FY 2013 Program and Budget Guide: Program Overview
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement
The FY 2013 International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) request will continue to support country and global programs critical to combating transnational crime and illicit threats, including efforts against terrorist networks in the illegal drug trade and illicit enterprises. INCLE-funded programs seek to close the gaps between law enforcement jurisdictions and strengthen law enforcement and criminal justice institutions that are weak or corrupt. Significant INCLE funds are focused where security situations are most dire, and where U.S. resources are used in tandem with host country government strategies in order to maximize impact.
The INCLE request recognizes that criminal networks are disrupting licit productivity and individual security throughout the globe and continues to address concerns in the Western Hemisphere, South Central Asia, and Near East Asia, and also focuses on emerging threats in Central Asia and Africa. The FY 2013 request also includes funding for “front line” countries (i.e. Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan).
For the countries of Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia, the FY 2013 budget normalizes foreign assistance resources by requesting funding for programs formerly supported through the Assistance for Europe, Eurasia and Central Asia (AEECA) account in the INCLE account.
South Sudan ($27.4 million): Funding will be used to develop the capacity of the South Sudanese to provide security in support of the rule of law in a post-referendum setting. Funds will provide technical assistance and training for South Sudan’s criminal justice sector officials, and contribute toward UN civilian police and formed police units in South Sudan.
- Liberia ($15.7 million): In order to continue Liberia’s transition to peace and security, assistance will continue to fund a U.S. civilian police contribution to the United Nations Mission in Liberia and increase critical bilateral support to the Liberia National Police and justice reform projects. Advisors will provide training and mentorship on a range of issues such as investigation skills, leadership, and sexual and gender-based violence.
- Africa Regional ($17.5 million): Funding includes three programs covering different regions in Africa that focus on countering terrorism and reducing transnational threats: the Trans-Sahara Counter-terrorism Partnership (TSCTP), the Partnership for Regional East African Counter Terrorism (PREACT), and the West Africa Regional Initiative (WARSI).
Europe and Eurasia
- Kosovo ($10.7 million): U.S. assistance will support efforts to increase the capacity, professionalism, and accountability of law enforcement and justice sector institutions. Funds will be used to support the U.S. contribution to the European Union’s rule of law mission (EULEX), continue efforts to create and institutionalize democratic legal structures that meet international standards, and improve Kosovo’s ability to investigate and prosecute war crimes and organized crime and corruption cases.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina ($6.7 million): Funding will support programs designed to strengthen and professionalize Bosnian law enforcement and justice sector institutions, bolstering prosecutorial and police capacity. Specifically, funds will support efforts to increase the investigative and trial advocacy capacity of state and sub-state level prosecutors, including those charged with pursuing organized and financial crimes. Resources will also be used to support training for court police, and capacity building for law enforcement and tax institutions critical to combating money laundering, terrorist financing, and other complex crimes.
- West Bank/Gaza ($70 million): The focus of the security sector portion of the program will continue to shift from predominantly “train and equip” to “sustain and maintain.” Funds will support efforts to reform and sustain the security sector by providing technical assistance and infrastructure support to the Palestinian Authority Security Forces, and by providing the Ministry of Interior with technical assistance and program support to improve its ability to manage the security forces, with continued training and equipment donations included to ensure a successful transition. Additional training, equipment, infrastructure support, and technical assistance will be provided for the justice and corrections sectors to ensure their development keeps pace with the increased performance of the security forces.
- Lebanon ($15.5 million): Support for Lebanon’s security forces is a key component of U.S. efforts to strengthen the institutions of the Lebanese state, promoting stability and security in both Lebanon and the region. FY 2013 funding will be used to provide technical assistance and advice to the Internal Security Forces (ISF) to increase their professionalism and continue their orientation toward the protection of, and service to, the Lebanese population, while continuing to improve country-wide perceptions of the ISF as a professional, non-sectarian institution. The program will also continue to improve the capacity of the ISF to exert sovereign authority throughout Lebanese territory, including in Palestinian refugee camps, which are critical to the successful implementation of UNSCR 1701.
- Tunisia ($8 million): Under former President Ben Ali, the police, courts, and prisons were used by the government as a tool to silence and intimidate regime opposition rather than to promote public security or bring criminals to justice. Supporting Tunisia’s efforts to establish more transparent, accountable, and effective criminal justice institutions, particularly a police that serves citizens and an independent judiciary, is critical for its successful transition to democracy. The U.S. program assistance will do so by: supporting a police reform process aimed at building the capacity of Tunisia to combat corruption; supporting Tunisia’s efforts to make civilian law enforcement institutions more accountable and transparent; enhancing the professionalism, independence, and accountability of the judiciary; and enhancing the capacity of the Tunisian correctional system to manage prisons and detention centers in a safe, secure, humane, and transparent fashion.
- Egypt ($7.9 million): Recent unrest in Egypt draws attention to the important role of police reform in Egypt’s post-Mubarak transition and the need for effective, democratic security institutions. The Egyptian response to this situation is complicated by a security apparatus that suffers from a credibility deficit with the public, and the need for training and institutional procedures to help build public trust to carry out a new mission of maintaining public security and safety. FY 2013 INCLE assistance will be used to support criminal justice sector reforms in the police and justice sectors to help Egypt develop institutions that are professional, accountable and responsive to the public.
South and Central Asia
- Afghanistan ($400 million): The FY 2013 core request for Administration of Justice funding focuses on strengthening the justice and corrections systems, promoting civil society to create a demand for legal rights and rule of law programs, strengthening legal education, and helping to protect at-risk populations, particularly women and children. Funds will continue advisory support and training programs at provincial and central prisons with teams focusing on capacity building, rehabilitation of inmates through vocational and educational training, and initiatives for women and juveniles. Funds will also support ongoing efforts, partnering with the Afghan Government, to build a safe, secure, and humane Afghan corrections system with an embedded capacity building team at the Central Prison Directorate headquarters.
FY 2013 core request for counternarcotics will focus on building sustainable interdiction and law enforcement capacity; supporting the Afghan government efforts to reduce the supply of illicit opium poppy and cannabis crops; drug demand reduction programs to eliminate the burgeoning domestic market for Afghan opiates; and capacity building efforts to strengthen the central government’s ability to independently support counternarcotics activities over the long term. Funds will also pay for program management and oversight, security and life support, aviation support, and other transportation, operations and maintenance, and personnel recruitment and training. There is also $200 million of INCLE Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) funding requested for Afghanistan, described in the OCO section on page 9.
- Pakistan ($124 million): To support the Administration’s top national security priorities, FY 2013funding will focus on strengthening Pakistan’s criminal justice sector. The provision of training, equipment, and infrastructure, along with aviation assistance, will strengthen and professionalize civilian law enforcement entities, particularly those operating in the border region with Afghanistan. Funds will continue to support Government of Pakistan efforts to decrease narcotics trafficking, cultivation, and abuse through crop control, interdiction, and demand reduction programs. Funding will support legal training to Pakistan’s prosecutors and judges and will sustain assistance to the ongoing corrections program.
- Central Asia Counternarcotics Initiative (CACI) ($9 million): This initiative will improve the ability of Central Asian countries to disrupt drug trafficking originating from Afghanistan and dismantle related criminal organizations through effective investigation, prosecution and conviction of mid- to high-level traffickers. The U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy for Afghanistan calls for enhanced regional and international community support for Afghan-led counternarcotics efforts, expanded U.S. government counternarcotics engagement with Afghanistan’s neighbors and regional actors, and strengthening of counternarcotics cooperation between Afghanistan and neighboring countries.
- Mexico ($199 million): The United States and Mexican Governments will continue to focus on the four pillars of cooperation: disrupting and dismantling criminal organizations, institutionalizing the rule of law, building a 21st Century border, and building strong and resilient communities. INCLE-funded programs will focus heavily on developing Mexico’s rule of law institutions through training, technical assistance, and limited equipment purchases. Programs will continue to provide assistance to federal criminal justice institutions, including law enforcement, prosecutorial, judicial, and corrections institutions.
- Colombia ($142 million): Funding will support Colombian-led consolidation efforts to expand security, reduce drug trafficking and illicit drug growth and promote economic development through a comprehensive whole-of-government approach in former conflict areas. U.S. assistance will improve Colombia’s judicial institutions, enhancing the protection of human rights and developing local capacity to address sensitive and complex criminal cases. INCLE resources in Colombia will help the Colombian National Police to assume additional security responsibilities and combat emerging criminal drug organizations.
- Peru ($23.3 million): Funding will support efforts by the Government of Peru to combat the illicit drug industry, which includes efforts to extend state presence in the Apurimac and Ene River Valleys in order to oppose drug traffickers aligned with the Shining Path terrorist group. FY 2013 INCLE funds will support drug interdiction and coca eradication operations as well as precursor chemical seizures, improve controls at ports and airports, modernize and refurbish police stations and bases, and maintain and replace communications equipment and vehicles.
- Haiti ($17.5 million): INCLE funding will support the contribution of police and corrections personnel to the UN stabilization mission (MINUSTAH). Funding will also support related activities through counternarcotics, rule of law, and corrections programs. Additionally, efforts to rebuild operational capacity of the Haitian National Police with infrastructure improvements and specialized equipment and training will be supported with the FY 2013 request.
- Bolivia ($5 million): Funds will advance nationalization efforts by shifting costs for such activities as targeted technical assistance for counternarcotics, law enforcement, and rule of law programs to the Government of Bolivia. INCLE funding will focus more on building the capacity of law enforcement, prosecutors, and the judiciary; and support trafficking-in-persons programs and other rule of law initiatives.
- Guatemala ($2 million): INCLE funding will support the extended mandate of the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala to investigate high profile criminal cases in Guatemala.
- Western Hemisphere Regional ($81 million): INCLE funding will support the Central America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI) ($60 million) and the Caribbean Basin Regional Security Initiative (CBSI) ($21 million). CARSI funds will support training and build capacity of law enforcement and rule of law institutions throughout Central America. Activities will address border and port security; support for vetted units and maritime and land interdiction; and law enforcement capacity to address transnational crime, including anti-gang training. In support of CBSI, INCLE funding will continue efforts to combat illicit trafficking and organized crime, strengthen the rule of law, reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and promote social justice. Funding will support programs to enhance the capacity of criminal justice and regional security institutions, such as the Regional Security System in the Eastern Caribbean, and will support technical assistance in the investigation and prosecution of financial crimes, prison reform, maritime interdiction, and border control efforts.
These programs target challenges to transnational crime and counternarcotics efforts, and policing in peacekeeping and crisis response operations worldwide. Key components include:
- Inter-regional Aviation Support ($46.3 million): Funding will provide centralized core services for counternarcotics and border security aviation programs. These programs involve fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft deployed worldwide.
- Program Development and Support ($32.6 million): Funding will provide for annual costs of direct hires, contractors, travel and transportation, equipment, communications and utilities, and other support services.
- International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEA) ($24 million): Funds will support existing ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell, San Salvador, and the Regional Training Center (RTC) in Lima. Additionally, funds made available to support the Shared Security Partnership (SSP) initiative will be utilized to support emerging regional security priorities in West Africa as well other high threat regions to enhance regional and local-level criminal justice institutions. Focus will be on facilitating regional cooperation and capacity building by providing strategic training efforts to counter criminal activities such as terrorism, corruption and other transnational crimes.
- Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons ($18.7 million): These funds will assist committed governments of countries ranked as Tier 3, Tier 2 Watch List, and some Tier 2 in the 2011 annual Trafficking in Persons Report to improve their capacity to combat trafficking in persons through rule of law and criminal justice sector improvements as well as victim protection services.
- Demand Reduction ($12.5 million): Funding will support programs designed to reduce drug use, related crime and violence, and high-risk injecting drug use behavior. Funds will support sub-regional demand reduction training centers, regional and global knowledge exchange forums, the development of national and regional drug-free community coalitions, and research and demonstration program development, with emphasis on specialized initiatives for drug addicted women and children.
- Critical Flight Safety Program ($12.4 million): Funding will provide programmed depot-level maintenance, and aircraft/aircrew safety of flight for the fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft fleet supporting counternarcotics and border security aviation programs worldwide and address other aircraft/aircrew safety of flight requirements.
Overseas Contingency Operations (INCLE)
The FY 2013 International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) request includes funding for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) for Iraq and Afghanistan.
Iraq ($850 million *)
* The Iraq FY 2013 INCLE request in the FY 2013 Congressional Budget Justification was $850M. The Department is in the process of refining the FY 2013 budget requirements.
Afghanistan ($200 million)
FY 2013 OCO funds will be used to support INL programs that are most closely related to the security transition. For instance, this will include renovations and security upgrades for prisons in high-insurgent areas, training for lawyers working on transferring detainees from U.S. to Afghan custody, and security for judges assigned to restive provinces. In addition, Department of State justice, corrections, and counternarcotics programs will help set the conditions for a successful drawdown of U.S. military assets in Afghanistan by working with Afghan officials to prepare them to take more responsibility for the management of prisons and other law enforcement institutions.
The FY 2013 OCO request for Administration of Justice funding focuses on: transition of donor supported activities to the Afghan government; promotion of civil society to create a demand for legal rights, as well as ensure a balance between the need for the government to provide security while also guaranteeing the protection of individual rights; and transition of current military projects to civilian oversight with the future military drawdown. The Justice Sector Support Program (JSSP) will give special attention to areas designated as crucial to the transition in order to sustain governance and security at efficacious levels. Funds will also support programs provincially, including at Provincial Justice Centers and for judicial security, anticorruption, and mentoring initiatives in the more insecure provinces.
As the U.S. military draws down its forces in Afghanistan and increasingly transitions responsibility to the Afghan Government to house former military detainees, the United States must partner with the Afghan government to increase their staff training and improve organizational management and security practices to ensure that insurgents captured on the battlefield – whether by Coalition Forces or by Afghan National Security Forces – are housed securely, segregated from the common criminal population, and receive vocational and educational training to aid in their peaceful reintegration into Afghan society. FY 2013 OCO funds will continue corrections training and capacity building efforts through the Corrections System Support Program (CSSP); support the Central Prison Directorate to focus on prison industries, security threat group management, inmate programs, records and classification, alternatives to incarceration, human resources, budget, and training programs; and enable necessary renovations and security enhancements in provincial prisons and district detention facilities with an emphasis on those facilities most at risk from the insurgency.
The Department of State continues to work with the Afghan Government, international partners, and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to isolate the insurgency from the narcotics proceeds that fuel it. The success of the Afghan Government and international community in eliminating or degrading this important funding source for the insurgency will have a direct bearing on the U.S. military’s ability to confidently turn over security responsibilities to the Afghan Government. FY 2013 Counternarcotics funding will promote stabilization by incentivizing provincial governors’ counternarcotics and supply reduction activities and support sustainable, community-led development projects in provinces that have successfully reduced or eliminated poppy cultivation. Funds will also support interdiction programs to disrupt the narcotics-insurgency nexus and build a sustainable Afghan capacity to investigate and prosecute high-value drug traffickers. Funds may also provide direct support to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to support its counternarcotics law enforcement capacity building efforts, especially in technical areas such as electronic surveillance and intelligence analysis.
Funds will also pay for program management and oversight, security and life support, aviation support and other transportation, operations and maintenance, and personnel recruitment and training.