched to help massive flows of refugees while providing services to its own citizens at the same time. We should note that we are concerned by reports that some Palestinian and Iraqi refugees have been turned around at the border and we have asked the Government of Jordan to let them cross. We’ve thanked the Government of Jordan for its ongoing assistance to the refugee population, and asked them to keep their borders open to all refugees. Knowing the significant economic cost associated with hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees, the U.S. government is providing Jordan with budget support.

Lebanon: Lebanon is hosting over 354,000 Syrian refugees. Lebanon has also taken in 32,000 Palestinian refugees who have fled the violence in Syria. Syrian refugees in Lebanon live in host communities and are not in camps, which allows for greater freedom of movement, greater possibilities for self-sufficiency and a semblance of a normal life. At the same time, the presence of so many refugees in a country of 4 million people taxes Lebanon’s infrastructure and resources and has increased tensions within the refugee-hosting communities. Hizballah's presence in southern Lebanon creates a challenge for UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) in providing aid, while its involvement in the Government of Lebanon complicates U.S. efforts to provide help during this crisis. Despite these strains, the Government of Lebanon continues to keep its borders open, though its leaders have warned that Lebanon has reached its saturation point and requires significant international assistance in order to support the refugees.

Iraq: Over 110,000 Syrian refugees have fled to Iraq, and most are now in Kurdistan. Domiz camp in Kurdistan accommodates approximately 54,000 persons, and two camps in Anbar province at Al-Qaim accommodate over 7,500 persons. In addition to those living in camps, there are many who live in villages and communities. In Kurdistan, Syrians are permitted to live and work in the community once they have registered.

Since October 21, 2012, the Government of Iraq has kept the Al-Qaim border crossing with Syria closed, except for medical emergencies and some family reunification cases. Local authorities and the Iraqi Ministry of Migration and Displacement state that the border is closed for security reasons. Syrian refugees in Anbar prior to the closure of the border are restricted to the camps, although some have family members nearby. The main reasons for return to Syria continue to be lack of freedom of movement out of the camp and lack of a way to earn a living. UNHCR continues to provide support to those expressing interest in returning to Syria but is not encouraging repatriation because conditions are not conducive to a safe return.

Turkey: Since the beginning of the crisis, the Government of Turkey has supported most of the humanitarian needs of the refugees from Syria who have crossed its border. In addition to 186,200 refugees registered in 17 camps set up by the government and 71,000 registered (or soon to be registered) outside of camps, the Government of Turkey estimates that an additional 100,000 unregistered refugees live in urban areas. While the government has previously focused its support for Syrian refugees on the camp-based populations, it is now beginning to address the needs of the out-of-camp Syrians by setting up centers where urban refugees can register for IDs and free health services. Turkey has a strong economy but is experiencing a decline in its once vibrant cross-border trade with Syria.

Challenges in Crisis Response

The challenges before us are many. USAID Nancy Lindborg’s testimony discusses access, security and funding issues. Therefore, I will focus on: (1) the need to work with host governments to ensure that they keep their borders open to refugees and have what they need to help the refugees; (2) specific contributions made by the PRM bureau; and (3) ensuring that other countries are contributing to humanitarian aspects of the crisis so that the UN and other humanitarian agencies have more of the support they need to respond.

Working with Host Governments

We recognize the huge strain that the influx of refugees is currently placing on countries that neighbor Syria. In both Jordan and Lebanon, government leaders are concerned about their capacity to absorb so many refugees. Iraq has expressed concerns that al-Qaeda and its Syria affiliate, al-Nusrah Front, are sending fighters and weapons across the border. Turkey, for the most part, has maintained an open border policy for all refugees, although each day it limits the number of refugees allowed to cross at border crossings with high traffic. It is essential that neighboring countries continue to keep their borders open for those refugees fleeing violence in Syria. In every meeting with officials from these countries, we thank them for allowing refugees to cross and discuss ways to help them uphold humanitarian principles while safeguarding their own security so that they are protected from a spillover of violence.

It is important that short-term relief programs link to longer-term development aid as part of overall U.S. government aid to the region. This is particularly the case in Jordan and Lebanon. We must leverage other aid and investments and incorporate refugees into the fabric of these countries, in order to minimize the costs that hosting refugees places on communities. This is an important area in which the State Department and USAID are working together.

Department of State Response

The Department and USAID lead the U.S. government’s humanitarian response and we work closely together in response to the crisis. Nancy Lindborg and I have traveled together to the region twice and were also recently joined by Ambassador Ford in Turkey, prior to our participation at the Kuwait Donors Conference in January. Our communications teams are taking advantage of maximizing every opportunity to get the message out to domestic and international audiences about the dimensions of the crisis and to highlight our government’s leadership role in responding.

That said, allow me to outline the role the State Department has in helping to get as much humanitarian aid into Syria as possible through partners. Over several decades, PRM has developed a privileged relationship with the humanitarian agencies of the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and non-governmental organizations. These agencies are a key part of the international humanitarian system that is governed by humanitarian principles. They bring technical expertise and operational capacity to respond to this large-scale crisis. Of the nearly $385 million in humanitarian assistance that USAID and the State Department are providing in response to the Syria crisis, the State Department’s contributions total nearly $185 million. Our contributions provide life-saving emergency assistance to meet basic humanitarian needs, such as shelter, water, sanitation, and health both inside Syria and in host countries.

The delivery of assistance is often undertaken at great personal risk to those distributing the aid. For example, in the past couple of months, two UNHCR convoys and one UN interagency convoy have delivered aid into north-west Syria, where thousands of internally displaced people are in acute need of humanitarian help. The operations were carried out in collaboration with the Syrian Arab Red Crescent and the local community. Once the convoys moved across battle-lines into areas controlled by the opposition, the missions were facilitated by the Syrian Opposition Coalition. Such operations are dangerous and difficult, which underscores the need for unhindered and safe access for those providing humanitarian assistance inside Syria. We will continue to encourage the UN to do more such cross-line assistance deliveries, counting on the Syrian Opposition Coalition to help coordinate and negotiate safe access. While these convoys are good, much more is needed to ensure supplies consistently and safely reach people in need.

Of course, people in need are not concentrated in one area and instead can be found on both sides of shifting battle-lines. Humanitarian organizations provide aid in a neutral and impartial manner. The United Nations is seeking to get access to all communities in need on a regular basis. It is unacceptable and a violation of humanitarian principles for the Syrian regime to deny this access.

I should also mention the plight of the 525,000 Palestinian refugees who were living in Syria prior to the start of the conflict. They, too, have been caught up in the violence in Syria. Fighting has engulfed many Palestinian refugee camps and neighborhoods, including in Yarmouk, causing over half of Syria’s Palestinian population to be displaced. For the most part, the Palestinian population has kept away from taking sides in the conflict. Those refugees who remain in camps are the poorest and most vulnerable. Some Palestinians have fled Syria, but most remain inside the country, having heard that they will be turned away at the borders with neighboring countries. The U.S. is the largest bilateral donor to the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), the UN agency responsible for assisting Palestinian refugees. There are also approximately 63,000 Iraqi refugees inside Syria. In recent months, many other Iraqis who were living as refugees in Syria have chosen to return to Iraq or flee for a second time to other countries.

Contributions of Other Countries

With no end in sight, we are facing a resource crisis. The UN's Regional Response Plan to assist up to 1.1 million Syrian refugees in the region has thus far received only 21 percent of the funds it needs to operate for the first half of 2013 and, as of mid-March, refugee arrivals have already nearly reached June 2013 planning figures. Despite our own budget constraints, the United States continues to make every effort to continue to provide funding to meet the increasing needs. However, it is vital that other donors quickly honor the pledges they have made and provide the cash that agencies need to keep life-saving operations going.

Even if the Asad regime falls soon, displacement and the need for humanitarian aid will continue. This is because of the widespread destruction of Syria's infrastructure and predicted flows of refugees that would continue to cross borders – likely in both directions. If refugees are not able to return for years, host countries will need to continue to help host Syrian children in schools, and help families with medical facilities, and provide other public services.

Using diplomatic channels, we are using every opportunity to ask other donors to follow through on the pledges they made at the Kuwait Donors Conference in January in order to raise the promised $1.5 billion. The Secretary and other Department principals have reached out to other governments to ask them to do more for the Syrian people, including Syrian refugees. Funding is urgently needed if UN agencies and others are able to continue to operate.

Coordination of the international humanitarian response is complex and must occur on multiple levels. The United States participates in meetings in Geneva of the Syria Humanitarian Forum that bring together senior officials from key donor governments, countries affected by the crisis and UN leaders to discuss the humanitarian aspects of the crisis, and to coordinate our collective response. We also actively participate in UN coordination meetings in the field. In addition, we are deepening our coordination with the Syrian Opposition Coalition’s Assistance Coordination Unit. We have also encouraged UN agencies and other partners to do the same, and are pleased with the initial results.

In conclusion Mr. Chairman, I would like to say that my bureau’s primary concerns are providing protection to and aiding those who have fled the violence. The State Department’s overall goal, of course, is a return of peace and stability to Syria and to one day see the refugees return home.

I am grateful for the generosity of Congress and the American people who make our assistance possible, and for the excellent collaboration with the State Department’s Near East and European bureaus, and USAID colleagues. Thank you once again for the opportunity to highlight PRM’s role and some of our concerns regarding the Syrian humanitarian crisis. I would be happy to answer any of your questions.

Testimony of U.S. Agency for International Development Assistant Administrator Nancy E. Lindborg

Chairman Royce, Members of the Committee, thank you for inviting me to speak with you today. I appreciate the opportunity to talk with you about the U.S. response to Syria’s crisis to date. Thank you also for your continued support for our assistance programs around the world, which are making a positive difference every day in millions of lives around the world.


We have just passed the two-year anniversary since the onset of the Syrian conflict. Sadly, the
country continues to face a grim situation and an escalating humanitarian crisis. The dreams of
those who first began with hopeful demonstrations on the street of Damascus are far from being
realized. The statistics are numbing: more than 70,000 dead; more than 4 million people inside
the country in need of assistance; and more than 2.5 million displaced from their homes. We
have already reached the somber milestone of more than one million refugees in neighboring
countries, with greater numbers of refugees fleeing the violence each day.

The United States is fully committed to standing with and supporting the Syrian people. I
traveled to Turkey and Jordan with Ambassador Ford and Assistant Secretary Richard in late
January to underscore that message of support. I met with young activists who have been yanked
from their dreams of college, braved arrest and in some cases served brutal jail time, and who are
now dedicated to organizing their generation for a better future. Several of them sent me text
messages on March 8th as part of their “I Am She” Campaign, urging people to wear white on
International Women’s Day in honor of the many Syrian women who have suffered violence
during this conflict. And we met with refugees who have fled bombardment and attack. One
man and his three young sons all had fresh shrapnel wounds as we talked in the camp in Jordan.
And in a tragic twist of technology, more than one woman showed me photos on her cell phones
of dead children or lost husbands.

I will highlight today several of the ways in which the United States is providing assistance,
including support for the democratic transition, help for the neighboring countries reeling under
the influx of refugees, and urgently needed humanitarian help, as well as underscore the
magnitude of the challenge ahead.

Investing in Syria’s Democratic Transition

The United States is investing in the future of a democratic, prosperous Syria and has committed
nearly $115 million in non-lethal assistance to support Syria’s Opposition Coalition (SOC), its
Assistance Coordination Unit (ACU), and emergent democratic institutions at the grassroots
level. We are working from the ground up by supporting the efforts of the local councils and
civil society groups and from the top down by helping the SOC build its capacity to administer
opposition-held areas and provide urgent and essential services to the people of Syria. Newly
announced program commitments will support the SOC/ACU’s ability to manage and implement
donor funds both to meet urgent needs and for strategic initiatives that support rehabilitation and
restoration of basic services for the Syrian people.

We know from prior transitions the importance of providing basic services and meeting the
fundamental needs of a community – from fuel to schools to trash collection. In conflict and
post-conflict environments, this is especially vital as communities need reason to believe in the
possibility of a better future and establish trust in opposition leadership. At USAID we are
working quickly through USAID’s Office of Transition Initiatives to provide the SOC with
support to respond rapidly to immediate requests from local councils -- including the provision
of emergency power, clean water, heaters, and educational supplies for children in strategically
selected areas -- as well as support strategic transition initiatives that restore basic services.
As Ambassador Ford has detailed, $54 million in non-lethal assistance, of the $115 million
committed, is already at work through State and USAID-supported mechanisms to support, train,
equip, and connect a network of civil society activists, civilian opposition leaders, and emergent
democratic institutions. USAID has prioritized help for Syrian women to play a meaningful role
in the country's transition through training and support for coalition-building. Working with the
State Department, USAID recently co-sponsored a workshop for Syrian women that resulted in
the development of a formal Syrian Women's Network and the drafting of a Charter for Syrian

Support for Syria’s Neighbors

We fully recognize the toll of this conflict on the neighboring countries that have so generously
taken in the thousands of refugees that flee each day. Assistant Secretary Richard has noted the
extensive efforts underway to support Syrian refugees. We are working as well through our
USAID missions to help alleviate the potential tensions and impact of a growing Syrian refugee
burden on host communities and stressed country systems.

In Lebanon, Syrian refugees now comprise more than 10 percent of the population, comparable
to more than 22 million refugees suddenly coming to the United States. We have shifted existing
programming to focus on mitigating conflict in particularly affected, vulnerable Lebanese
communities, primarily in the North and the Bekaa Valley. Programs are focused on reducing
strains on resources by improving service delivery and expanding economic and education
opportunities. We are working to support Lebanon’s leaders in their efforts to bridge sectarian
and ethnic divides, with a particular focus on youth to encourage their participation in resolving
community concerns.

In Jordan, the United States has responded vigorously to support the Government of Jordan
(GOJ) as it copes with the influx of 350,000 Syrian refugees to-date, as well as help the
Jordanian people who are hosting Syrian refugees in their communities. We have used the
Complex Crisis Fund to help mitigate potential conflict in northern Jordanian communities
where water supplies, never abundant, are stretched thin by arriving refugees. The USAID
Mission has realigned existing projects and cash transfer assistance ($284 million in FY 2012) to
cover gaps in the GOJ budget that are, in part, due to increased costs related to the arrival of the
Syrian refugees.

The U.S. Humanitarian Response

Finally and most urgently, the United States has fully mobilized to provide humanitarian
assistance in Syria. We have provided nearly $385 million in humanitarian aid to date, $215
million of which is helping those in need in all governorates inside Syria. Our aid is reaching all
14 governorates in Syria, and an estimated 60 percent is working to help those in contested and
opposition-held areas. And I want to be clear: our funding is not just a pledge; every dollar
counted is already at work on the ground every day, in some of the worst violence-affected areas,
including Idlib, Aleppo, and Dar’a.

We are working through all channels to enable our assistance to reach people throughout Syria:
the United Nations (UN), international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and local
Syrian organizations and networks – and thousands of dedicated aid workers and Syrians who
risk their lives daily. Medical care, food aid, relief supplies.

We have prioritized the provision of food aid, basic medical care, trauma care, and relief
supplies. Working through partners, including a cadre of very brave Syrian physicians, we are
supporting a life line of essential medical supplies and drugs, trauma training for doctors and
support for hospitals and mobile clinics. This assistance is saving lives every day. Right now in
Syria, the United States is providing support for 144 hospitals, health clinics, and mobile medical
units. This includes providing medical supplies and equipment, paying doctors’ salaries, and
training additional first responders and medical staff. USAID-supported field hospitals are
providing emergency care and emotional support for children, women and men who have
suffered sexual- and gender-based violence. The hours and days following rape are critical to
treat injuries related to the assault, prevent infection, and receive the basic emotional support that
will allow survivors to recover and resume a full life.

The U.S. is the largest donor for emergency food assistance for those affected by conflict in
Syria, including those who have fled to neighboring countries. World Food Program (WFP)
activities supported by the United States currently provide monthly rations to nearly 1.5 million
within Syria and approximately 300,000 refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt.
WFP targets for these programs are set to increase in coming months to 2.5 million people inside
Syria and 755,000 in neighboring countries.

In Aleppo Governorate, the U.S. is providing enough flour to more than 50 bakeries to provide
daily bread for 210,000 people. Some of these bakeries had been shuttered for nearly three weeks
before this program began, and they are now able to operate. Syrian families in these areas have
bread, and the bakery owners and workers are once again earning income.
Throughout the winter, we pushed hard to ensure warm blankets, winter clothes, plastic sheeting
and mattresses for over one million internally displaced Syrians who had fled their homes, many
of whom have been displaced two or three times already. Now, as winter becomes spring, we
face a new set of warm weather challenges, and we will shift greater focus to providing clean
water, improving sanitation and stepping up hygiene supplies and education to thwart the onset
of waterborne disease.

As makeshift camps have sprung up along the Turkish border, such as the Olive Tree Camp in
Atmeh, near the Reyhanli border crossing in Turkey’s Hatay Province, we are responding with
assistance to improve basic personal hygiene—including hygiene kits for each family—also
essential to preventing disease. At Olive Tree, U.S. assistance has also established 120 garbage
collection points and trash removal services, repaired the water pump, established water
trucking, installed pipe for a sewage system, and constructed 140 latrines.

After the brutality they have suffered and witnessed, children and adults alike need psychosocial
support to help them through this crisis. From helping to form women’s groups that encourage
discussion to providing vital psychosocial support for children by providing a safe space for
them to play and interact with their peers, we are helping to provide ways for Syrians to work
through the trauma. With U.S. government support, UNICEF continues to provide psychosocial
support to more than 32,000 children in Damascus, Rif Damascus, Homs, and Aleppo
governorates, including in conflict locations. In 2013, UNICEF aims to reach 300,000 children
throughout the country.


In complex crises, coordination with international partners is imperative to ensure the greatest
effectiveness of humanitarian contributions. The UN-led coordination effort for Syria enables the
humanitarian community to collectively identify and meet immediate humanitarian needs
without duplication. Meanwhile, the SOC’s ACU has assumed a vital role in coordinating efforts
to reach Syrians, especially in opposition-held and contested areas. The UN, UK and USAID
each have full time liaisons in Turkey to work with the ACU, which holds a weekly coordination
meeting with all donors and implementing partners to share information and map out delivery of
assistance to priority areas. Thanks to the determination of ACU leadership, it has grown
quickly since its inception in November, and we continue to help the ACU build its capacity to
coordinate and leverage international assistance inside Syria.

Key Challenges

Despite our efforts, Syria’s humanitarian crisis is quickly outpacing current international
response capacity. As violence escalates, three critical challenges are impeding the international
humanitarian system from more effectively meeting the urgent needs of the Syrian people. First,
access remains greatly constrained, especially to the seven northern governorates. In late
January, the UN had a breakthrough in delivering assistance across battle lines and has since
completed three cross line missions. These efforts are making a tangible difference—but these
cross-line operations are logistically complicated and dangerous, underscoring the need for
direct, cross-border delivery. This is essential if we are going to be able to reach those in need
more quickly.

Secondly, security remains a critical concern. We receive daily reports of aid workers being
targeted, arrested and kidnapped, of bakeries and clinics being bombed. Our priority is providing
life-saving aid, so we provide our assistance in a way that maximizes the potential for protecting
the many courageous aid workers and those who receive the aid. This means U.S. humanitarian
assistance in Syria is currently provided without branding. We continue to work however to find
ways we can safely let the Syrian people know that the United States is the leading donor and the
largest, most proactive provider of humanitarian assistance, including media campaigns, trips to
the region and branding where possible.

Finally and importantly, resources are running short. It is imperative that all countries help
shoulder this burden. The Emir of Kuwait hosted an international pledging conference on
January 30 that raised $1.5 billion in pledges for the UN Appeal, but unfortunately only about 20
percent of these pledges have turned into funding for programs on the ground. We continue to
urge all countries to follow through with their generous pledges and, as the current appeal only
covers operations through June, they need to begin looking at next stage funding, especially as
the worst-case scenario quickly becomes the current case.

Conclusion: A Pivotal Moment

Our continued, full-throttled humanitarian response is a vital lifeline to millions of Syrians. And
our support to help build the Syrian opposition’s capacity to provide accountable leadership is
crucial as Syrians seek to build a new democracy even as conflict continues.
But we also know our humanitarian aid is not enough to meet the growing needs. And we know
our humanitarian aid will not end the bloodshed. We are seeing a shift in the level of violence, in
numbers of Syrians fleeing into neighboring countries and collapse of basic systems inside Syria
that is outstripping response. Without a political solution, no amount of aid will turn the tide.
After two brutal years of conflict, the Syrian people have more than earned the chance to achieve
their democratic aspirations.