FY 2009 Program and Budget Guide: South and Central Asia
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators
INL’s objectives are to work with the Government of Afghanistan (GOA) and the international community to reduce poppy cultivation and narcotics trafficking, improve law enforcement capabilities, and reform the Afghan criminal justice system to enhance public security and the rule of law. INL program objectives in Afghanistan are consistent with the broader USG goal of creating stability to prevent the country from again becoming a haven for terrorists and criminals. The following programs are based upon an integrated approach. All of these objectives will be pursued simultaneously on a holistic basis to achieve success.
INL programs will seek to reduce poppy cultivation through an integrated program of eradication, the strengthening of counternarcotics law enforcement and interdiction efforts, and continuing public information and demand reduction programs. These efforts will be coordinated to work in conjunction with USAID alternative livelihood programs. Included in our counternarcotics efforts are the following:
Counternarcotics Advisory Teams (CNAT, formerly Poppy Elimination Program), comprised of Afghans and international advisors, will support governor-led counternarcotics efforts in the provinces that will focus on urging farmers to eradicate poppy and to abstain from cultivating poppy. CNAT teams will also verify and report cultivation and eradication results to central authorities when external assistance is required.
Poppy Eradication Force (PEF) teams under the direction of the central government will conduct manual and mechanical eradication in areas where provincial eradication efforts are weak or ineffective, in order to reduce the poppy harvest and deter planting next year.
An aerial support component will continue to increase the effectiveness of the ground eradication program, and allow its extension into areas currently inaccessible for security or logistical reasons. These air assets will also continue toprovide interdiction support to missions conducted by the DEA-mentored Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) and the Afghan police training program.
An aggressive and ongoing public information campaign will contribute to additional reductions in poppy cultivation by increasing Afghan farmers’ perceptions of the risks associated, and by informing the Afghan public at large about the Government of Afghanistan’s counternarcotics programs, and the negative impact of the poppy trade on the country.
The CNPA and its drug intelligence, investigation, and interdiction units will expand out to the provinces to dismantle narcotics processing operations and trafficking networks.
Working with the Ministries of Public Health, Information and Culture, Education, and Telecommunications, the Ministry for Counter Narcotics will coordinate a national drug abuse, prevention, and treatment program with INL demand reduction assistance.
Administration of JusticeINL rule of law programs in Afghanistan will continue to work with the Government of Afghanistan and our international allies to strengthen the criminal justice system throughout the country, as well as to provide support for the development of the corrections system. In doing so, our justice programs also support police and counternarcotics initiatives by improving police-prosecutor coordination and helping to arrest, try, and punish narcotics offenders. Our administration of justice programs:
Provide advisory and technical support to Afghan justice administrators to improve management, operation, and coordination in the Ministry of Justice (MOJ), Ministry of Interior (MOI), Attorney General’s Office, and Supreme Court.
Provide infrastructure assistance to key justice institutions, including the Attorney General’s Office, to help modernize outdated systems, provide efficient work environments, and support organizational reform goals.
Conduct standardized training for justice personnel (including prosecutors, defense counsel, and judges) focusing on Afghan and international law, human rights, and criminal justice procedures. We will place a particular emphasis on training that increases cooperation between key justice ministries, such as joint police-prosecutor training.
Mentor Afghan justice personnel on improving investigations, police-prosecutor coordination, case management, trial advocacy, and the adjudication of criminal cases.
Provide advisory services and technical support to the MOJ Prison Directorate to improve the capacity of the nationwide corrections system.
Conduct standardized corrections training in Kabul and key provinces with an emphasis on human rights, and corrections management and operations.
Provide assistance to the Ministry of Justice in developing an engineering office to repair dilapidated correctional facilities, as well as develop plans for new correctional facilities.
Organize and mentor key correctional initiatives such as data management, transportation, and prison industries.
Provide equipment and infrastructure support to justice and corrections facilities near U.S.-funded police Regional Training Centers (RTCs) and courts in provincial locations and in major poppy growing and drug trafficking regions.
Support development of legal professional organizations and institutions including a licensing regime as well as legal training and aid centers. Reintegrating women into the legal sector is a key component of the program.
Support specialized training and mentoring for judges, prosecutors, and investigators on issues such as counternarcotics, trafficking, corruption, and prosecutorial investigations.
Support a specialized, secure facility to contain offices and secure courtrooms for counternarcotics prosecutors and investigators, and Counternarcotics Tribunal judges. Facility will also contain secure detention center for narcotics defendants.
Civilian Law Enforcement
The main goal of the USG police assistance mission is to assist the Afghan Ministry of Interior to rapidly develop an Afghan capacity to provide public security. Our goal is to help Afghanistan develop a competent, professional, democratic police force with the necessary training, equipment, infrastructure, institutional capacity and organizational structure to enforce the rule of law in Afghanistan. To reach that goal, in FY 2009 we will continue to enhance our basic training program with specialized training and mentoring, technical assistance, and institutional capacity building and reform. Training, mentoring, and reform activities taking place in FY 2009 are funded by an expected transfer of an estimated $365,000,000 of FY 2008 Department of Defense funds to the Department of State, and will be used to implement the following:
Continued efforts to support operation and maintenance costs for eight INL Regional Training Centers located throughout Afghanistan and the salary support for the police training advisors who staff them. The operational objective of the RTC efforts is to expand the basic training program with an increased focus on field training and mentoring for police officers, as well as the provision of advanced and specialized courses as appropriate.
Continued efforts to support, expand and extend the reach of the field mentoring program through the deployment of police mentor teams throughout Afghanistan at the district level. Intensive mentoring, particularly through the newly-launched Focused District Development (FDD) approach is intended to ensure police throughout the country receive on-the-job training and guidance to enhance and reinforce training previously provided in the classroom.
Complete Ministry of Interior (MOI) reform efforts, including the conclusion of the Pay and Rank Reform Initiative which restructures, reorders and reforms the MOI organizational and payroll systems.
Provide continued support for community policing initiatives, revenue-generation initiatives, and the establishment of specialized police units such as the Afghanistan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP), Family Response Units (FRU), and anti-corruption efforts across the police sector.Transformational Diplomacy
FY 2009 funds will advance the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy objectives of “Peace and Security” and “Governing Justly and Democratically” in the following ways:
(1) The opium poppy crop control and eradication program reduces Afghanistan’s illicit opium economy ($4 billion) and related violent conflict, corruption, and political instability. Afghanistan’s illicit opium economy accounts for 1/3 of its total estimated licit and illicit GDP, and fosters corruption that prevents the government from governing justly and democratically. The opium-financed Taliban resurgence that is beginning to erode hard-won peace and security gains, demonstrates the need for eradication. Opium-financed corruption also undermines economic development, social and political stability, and security.
(2) The public information program promotes engagement on counternarcotics issues with all sectors of Afghan society, including federal, provincial, local, tribal, and religious leaders as well as farmers and the general public. This engagement is facilitated by expanding community outreach activities. In the long term, these programs will serve to build lasting partnerships between Afghanistan and the United States, create common ground on shared values, and promote a self-sufficient federal communications function within the Government of Afghanistan.
(3) Drug Enforcement and Interdiction Programs will continue to provide operational and infrastructure support to projects designed to enhance the GOA’s counternarcotics law enforcement and interdiction capabilities in FY 2009. Training, mentoring, and investigative assistance will also continue to focus on developing capacity for the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan within the Ministry of Interior. These projects address key security challenges within the country, as the insurgency is increasingly linked to narcotics trafficking.
(4) The Demand Reduction Program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counternarcotics projects designed to prevent and reduce drug abuse. This complies with a key objective of the National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD # 25) on International Drug Control Policy, which urges the Secretary of State to “expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries.” The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health and welfare of all countries, in addition to undermining economic development, social and political stability, and security in developing countries that are strategic U.S. allies.
(5) The Administration of Justice Program will play a central role in helping the GOA establish a solid criminal justice framework to support security, governance, economic development, counternarcotics and anti-corruption efforts. Funds will enhance the professionalism of prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys and prison guards; reform and build the justice institutions; and promote fairness and equity in the criminal justice realm including criminal defense, human rights and women’s rights. This program will help build public confidence in the rule of law and the central government.
(6) The Civilian Law Enforcement Program is critical to the GOA’s ability to provide peace and security for its people. Professional, capable, well-trained and equipped police to secure Afghanistan’s borders and interior, and to sustain the rule of law, are necessary to the success of a self-governing Afghanistan. Funds transferred from the Department of Defense will provide critically needed training and mentoring to Afghan police. This includes continued training for elements of the Afghan National Police (ANP) such as the Afghan National Auxiliary Police (ANAP), Afghan Border Police (ABP), and Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP). The recently developed and implemented Focused District Development approach to holistic training and mentoring of the Afghan Uniform Police (AUP) is also a crucial element to achieving the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy objectives. Funds will support the completion of pay and rank reform, and the implementation of other related reform efforts at the Afghan Ministry of Interior as well.
Program JustificationINL programs in Afghanistan reflect that country’s centrality in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). INL programs in Afghanistan support U.S. counterterrorism, counterdrug and anti-crime goals. The FY 2009 INL program will continue to enhance the three main components that began with FY 2002 supplemental funding and continued with FY 2004, FY 2005, FY 2006, FY 2007, and FY 2008 foreign assistance and supplemental appropriations: counternarcotics activities, criminal justice sector (including corrections) reform, and police training and reform. INL programs are coordinated closely with U.S. coalition partners.
Although the political and economic situation in Afghanistan is improving, opium poppy production and trafficking still account for roughly one-third of Afghanistan’s total GDP, licit and illicit. The huge drug trade undermines economic reconstruction, weakens democratic governance based on the rule of law, and threatens regional stability; and partly funds the attempted Taliban resurgence. Dangerous security conditions and rampant corruption constrain efforts to combat the drug trade and provide alternative incomes.
Programs in 2007 also provided mixed news: the total cultivation of opium poppy increased by 17 percent (from 172,600 hectares to 202,000 hectares according to U.S. Government sources), but the number of poppy-free provinces more than doubled from six to thirteen among relatively stable and secure northern provinces. The increase in nationwide cultivation figures was fueled by growing insecurity in southern provinces, which were alone responsible for 70% of the total crop. USG-supported eradication in 2007 increased by 25% (from 15,300 to 19,047 hectares) and continues to serve as a deterrent to poppy growth. The GOA has committed itself to reducing the 2008 harvest by 50,000 hectares. The public awareness campaign has contributed to a growing recognition among Afghans that poppy cultivation is illegal and immoral. Prosecution of counternarcotics offenders continues, and increasingly high value traffickers are being prosecuted by the Criminal Justice Task Force (CJTF).
Restoration of the rule of law is vital to increasing security, ensuring stability, promoting economic growth, and protecting human rights. A transparent and fair justice system is critical to ensuring that the people of Afghanistan respect the authority and decision-making of the central government. In particular, a criminal defense system that affords due process and respects international human rights standards is a cornerstone of a society functioning under the rule of law. U.S. law enforcement must have the ability to work with Afghanistan in the future on crucial law enforcement issues. Despite Afghan progress on a Constitution and the development of governmental mechanisms and agencies that support justice reform, much work is still needed. Critical tasks include establishment of a functioning judiciary, training prosecutors to build effective cases, establishment of a defense bar, reintegration of women legal professionals, and a reliable penal system.
Training and support provided to the CNPA is a critical factor in creating criminal investigations that can produce the reliable and valid evidence necessary for successful prosecution of drug traffickers and the effective dismantling of narcotics trafficking organizations and processing operations. By facilitating the expanded capacity GOA drug investigation units, improving the enforcement of current drug laws, increasing the number of violators successfully prosecuted, and boosting the disruption of drug activity significant gains can be made towards the establishment rule of law and stability in Afghanistan.
FY 2009 funding will continue to work with the GOA and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities by strengthening the rule of law and enhancing public security throughout the country. Professionalization of the MOI and development of advanced policing skills are critical to ensuring the long-term capability of the Afghan MOI to address such critical law enforcement issues as narcotics, corruption and organized crime. While basic training of the police force is important, it is imperative that such training is reinforced in the field, and enhanced with additional instruction in operational policing skills as well. Equally important is the goal of developing the criminal justice system to prosecute offenders after arrest by the police.
The U.S., in concert with the UK, has worked to ensure that counternarcotics is at the forefront of Afghan policy initiatives. With U.S. and UK support, the GOA established the Counternarcotics Advisory Team (CNAT) in May of 2005. CNAT is designed to reduce poppy cultivation through year-round targeted public information campaigns to dissuade farmers from poppy planting, promote alternative livelihoods programs to spur rural development, and support governor-led eradication of poppy crops. CNAT teams have fully deployed in the seven key provinces that produce over 80 percent of the opium in Afghanistan. These teams, comprised of public information, alternative livelihoods and monitoring/verification officers, work with Afghan governors in the above efforts. The GOA’s Poppy Eradication Force (PEF) has also developed into a more flexible and mobile force, with air support increasing the central government’s eradication capabilities. The PEF initiated pre-planting campaigns to encourage farmers to plant licit crops and to increase awareness of alternative development initiatives. During the eradication season, PEF is pursuing a forced eradication policy as a deterrent to cultivation within targeted areas.
A public information and media campaign complemented CNAT team activities by relaying key counternarcotics messages to poppy farmers, local leaders, and the general public via radio, television, print materials, and community events in the Dari and Pashtu languages. In 2006, a new program was also launched to better engage local, tribal, and religious leaders on counternarcotics themes. Cultivation was down in 2006 and 2007 in some northern provinces due, in part, to these kinds of public information and community outreach efforts. The public information program funding also enabled communications capacity building in Afghanistan’s Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, and Ministry of Agriculture.
Development, expansion, and capacity building of the CNPA continue apace with the establishment of specialized vetted units such as the Sensitive Investigative Unit and the Technical Investigative Unit. Such units will be a great asset in effort to strengthen the overall investigative capacities of the CNPA. Mentors have also been assigned to provide training to these vetted units, as well as to the existing National Interdiction Unit teams.
On the legal front, the Criminal Justice Task Force (CJTF) continues to prosecute narcotics traffickers under the Counternarcotics Law adopted in December, 2005. As their prosecutorial skills develop, the Criminal Justice Task Force is able to prosecute higher value targets, and will branch into narcotics related crimes, such as corruption, during FY 2009. The CJTF and Central Narcotics Tribunal will benefit from the opening in 2008 of the Counter-Narcotics Justice Center (CNJC) in Kabul, which will provide a secure facility to detain, prosecute and try narcotics offenders. INL will provide operations and maintenance support to the GOA for the overall facility, and provide U.S. corrections mentors for the CNJC detention center, for the first two years of operation.
Our demand reduction efforts in Afghanistan have resulted in the issuance of major fatwas and resolutions (by leading Islamic clerics and organizations) that lend strong support to U.S. policies/programs designed to reduce drug production, trafficking and abuse. Additionally, our collaboration with the Afghan Religious Affairs Ministry (3,000 mullahs) has provided us with rare access to mosques, allowing us to establish prevention and outreach centers in these institutions.
The INL section at Embassy Kabul is now fully staffed with 11 U.S. personnel, covering the counternarcotics, police, justice, and aviation sectors. In contrast with a single American Director's position in 2004, the program has expanded to include personnel responsible for various projects, including a Director, Deputy Director, Administrative Officer, Counternarcotics Program Officer, Public Information Coordinator, Aviation Advisor, Rule of Law and Law enforcement Advisors, and an Office Management Specialist to manage this growing program. In addition, INL supports the Counternarcotics Task Force Coordinator’s Office.
Administration of Justice
The Afghan government adopted a Constitution that respects human rights, the rights of women, and adheres to due process standards. The July 2007 Rome Conference on the Rule of Law in Afghanistan, attended by Afghan President Hamid Karzai and other world leaders, re-confirmed a political commitment to justice reform; and generated new donor funding for assistance programs. Following the conference, the GOA embarked on an ambitious plan, together with the international community, to draft a National Justice Sector Strategy (NJSS) along with a National Justice Program (NJP) to implement the strategy. Both the strategy and the program are nearly finalized half a year later, and lay the foundation for reform and development of the justice sector in the coming years. The USG committed funding at the Rome Conference to support justice and corrections salaries through multilateral mechanisms that will simultaneously implement civil service reforms. The USG also played a key role in encouraging the expansion of provincial justice, by developing the Provincial Justice Coordination Mechanism (PJCM). The PJCM will deploy rule of law coordinators across Afghanistan to ensure that bilateral programs are complimentary and integrated. The PJCM was endorsed at the Rome Conference and is on-track to be established in early 2008, with funding from five donors including the U.S.
INL’s justice program has directly supported the Afghan government in its judicial and corrections sector reform processes, while expanding our assistance programs in Kabul and key provinces during 2007. The expansion to the Justice Sector Support Program (JSSP) created four sections, each staffed with a combination of Afghan and U.S. attorneys. These sections are focused on: (a) the Attorney General’s Office (AGO); (b) the Ministry of Justice; (c) Access to Justice; and (d) provincial training and mentoring. The JSSP now supports over 30 U.S. and 30 Afghan attorney advisors who implement dozens of training, mentoring, capacity-building and equipment projects related to rebuilding and reforming the criminal justice system. Notably, the JSSP has also started mentoring Afghan prosecutors on anti-corruption cases, now plays a central role in revising the criminal procedure that governs investigations and prosecutions, is implementing organizational reforms of the AGO and MOJ, and has established a Policy and Strategy Unit staffed by six Afghans to support the Minister of Justice in management and policy development.
INL has also expanded its other major justice sector reform program, the Corrections System Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP now supports over 30 U.S. corrections advisors who have: (a) trained over 1,300 corrections personnel to date and launched several specialized training programs; (b) launched a program to improve prison management and operations; (c) developed a hybrid prison design that will be used to build numerous prisons over the coming year; and (d) implemented numerous detention center refurbishment projects. The CSSP has also worked closely with the GOA and the U.S. Department of Defense in finalizing the Counter-Narcotics Justice Center (CNJC), which will open in 2008.
We have entered into an agreement with the United States Institute of Peace to focus on the linkages with the non-state system of dispute resolution, working with the U.S. Embassy, the GOA, and the international community. Additionally, INCLE funding will continue to support the Master’s of Law (LLM) Program, based on a grant with the University of Washington – Seattle which has allowed more than 20 Afghan law professors to come to the U.S. and earn certificate degrees in Law, as well as LLM degrees. In late 2007, INL launched a Public-Private Partnership for Justice Reform to allow U.S. law firms to contribute funding to Afghanistan’s justice sector.
Finally, INL is also supporting the expansion of the U.S. Department of Justice program in Afghanistan, adding two senior federal prosecutor positions at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul that will focus on narcotics-related corruption cases which can be tried at the Central Narcotics Tribunal.
The U.S. is making significant strides in advancing the establishment of the rule of law in Afghanistan, and working with the GOA and international community to finalize strategic plans, while simultaneously expanding bilateral programs as they gain traction. These efforts are being integrated into the U.S. Rule of Law Strategy for Afghanistan, which also includes USAID and military rule of law initiatives that will directly support the National Justice Program over the next four years.
Despite the relative success described above, however, these programs have also exposed gaping holes in the current Afghan justice sector, and the concomitantly tremendous need for improvement and strengthening of that sector. There is critical need for equitable, informed, and transparent justice services that continues to go unmet. Personnel are paid extremely low salaries, and are often illiterate or poorly trained. There is widespread corruption, the infrastructure is often in a very poor state of repair, current organizational structures are inefficient, and there is an overwhelming lack of necessary equipment and supplies throughout the system. The central reach into the provinces remains limited, and provincial capacities are underdeveloped. U.S. justice programs are balancing these needs with available resources, and working closely with the Afghan Government and the international community.
Civilian Law Enforcement
Since the inception of the program over four years ago, INL has established police training centers in Kabul, Kandahar, Konduz, Jalalabad, Gardez, Bamiyan, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif; opened a Forward Operating Base (FOB) at Islam Qala; and trained over 88,000 police officers on basic police skills. Expansion of the field training program to all major provinces is currently underway, and more than 500 mentors and trainers have been deployed to over 24 provinces. Nearly 200 mentors are deployed on Police Mentor Teams (PMTs) at the district level and are engaging with local Afghan police officials. Advanced training courses in defensive driving, firearms, crowd control, literacy, computer skills, anti-corruption, domestic violence and other critical courses are being developed and implemented at all of the Regional Training Centers (RTCs) and in the field.
Ministry of Interior (MOI) Reform is also proceeding well. Rank reform, having started at the highest levels of the MOI, has now been completed through the field grade officer level. Pay reform is being implemented in tandem with rank reform, with each phase of the former following just after each phase of the latter. By fall 2007, pay reform had been completed for the ranks of general, brigadier general, and major; and had begun to be implemented at the captain and lieutenant levels. The international community agreed in October 2007 that ANP who have completed basic training at an RTC or the CTC (Central Training Center) should receive pay parity with ANA: $100 per month of basic pay. The combination of these two reform measures has boosted morale and police loyalty, as they are seen as equitable measures to reduce corruption and recognize merit. At the same time, systems have been established in many locations for electronic funds transfer (EFT) and Electronic Payment System (EPS) for the payment of salaries to the ANP, resulting in their receipt of salaries in-full and on-time. In such locations, EPS and EFT have resulted in a notable increase in salary accountability, decreased corruption, and increased ANP morale. The issuance by the MOI of tamper-proof ID cards has also enabled the MOI and ANP officials to better track their ranks. Approximately 69,000 police are registered in the related ID card database, and nearly 46,000 police have received these ID cards. In addition to assisting in the verification of ranks, this measure has greatly enhanced the ability of police to be accurately identified at banks and other financial institutions that pay out salaries upon presentation of proof of identity.
FY 2009 ProgramContinued insecurity and increased challenges to democratic stability in Afghanistan require the acceleration and substantial expansion of the three main INL programs: counternarcotics, civilian law enforcement, and administration of justice. FY 2008 INCLE and FY 2007 Supplemental DOD funding will increase support of programs to improve national law enforcement capabilities, support a strong eradication program, strengthen the rule of law, and enhance public security throughout the country. INL programs in FY 2009 will continue these expanded and enhanced programs.
INL funding for counternarcotics in FY 2009 will support programs for poppy crop reduction through public information, province-based dissuasion against planting and robust eradication, as well as drug control institution building that includes support for interdiction, public outreach, and demand reduction.
Elimination/Eradication: This program is aimed at reducing large-scale poppy cultivation through: (a) an intensive province-based dissuasion effort focusing on key poppy producing regions with the aim of proactively discouraging poppy cultivation, combined with aggressive, governor-led eradication supported by seven CAT monitoring and verification teams; (b) robust application of a central government directed national eradication program that begun in FY 2004 and matured into four, 150-person mobile eradication teams by 2006; and (c) intensified support and incentives for province-based, governor-led eradication (GLE). FY 2009 funds will be provided to pay for salaries and support to PEP teams as well as providing the Counternarcotics Advisory Team (CNAT) with logistic support; fuel and supplies; vehicles and equipment; transportation, training, evaluation, and monitoring of the program; and contractor overhead and costs. These funds will also support continuation of the Good Performers Initiative (GPI), which provides high-impact development assistance to reward provinces for successful counternarcotics performance. FY 2009 funds will also be used to provide increased air support for poppy elimination and eradication programs. Support to a small fleet of U.S.-owned rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft for security, reconnaissance, resupply, medevac, and search and rescue will be provided through INL’s aviation support contract. Additional funds will lease airlift support for police training, PEF and CNAT teams. Aircraft will also provide support for interdiction operations when not engaged in supporting police training, elimination/eradication activities. Funds will be used for shipping, support infrastructure, fuel, ammunition, personnel, repair and maintenance, contractor overhead, and flying hour operational costs.
Drug Enforcement: This program is aimed at disrupting drug trafficking and associated criminal activity, along with the consequent dismantling of drug trafficking organizations within Afghanistan. The main goal is to improve the enforcement of drug laws and ultimately increase the number of drug offenders prosecuted successfully. Funds will continue U.S. support to the CNPA, including expansion and training of the National Interdiction Unit (NIU), the Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU), and the Technical Investigative Unit (TIU). Funds will also be allocated to the operational support and maintenance of central and provincial facilities for the support of the Afghan Ministry of Interior’s drug enforcement and interdiction forces. The CNPA will also continue to be supported through special training in case management, investigations, and police/prosecutor coordination, and will be focused on arresting those involved in the drug trade and providing efficient, effective, and fair trials.
Demand Reduction: FY 2009 funds will combat rising Afghan drug abuse rates and an emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic fueled by intravenous drug use. Funds will be used to strengthen the operation of mosque-based prevention and aftercare programs; provide youth with preventive drug education programs; promote awareness among religious leaders and district council members of drug abuse issues; strengthen the local community and faith-based organizations in demand reduction; train Mosque-based program operators in outreach and treatment skills; and establish treatment facilities for drug dependents, especially women.
Public Information: Funding for the counternarcotics public information program in FY 2009 will continue to emphasize the anti-planting message, coupled with the threat of government-led eradication and enforcement activities. Public Information messages work to promote not only awareness of the issues, but behavior change on the individual level. The campaign will focus attention on the connections between the drug trade and crime, corruption, public health, insecurity, and conflict. Messages will continue to be channeled through radio, television, and print media, but will increasingly be relayed through partnerships with local, tribal, and religious leaders, including the CNAT. As Ministry of Counternarcotics (MCN) is able to expand their staff at the provincial level, CNAT will assist in training and mentoring provincial MCN staff in working with local political, religious and media entities to spread messages and coordinate counternarcotics efforts at the District and Provincial level. Public information activities will continue to highlight the progress made by the GOA in its national drug control program, alternative development assistance and justice sector reform over the past four years. Our activities will continue to promote increased capability for Afghan ownership over public information programs by training MCN staff. In order to ensure that training and capacity building is undertaken in a responsible and sustainable fashion, INL will continue to work with the Colombo Plan to promote internal capacity building within the MCN.Administration of Justice
FY 2009 resources will enable INL to continue to work with the GOA and the international community in combined efforts towards strengthening the rule of law throughout Afghanistan. Creating enhanced linkages between police, criminal justice, and corrections, and expanding these efforts to more provincial population centers will continue to be a priority. In this context, supporting the arrest, prosecution, and punishment of narcotics offenders will also be a major focus. Three strategic objectives form the foundation of INL’s justice program in Afghanistan: the development of institutional capacity of the permanent justice institutions; the development of the operational capacity of criminal justice sector actors (including law enforcement) to fairly and transparently investigate crimes and prosecute/punish offenders; and the professionalization of justice sector personnel and promotion of human rights.
Funds will be used to cover operational costs to maintain the justice and corrections programs, including program support and security as well as direct assistance to the Afghan government. These resources will:
Improve institutional capacity of the justice institutions, including the Ministry of Justice and Attorney General’s Office, by providing technical support and standardized training for justice administrators, assisting in organizational reform, assisting in the development and nationwide implementation of policies and procedures, and the training and mentoring practitioners in each ministry.
Provide infrastructure assistance to key justice institutions to help modernize outdated systems, provide efficient work environments, and support organizational reform goals.
Enhance leadership, managerial, and administrative skills of police, prosecutors, defense counsels, and judges through criminal justice training and mentoring, including courses on investigation, criminal procedure, human rights, and fair trials.
Improve the operational capacity of the Afghan corrections system through a comprehensive program in Kabul and key provinces that will consist of corrections training and mentoring, capacity-building, and infrastructure and equipment support.
Support and mentor the development of key corrections initiatives such as data management, transportation, and prison industries.
Support the professionalization of justice personnel through legal education and training, and assist in the establishment of legal professional organizations and associated facilities.
Help identify, draft, and implement key legislation and procedures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. Assist in the translation of key international treaties and standards, ratified by the Government of Afghanistan, into Dari and Pashtu; with special focus on those related to human rights, rule of law, and due process in criminal cases.
Identify and provide equipment and infrastructure support to justice institutions and facilities in Kabul and the provinces.
Develop measures of effectiveness for the criminal justice system as a whole.
INL funding for counternarcotics prosecution will also be used to deploy and support mentors to train the Criminal Justice Task Force made up of prosecutors and investigators specifically dedicated to narcotics cases. Funds will also support the Counternarcotics Tribunal, comprised of judges assigned to only hear cases related to narcotics offenses. A special focus of training will be investigator-prosecutor relations and specialized counternarcotics issues. Funds will also be used to support the Counternarcotics Justice Center, a secure facility that will contain office space for the task force and judges, courtrooms, and secure detention space for narcotics defendants.
Civilian Law EnforcementAssistance to train and mentor police in FY 2009 will continue to be funded through the transfer of funds from the Department of Defense. Funds will be used to:
Support maintenance and operation costs for eight INL Regional Training Centers and to continue to fund our police trainer-advisors whose mission is to expand and improve the training program with advanced courses in specialized skills; as well as to expand the implementation of Focused District Development for Afghan Uniform Police (AUP) in all provinces;
Continue to provide basic training for the Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) and the Border Police, in addition to FDD training for AUP;
Support increased deployment of experienced U.S. law enforcement professionals as mentors to Afghan police throughout Afghanistan;
Complete the MOI reform efforts that focus on organizational development, including the conclusion of the Pay and Rank Reform Initiative that restructures, reorders, and reforms the MOI organizational and payroll systems.
Continue to support community policing initiatives, revenue-generation initiatives, and the establishment of specialized police units such as a Criminal Intelligence Unit, and the expansion of the Family Response Unit.
Program Development and Support (PD&S)
PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
|FY 2007||FY 2007 Supp||FY 2008 #||FY 2009|
|Crop Control/Eradication||146,740 ||20,000 ||178,339 ||187,000 |
|Poppy Eradication Force||45,000 ||- ||46,841 ||45,000 |
|Poppy Elimination Program||12,240 ||- ||16,168 ||12,000 |
|Air Wing||85,000 ||- ||94,500 ||105,000 |
|Verification||4,500 ||- ||5,952 ||5,000 |
|Good Performers Fund / Initiative||- ||20,000 ||14,878 ||20,000 |
|Public Information||4,000 ||2,000 ||1,992 ||1,000 |
|Drug Enforcement- Interdiction *||7,000 ||5,000 ||14,242 ||16,000 |
|Trafficking in Persons and Migrant Smuggling||- ||- ||496 ||- |
|Demand Reduction||2,000 ||- ||1,984 ||2,000 |
|Sub Total ||159,740 ||27,000 ||197,053 ||206,000 |
|Administration of Justice **|
|Justice Sector Training Program||32,000 ||15,000 ||51,587 ||- |
|Corrections Reform & Infrastructure||8,000 ||- ||16,862 ||- |
|Sub Total ||40,000 ||15,000 ||68,449 ||34,000 |
|Program Development and Support **|
|U.S. Personnel||6,000 ||- ||4,243 ||- |
|Non-U.S. Personnel||1,200 ||- ||849 ||- |
|ICASS Costs||1,800 ||- ||1,273 ||- |
|Program Support||1,000 ||- ||707 ||- |
|Sub-Total||10,000 ||- ||7,072 ||10,000 |
|Total Drug Control Programs||209,740 ||42,000 ||272,574 ||250,000 |
|Civilian Law Enforcement ***|
|Training and Mentoring of Afghan Police ||*** ||- ||***** ||****** |
|PD&S||*** ||- ||***** ||****** |
|Total Law Enforcement Programs||388,000**** ||- ||391,000## ||365,000 |
|Total Drug Control and Law Enforcement Programs||597,740 ||42,000 ||663,574 ||615,000 |
|* FY2007 SUPP Interdiction funds are for "Regional Interdiction Cooperation" (Tajik-Afghan border posts, and CARICC). |
|** The Administration of Justice and Program Development and Support provide support to both counternarcotics and crime activities.|
|*** The FY 2007 Civilian Law Enforcement Program is being funded through a transfer of funds from FY06 DOD Supplemental.|
|**** It should be noted that the original funds transfer from DOD totaled $399M, but that $11M was remitted to the DOD.|
|***** The FY 2008 Civilian Law Enforcement Program is being funded through the transfer of FY07 Supplemental DOD ASFF funds.|
|****** It is anticipated that the FY 2009 Civilian Law Enforcement will be funded through a transfer of funds from the DOD.|
|# The FY08 numbers have been revised to reflect a .81% recission.|
|## Of this amount, $318M currently has been allocated, with expected allocation of the remaining $73M to be completed Feb 2008.|
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsDeny funds to terrorist organizations and other international criminal organizations.
The number of successful investigations and prosecutions of terrorist financing and money laundering cases; as well as the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards.
Support the criminal justice system to strengthen the role of legislative reform.
Placement of a resident legal advisor to provide training programs, symposia and conferences on the role of legislative reform in supporting the justice system and the rule of law.
Transformational DiplomacyFY 2009 funding expands the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key remaining challenges focusing on financial crimes and judicial reform in Bangladesh. Recognizing these challenges urges the Secretary of State to expand U.S. international technical assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries.
Program JustificationFinancial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds three to five percent of Global Domestic Product — or $1.5-$1.8 trillion per year – and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Terrorists, on the other hand, appear to be relying less on the formal financial sector than to alternative remittance systems, such as hawala and cash couriers, that pose significant challenges to law enforcement. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.
In addition, funds will support a resident legal advisor, training programs, symposia and conferences on the role of legislative reform in supporting the justice system and the rule of law. Funds will support a resident legal advisor and staff who will assist the National Assembly to develop the research and drafting capacity required to generate laws which will bring Bangladesh into compliance with UN conventions on corruption and illicit drugs, facilitate the prosecution of money laundering, and protect the rights of Bangladesh citizens who may be vulnerable to human trafficking.
Program AccomplishmentsTrafficking in Persons (TIP)
FY 2008 funds are to be used to assist the government to strengthen law enforcement and the rule of law to interrupt TIP national and transnational crime networks. Training and technical assistance for law enforcement on how to identify and rescue victims, investigate cases, coordinate and prepare prosecutions, and collaborate with nongovernmental organizations are imperative. Funding is also be used to adopt anti-trafficking laws, improve the legal framework for addressing TIP, and strengthen the capacity of civil society to work effectively with justice systems to promote the rescue and protection of victims. Some FY 2009 funds may be used to continue this work.
FY 2009 ProgramFY 2009 will be the first year of funding for the programs:
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
The funding for the financial crimes and money laundering program will allow for INL to support the new innovative Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) concept that responds to the increasing propensity of criminals and terrorists to move funds outside of formal financial sectors through use of alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. The concept borrows from the international network of Financial Investigative Units that examine financial intelligence. The establishment of TTUs in Bangladesh will improve efforts in detecting money laundering and terrorist financing.
FY 2009 funds will be used for the support of a Resident Legal Advisor to provide technical assistance to improve the legal framework and assist the National Assembly to develop the research and drafting capacity required to generate laws which will bring Bangladesh into compliance with UN conventions on corruption and illicit drugs, facilitate the prosecution of money laundering, and protect the rights of Bangladesh citizens who may be vulnerable to human trafficking.
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Financial Crimes & Money Laundering||-||-||-||400|
|Trafficking in Persons||-||-||198||-|
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsDrug addiction treatment and awareness will be the main focus for the Government of India (GOI).
To combat the abuse of opiate, heroin and other narcotic drugs, support will provide technical assistance and equipment to the narcotics treatment center. Demand reduction education programs will significantly reduce drug use and delay onset of first use in target populations.
Transformational DiplomacyFY 2009 funds advance the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key remaining challenges to Drug Demand Reduction.
Newspapers frequently refer to ecstasy and cocaine use on the Mumbai and New Delhi “party circuit,” but there is little information on the extent of their use. There has been a considerable amount of reporting in local newspapers indicating that the use of cocaine and ecstasy are on the rise. While smoking “brown sugar” heroin (morphine base) and cannabis remain India’s principal recreational drugs, intravenous drug use (IDU) of licit opiate/psychotropic pharmaceuticals (LOPPS) is rising in India, replacing, almost completely, “white” heroin. In parts of India where IDUs have been denied access to LOPPS, IDUs have turned to injecting “brown sugar” heroin. Various licitly produced psychotropic drugs and opiate painkillers, cough medicines, and codeine are just some of the substances that have emerged as the new drugs of choice.
In 2004, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE) released a drug abuse study conducted in partnership with UNODC in 2001. The study found that licit opiate abuse accounted for 43 percent of Indian drug abuse. Although drug abuse cuts across a wide spectrum of Indian society, more than a quarter of drug abusers are homeless, nearly half are unmarried, and 40 percent had less than a primary school education. Itinerant populations (e.g., truck drivers) are extremely susceptible to drug use.
In 2006, the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN) continued issuing microprocessor chip-based cards (Smart Identity Cards) to opium poppy cultivators. The card carries the personal details of the cultivator, the licensed area, the measured/test measured field area and the opium tendered by him to the CBN. The card also stores the previous years’ data. The information stored on the card is read with handheld terminal/read-write machines that are provided to field divisions. CBN personnel will enter cultivation data into the cultivators’ cards and the data will be uploaded to computers at CBN HQs and regional offices. The cards are delivered to cultivators at the time of licensing. For crop year 2005/2006, the project was expanded to include all of the 17 Opium Divisions, the three State Unit Headquarters and the Central Headquarters in Gwalior.
The GOI periodically raises the official price per kilo of opium, but illicit market prices are four to five times higher than the base government price. Farmers who submit opium at levels above the MQY receive a premium, but premium prices can only act as a modest positive incentive. In the 2005/2006 opium harvest year, CBN significantly decreased the number of hectares licensed from 8,771 in 2004 and 2005 to 6,976 in 2005 and 2006, and the number of farmers licensed from 87,682 in 2004 and 2005 to 72,478 in 2005 and 2006. Much of this reduction took place in Uttar Pradesh, where CBN is in the process of phasing out opium cultivation. The estimated yield for the 2006 crop year was 372 metric tons of opium.
Although there is no reliable estimate of diversion from India’s licit opium industry, clearly, some diversion does take place. It is estimated that between 20 and 30 percent of the opium crop is diverted. However, it is not possible to pinpoint the amount accurately and there is no evidence that significant quantities of opium or its derivatives diverted from India’s fields reaches the United States. In 2006, the GOI reported it seized 142 kilograms of licit opium and closed down three morphine manufacturing facilities.
FY 2009 ProgramDemand Reduction
FY 2009 funds will be used for the support INL-funded narcotics treatment center. INL assistance will give particular attention to address the recurring opiate abuse in India and address the heroin threat from other regions in Asia. A continued area of focus will be in anti-drug programs that are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.
The program will be divided into three general categories, a coalition and network building program; training and technical assistance program, and research and demonstration program. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration programs initiative will allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect “best practices” that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome).
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction||-||-||-||400|
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators
The Government of Nepal (GON) will develop effective civilian-led police forces.
Organizational management reform, curriculum reform, training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Nepal Police (NP) and the Armed Police Force of Nepal (AFP). Training and technical assistance provided to the rank and file members will help improve the NP’s criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force.
The judicial system will become the default means of resolving conflict among and between the various groups and parties in Nepal.
Improved justice systems will seek to overcome the use of evidence, chains of evidence, admissibility of evidence, admission of expert testimony, sophistication of judges, police-prosecutor cooperation and feedback, and incorporation of continuing education requirements for legal professionals into the licensing of said professionals. Aspects of this program will include enhancing coordination between prosecutors and law enforcement agencies.Transformational Diplomacy
FY 2009 funds will advance the Secretary of State’s Transformational Diplomacy goal for Nepal, a state emerging from and rebuilding after internal conflict, specifically to prevent or mitigate a state failure or a resort to renewed violent conflict. The program will focus on Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations Justice System, Good Governance, and Human Rights.
Program JustificationLaw and order are prerequisites to the re-establishment of peace and security in Nepal, following the ten plus year insurgency; the alternative being a failed state. Disenfranchised sizeable minorities are resorting to Maoist tactics of violent protest and strikes to seek inclusion in the political process in the run up to the Constituent Assembly elections, part of Nepal’s constitutional drafting and adoption as well as the establishment of a new government.
Formerly, the Nepal Army was an integral part of the security sector, and provided logistics support during country elections. Per the settlement with the Maoists, Nepal Army forces are now confined to their barracks, and thus removed from the equation. The other two elements in the security sector, the NP and AFP, cannot as presently staffed, equipped and trained, fill the security sector gap left by the Nepal Army’s confinement to barracks. The NP and AFP, having been mostly focused on counterinsurgency efforts for the past ten years, are woefully under equipped and lack modern police training to enforce law and order throughout Nepal, let alone ensure safe and fair democratic elections. Another challenge to the ability of the NP and AFP to enforce the law is a lack of political will and leadership to re-establish law and order; the current government must equally and fairly enforce the laws irrespective of the political stripe of the perpetrator.
An interagency assessment completed in 2007 emphasized the need for law and order as a prerequisite to fair, safe and democratic elections, to a return to a rule of law based civil society in which security and visible presence and actions by the NP, and support of the NP by the GON. The most common fear expressed by the stakeholders during the interagency assessment was intimidation and violence during the elections at the hands of the Maoists. Furthermore, the assessment revealed that Nepal is experiencing some unique challenges regarding the rule of law. Any training or logistical support must not only help the election effort, but needs to add to the overall ability of the NP to reform itself into a police organization that is customer-focused, service-oriented and that understands the importance of human rights in law enforcement.
Program AccomplishmentsIn 2007, INL funded the deployment of a Senior Law Enforcement Advisor to build relationships with the Home Ministry, the Nepal Police and the Armed Police, review the NP’s and APF’s organizational structure and needs, and prepare the way for the joint inter-agency assessment team. He also advised on election security, how to identify a new mission for the APF (formerly solely-focused on counter-insurgency efforts), and developing community policing concepts.
In 2007, INL funded a joint interagency assessment, covering not only the Central District and Kathmandu valley (interviewing or meeting with officials from the Home Ministry, the Election Commission, members of Nepal’s parliament, the head of the Nepal Police and his direct reports, the head of the Armed Police Force and his direct reports, the UN Secretary General’s Special Envoy, Indian diplomats, members of human rights organizations and other non governmental organizations, members of the EU Commission’s delegation, UK representatives as well as the U.S. Ambassador and many of his mission team), but also visiting regional and district centers in the Far West District, and the West District.
FY 2009 ProgramThe major components of the FY 2009 program are assisting in security sector reform, coordinating assistance for and directly aiding law enforcement restructuring, reform and operations, incorporating human rights into basic curriculum and into the continuum of appropriate force used in the rules of engagement, improve police-prosecutorial cooperation as well as assisting in the incorporation of modern evidentiary rules of evidence into the judicial system, and supporting GON efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law.
Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform, and Operations
FY 2009 funds will focus on improving the quality and transparency of civilian rule of law through assisting the NP and APF with strategic planning, competency-building, development of a continuum of appropriate applied force, and sustainable training programs for the two organization’s respective personnel. The program will achieve these assistance goals by providing resident technical advisors and training programs for targeted groups of law enforcement officers, prosecutors and jurists.
Improving the Justice System
The effectiveness of law enforcement’s working relationship with the prosecutors will be an important component of this program. The FY 2009 program will include efforts to improve police-prosecutor cooperation to better manage crime scenes, preserve evidence and bring criminals to justice. Strengthening the working relationship between police and prosecutors through the implementation of policies and procedures – that will require the police to consult with prosecutors during investigations – will further establish corruption-fighting mechanisms and initiate improvements in judicial administration and criminal case management. Additionally, funds will incorporate human rights into basic curriculum and into the continuum of appropriate force used in the rules of engagement.
Program Development & Support (PD&S)
PD&S funds will cover the foreign national direct-hire and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Stabilization Operations and Security Reform||- ||- ||- ||8,200 |
|Senior Law Enforcement Advisor||- ||- ||- ||800 |
|Sub Total ||- ||- ||- ||9,000 |
|Resident Legal Advisor||-||-||-||400|
|Rule of Law and Human Rights||-||-||-||200|
|Sub-Total||- ||- ||- ||800 |
|Program Development and Support|
|U.S. Personnel||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Non-U.S. Personnel||- ||- ||- ||- |
|ICASS Costs||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Program Support||- ||- ||30 ||200 |
|Sub-Total||- ||- ||30 ||200 |
|Total ||- ||- ||30 ||10,000 |
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsPakistani control over the border with Afghanistan and Iran is further strengthened.
Ability to monitor the 2,500 km border with Afghanistan and Iran to interdict the passage of terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminals will be improved. Access to previously inaccessible territory and the presence of security forces will be expanded through road construction. The Government of Pakistan’s (GOP) border security surveillance and interdiction capabilities will be increased through continued air support, ongoing training activities, increased mobility, intelligence sharing, and expanded provision of communications and other equipment (e.g. surveillance equipment).
The capability of the GOP to investigate and prevent criminal and terrorist activity is improved.
Technical assistance, training, and equipment will augment the capacity of Pakistani law enforcement and security agencies. Institutional police reform programs will expand, emphasizing investigations, leadership and management skills, and academy development. Continued programs from FY 2008 include training modules in explosive response training and civil disturbance management courses. Police reform programs will also include the provision of model policing projects and support for a national dialogue among law enforcement agencies.
The ability of the GOP to deter and eradicate opium poppy cultivation and interdict narcotics trafficking is expanded.
Poppy crop surveys will result in the detection of poppy sown in remote areas. Cultivators will be subject to fines, arrest, and the loss of essential services such as electricity. The tribal government’s Narcotics Control Cell will work together with the Frontier Corps (FC) and Tribal Levies to warn cultivators to self-eradicate or face forced eradication campaigns. Poppy cultivation will decline as alternative crop programs and road infrastructure projects expand. Demand reduction and narcotics awareness public education efforts will be expanded to prevent drug abuse.Transformational Diplomacy
FY 2009 funds will advance the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy objectives of “Peace and Security” and “Governing Justly and Democratically” by addressing the challenges that the Government of Pakistan faces in the following ways:
(1) The Border Security Project provides operational support, commodities, and training to law enforcement agencies, primarily the FC, the Frontier Constabulary, the Tribal Levies, the Pakistan Coast Guards (PCG), and the Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF). U.S. assistance goes to build or refurbish outposts for the Levies and FC close to the Afghanistan-Pakistan border and new roads, which open up remote areas to law enforcement agencies and allow forces to eradicate poppy, while facilitating farmer-to-market access for legal crops.
(2) Drug Enforcement and Interdiction Program provides funding and support to projects designed to enhance the GOP’s law enforcement and counternarcotics interdiction capabilities. Training, mentoring, and prosecutorial and investigative assistance support the ANF. In the long-term, this assistance will increase the number of cases and prosecutions of high-level drug traffickers by the ANF and will build capacity in Pakistan’s justice sector as a whole.
(3) The Demand Reduction Program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counternarcotics projects designed to prevent and reduce drug abuse. To this end, the United States will continue its partnership with the ANF to promote demand reduction awareness workshops and to establish drug treatment and outreach centers.
Program JustificationPakistan is a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism and was named a Major Non-NATO Ally in early 2004. The GOP has demonstrated a commitment to combat transnational threats such as terrorism, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking. Since September 11, 2001, the GOP has taken into custody roughly 600 suspected al-Qaida (AQ) and/or Taliban militants. In addition, the United States, Afghanistan, and Pakistan are working together through a Tripartite Commission to promote mutual understanding and stability in the region.
Pakistan’s 1,600 km border with Afghanistan and 900 km border with Iran runs through rough, mountainous, and desert terrain that is remote and thus provides abundant hiding space for terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals. Monitoring and maintaining control over this border has long posed a challenge for the under-equipped and under-trained Pakistani security agencies. Pakistani law enforcement is under-equipped and under-trained to combat both drug traffickers and AQ/Taliban insurgent groups financed by massive opium cultivation and a lucrative arms/narcotics trade that have prevailed in Afghanistan since 1996. Commodities, infrastructure support, and training already provided by the USG have improved the capabilities and will to fight of agencies operating on the border, but still do not come close to meeting operational requirements of approximately 80,000 personnel. Ongoing assistance over a period of years, at a rate at which the GOP can absorb, will be necessary.
Large areas of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the border with Afghanistan are virtually inaccessible, including to law enforcement agencies. This renders frontier areas attractive to terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals who seek refuge. INL-funded rural road construction programs begun in the FATA in opium poppy growing areas a decade ago continue to succeed in facilitating law enforcement access for eradication and interdiction activities. At the same time, this improved infrastructure opened these remote areas for legitimate commerce, counter-drug education efforts, economic development projects, and vital health and education facilities, and the development of civil society. INL-funded roads are accompanied by small infrastructure projects, including water and electrification schemes that improve the lives of the people and help gain their support for the entry of law enforcement into these areas. In addition to counternarcotics road construction, additional roads and bridges are being constructed in areas along the Afghan border where AQ and Taliban militants may otherwise find safe haven, as part of the Border Security program. An extensive road network is planned by Embassy Islamabad for the entire FATA region, although actual construction will take place where security conditions permit access to road crews and engineering teams.
In 1990, Pakistan was a major producer of opium poppy. With assistance from the USG, Pakistan embarked on a 10-year plan to become poppy free. It essentially achieved that goal by 2001. However, Pakistan experienced a resurgence of opium poppy cultivation in 2004-2005, mainly in areas where INL assistance had never reached, deep in the Khyber agency and adjacent to the Nangahar opium producing area in Afghanistan. There was also an expansion of cultivation to non-traditional areas along the western border in Balochistan. It is important that opium poppy cultivation first be contained, and then eliminated as soon as possible, before its economic impact becomes too deeply rooted. Crop control efforts, including enhanced poppy monitoring, increased economic alternatives, and infrastructure projects will decrease opium production. Since the GOP is committed to this effort, but lacks the resources necessary to implement effective anti-poppy efforts, INL programs seek to fill the gap by continuing to assist the GOP in reaching its goal of regaining poppy-free status.
GOP seizures of narcotics – primarily heroin, opium and hashish – are significant but undoubtedly represent only a small fraction of what is actually transiting the country. Arrests of traffickers in the remote border areas are difficult, as traffickers generally are far better equipped than law enforcement agencies. The continued provision of vehicles, radios, and surveillance equipment as part of the Border Security Program is expanding the capacity of law enforcement agencies to monitor and interdict narcotics trafficking. With 55 percent of Pakistan’s land mass to cover and less than 20 percent of the country’s law enforcement personnel to do it, more personnel and better equipment will be required to wage effective battle against the rampant Afghanistan narcotics trade, and spreading the influence of the Taliban.
Pakistan is also combating its own growing drug addiction problem that threatens the welfare and economic stability of its society. In 2007, the GOP, in coordination with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC,) completed a drug use survey. The survey indicates that Pakistan has approximately two to three million drug addicts, including about 628,000 opiate abusers. The number of injecting drug users almost doubled from the last survey, to an estimated 125,000. With the growing number of intravenous drug users, we expect to see an increase in the numbers of HIV positive, hepatitis, and tuberculosis cases. The GOP needs additional resources in demand reduction to complement its supply-side efforts.
Law enforcement institutions in Pakistan have been neglected for decades, predominantly in favor of intelligence agencies with collection capabilities. This has resulted in a very weak capacity to investigate even basic crimes, such as stolen vehicles, and much less the far more serious threats posed by terrorists and narcotics traffickers. GOP capacity to combat terrorism and other serious forms of criminality successfully requires not just an infusion of resources, but also comprehensive reform and improvements to law enforcement institutions countrywide. These reforms include better cooperation and coordination among law enforcement organizations, more focus on service to the community, and overall enhancement of technical skills.
In October 2002, Pakistan promulgated Police Order 2002, a roadmap for reform. Two boards, the National Police Management Board and the National Police Training Management Board, have been convened to oversee reform efforts and to facilitate coordination and standardization of law enforcement training, policies, and procedures across the country. Pakistan needs expert assistance and resources to implement these reforms fully. In support of this effort, INL assistance is providing leadership and management training at senior law enforcement levels, in addition to furnishing training in basic and advanced criminal investigation techniques. Emphasis is placed on curriculum development, promotion of organizational change, and development of high accountability and public awareness standards.
The Ministry of Interior’s Air Wing (50th Squadron) was established with INL funding in 2002. It currently has nine Huey II helicopters and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft, two equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) night vision enhancement systems, operating from Quetta, Balochistan. The program has provided training to FC platoons from the Rapid Interdiction Force (RIF), as well as ANF units, and is now capable of integrated air-ground operations, with deployment of both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. In addition, 50th Squadron Air Wing crews are night vision capable and have a higher operational rate than counterpart military Aviation Squadrons. In 2007, the nine Huey IIs of the Air Wing executed 186 operational missions. These included transporting law enforcement forces to raid suspected drug compounds and drug processing facilities, poppy surveys, casualty evacuations (casevacs) for personnel injured during FC and ANF operations, support for law enforcement agencies along the Afghan border, and border reconnaissance. The three fixed-wing Cessna Caravans, equipped with FLIR surveillance equipment, executed 132 operational missions, including surveillance, casevacs, and command and control support for large operations. The Air Wing executed another 384 vital training missions.
More than 1,500 vehicles and hundreds of pieces of communications equipment have been delivered so far to the FC Balochistan (FCB) and FC Northwest Frontier Province (FC-NWFP), the PCG, the ANF, and other border security agencies.. Under the Border Security Project, the USG has finished construction or refurbishment of 64 FC outposts in Balochistan and NWFP, in addition to 62 Levy and 11 Frontier Constabulary outposts in the NWFP. Another 39 new outposts are under way in NWFP and Balochistan, for a total of 176 facilities. These resources give border security personnel shelter in and access to remote areas of the western border, and improve coordination and communication among those agencies.
In 2007, GOP security forces reported seizing 10.9 metric tons of heroin/morphine, 93.8 metric tons of hashish, and 15.3 metric tons of opium. The near doubling of opium seizures over 2006 reflects both the increase in the Afghan crop and success against traffickers in Baluchistan. The FC attributes its record seizures to assistance received under the Border Security Program. Arrests of narcotics traffickers, although many being low-level couriers, increase annually. The DEA is working closely with the ANF and other appropriate law enforcement organizations with the aim of disrupting and dismantling trafficking organizations.
To date, 500 kilometers of counternarcotics roads have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies. An additional 60 kilometers are underway in the Khyber, as well as 50 kilometers in Kala Dhaka. In addition, construction of 113 kilometers of border security roads in FATA is complete, and ongoing construction of 266 kilometers continues to open up areas along the Afghan border. Some 820 agricultural schemes and alternative crops projects have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber Agencies with more under way.
The GOP has a strong commitment to combating opium poppy cultivation. The NWFP local government, with INL support, monitors the crop and mounts eradication campaigns. Pakistan’s story of transition from being a major world supplier in the 1980’s, to being declared poppy free in 2001 by the UN, is used as a model in promoting counterdrug efforts around the world. Opium poppy cultivation increased significantly to 7,571 hectares in 2004, but monitoring and eradication efforts brought the crop down to 1,701 hectares in 2007, just shy of the UN standard “poppy-free” status (cultivation below 1,000 hectares.) Crop substitution programs, begun over a decade ago, have created a number of alternative economic opportunities.
For the first time, Pakistan participated in the Paris Pact expert meetings under the UNODC in Vienna in October 2004, and hosted a Paris Pact expert roundtable in Islamabad in early 2005, underscoring GOP interest in working in a multilateral context to counternarcotics production and trafficking. With assistance from UNODC, Pakistan is also part of an Intergovernmental Technical Committee with Iran and Afghanistan to block the flow of drugs across borders. In addition, Pakistan is part of the Counternarcotics Working Group (CNWG), composed of senior diplomatic and military representatives from Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the United States to increase regional cooperation and offer a forum for the in-depth exchange of views on topics of mutual concern, including security of the Pakistan and Afghanistan border region.
The Police Order 2002 established a broad framework for police reform. In order to institutionalize change and reach a larger audience of police personnel, emphasis was placed on working with provincial and national training institutions to adopt a standard training curriculum. All five provincial Police Colleges, Sihala (Punjab), Hangu (NWFP), Quetta (Balochistan), Saeedabad (Sindh), and Shadadpur (Sindh) have integrated several USG courses into their basic course curriculum.
Police training programs trained over 1,500 personnel in 2007, and over 4,000 law enforcement officers since 2002. Police training focuses on crime scene investigations, leadership, management issues, and curriculum development, with a train-the-trainer approach. The National Police Academy and all five police colleges, which train over 10,000 personnel per year, have integrated USG investigations course materials into their curricula. The training schedule expanded again in 2007 and includes all the provinces.
Other training courses involving personnel from fourteen different agencies have begun to improve skills in basic criminal investigations, small unit tactics, port of entry operations, first response at crime scenes, use of continuum of force, building organizational capacity, instructor development, and executive management. INL-funded technical assistance has been provided in the development of an organization and structure for the Federal Investigation Agency Special Investigative Group (SIG), including 153 standard operating procedures (SOPs) for police management and operations. Assistance has also been provided to adapt these SOPs to Pakistan police organizations and a Police Reform Study has been provided to the Minister of Interior and the President.
Hardware and software installation of the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), a computerized fingerprint system, is complete, with 52 remote terminals throughout Pakistan. With the help of the USG, Pakistan converted to the 10-print card in 2003 and began using the AFIS system in 2005 at the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) headquarters and the Islamabad Capital Police. Data entry of 140,000 out of 440,000 GOP criminal fingerprint records has been completed and the rest are scheduled for completion in 2008.
FY 2009 ProgramThe FY 2009 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years, particularly since 9/11.
Border Security Program
FY 2009 funds will build on the successful implementation of commodity support (vehicles, communications equipment, and surveillance equipment), training, and technical assistance that started with FY 2001 Supplemental funding. The Border Security Program expands law enforcement capacity to secure the borders with Afghanistan and Iran against terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminal elements. Beneficiaries include the Ministry of Interior, ANF, FCB, FC-NWFP, the Frontier Constabulary, the FIA, PCG, Customs, and Home Departments. INL support is coordinated with DOD and other USG assistance through an Embassy Border Security Coordinator, as well as other coordinating mechanisms in Washington and in Pakistan.
Funds will be used to provide ongoing maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, which includes three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft and nine Huey II helicopters based at Quetta, Balochistan. These aircraft are a powerful tool for Pakistani law enforcement. They perform a critical border surveillance function, support ground forces operations against traffickers, criminals, and terrorists, and play a key role in interdictions of illegal drug and weapons shipments. The operational tempo in 2007 was the highest in the history of the program and will continue to increase as law enforcement capabilities improve.
Law Enforcement Program
Funds will be used to strengthen law enforcement institutions and capacities. Rule of Law funds will strengthen judicial reform, a judicial security program, and Anti-Money Laundering efforts. Law Enforcement Reform funds will be used to continue providing training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Resources will also be used for police reorganization efforts and will include technical assistance, training, and executive travel to observe modern and progressive law enforcement organizations in the United States. Funds will support new initiatives in Civil Disturbance Management and Explosives Recognition Training in response to a changing security threat. Funds will also be used to support continuing community policing and professional standards pilot projects through training, technical assistance, and equipment. Funds will be used to continue the police leadership institute program at the National Police Academy for superintendent-level personnel, the police supervision academy curriculum at the Police College level for inspector training, and training facility upgrades at the National Police Academy, Police Colleges, and Police Training Centers to accommodate proficiency skills training. A component of all these programs is to encourage more effective law enforcement cooperation within the GOP, as well as with the United States and other countries.
INL’s success in curbing poppy cultivation in Pakistan showed that rural development must accompany law enforcement efforts against the drug trade, from cultivation to trafficking. This is no time to abandon that strategy as Pakistan confronts the twin spread of drugs and Talibanization from Afghanistan. Funds will be used to support the construction of roads and bridges in current and former opium poppy cultivation areas. These roads projects will include small water schemes to improve the economic potential of newly accessible areas and encourage the cultivation of high-value, legitimate crops and intensive farming. On a more limited scale, funds will continue to support the introduction of alternative crops.
Pakistan’s interdiction efforts against drugs and arms trafficking are hampered by too few resources for the vast terrain and a failure to adopt more effective tactics. In an effort to increase aid to law enforcement agencies focused on narcotics interdiction, we will provide operational support to law enforcement agencies willing to address performance issues. We will boost in-service training opportunities to increase tactical capabilities to those willing to implement them. To enhance interdiction efforts, INL will provide resources to improve ground and air mobility and communication capabilities. INL will also assist with aerial poppy surveys, poppy eradication efforts, and demand reduction activities.
Program Development and Support (PD&S)
These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
|FY 2007 *||FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Border Security Program|
|Law Enforcement/Judicial System|
|Law Enforcement Reform *||3,148 ||1,000||6,000|
|Rule of Law||-||1,000||2,500|
|National Criminal Data/AFIS||1,000 ||-||-|
|Crop Control||2,300 ||1,000||3,000|
|Demand Reduction||500 ||500||1,000|
|Ops support to LE agencies||1,700||1,000||1,500|
|Sub Total||4,500 ||2,500 ||7,000 |
|Program Development and Support|
|U.S. Personnel||590 ||637||700|
|Non-U.S. Personnel||180 ||320||320|
|ICASS Costs||380 ||485||380|
|Program Support||350 ||358||400|
|Sub-Total||1,500 ||1,800 ||1,800 |
|Total||21,350 ||21,822 ||32,000 |
|* For FY 2007, $24M was allocated for Pakistan. However, $2.65M has been reprogrammed to the Haitian Security Unit, which resulted in a net allocation to Pakistan of $21.35M.|
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators
To improve the law enforcement capabilities of the Sri Lanka National Police (SLNP).
The institutionalization of modern police training curricula and adult teaching methodologies, community policing program for the national police reserve, training in investigative skills, and organizational development, including establishment of a steering committee to develop a strategic plan for the police department.
Transformational DiplomacyFY 2009 funds promote the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key challenges to security and law enforcement for this country, focusing on Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations.
Program JustificationSince 1983, the Government of Sri Lanka (GOSL) has fought the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a terrorist organization fighting for a separate ethnic Tamil state in the north and east of the country. During this period the police command structure in northern and eastern provinces was closely integrated with the other security organizations under the authority of the Joint Operations Command. Many police stations in the east were overrun and numerous police officers were killed. In December 2001, the Government and the LTTE each announced unilateral cease fires. As a result of the peace process, there has been a sharp reduction in roadblocks and checkpoints around the country. At the present time the cease fire is still in place and the police are no longer functioning as an extension of the military arm of the government.
About 74 percent of the population of Sri Lanka is of Sinhalese descent. The largest minority groups are the Sri Lankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils, which together make up about 18 percent of the population. Over 75 percent of the population lives in rural areas of the Island. The official languages of Sri Lanka are Sinhala and Tamil. Sinhala is spoken by three fourths of the population. Tamil is a Dravidian language of northern and eastern provinces of the country. English, the former official language of the country until 1957, is still widely spoken. In working with such a diverse population that speaks multiple languages, the SLNP must perform police services while avoiding the perception of favoritism in the forms of language and ethnicity.
The SLNP is headed by an Inspector General of Police (IG), who reports to the Minister of the Interior. Prior to January 2002, the police reported to the Minister of Defense and were an integral part of the nation's security forces, holding primary responsibility for internal security. Specially trained commando units of the police were regularly deployed in joint operations with the armed forces.
FY 2008 funds are scheduled to be used for an S/CRS-led interagency pre-assessment to form the basis for a field-based review process that results in the articulation of a U.S. Government stabilization strategy in East Sri Lanka. The assessment examined the gaps in law enforcement development to determine where to focus meaningful assistance.
INL has been assisting in the transition of the Sri Lankan police to a civilian force after 25 years of civil war. Therefore, INL programs that provide training and support to the country’s police will improve Sri Lanka to manage such threats.
Program AccomplishmentsFY 2009 will see a resumption of law enforcement assistance program after a three year gap in funding.
FY 2009 ProgramLaw Enforcement Assistance
FY 2009 funds will be used to assist the SLNP in developing better governance and organizational reform management skills, and strategic planning and officer skills enhancement.
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Law Enforcement Reform||-||-||-||350|
|Program Development and Support|