Program Overview

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2007
September 18, 2007

Program Objectives

The primary mission of the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is to reduce the threat of international crime and illegal drugs to the United States and its global partners through cooperation, with emphasis on capacity building where weak justice sectors are vulnerable to terrorist threats and in countries which are critical to protecting our way of life. INL achieves its mission by deploying foreign assistance policy development and program management expertise aimed at combating international narcotics production and trafficking, combating international crime and terrorism, and strengthening law enforcement and other rule of law institutional capabilities. The bureau's strategies for implementing foreign assistance include a comprehensive range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives and assistance programs to establish international counterdrug and anti-crime standards, foster cooperation among states, and build up the law enforcement and criminal justice sector capacity of foreign governments.

International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) and Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) funds support the U.S. foreign policy objective of Achieving Peace and Security and Governing Justly and Democratically. Program funds enable foreign governments to act directly against traffickers and other crime groups and cooperate more effectively with U.S. law enforcement agencies. In carrying out its mission, INL works closely with a broad range of other USG agencies, including ONDCP, Justice, Defense, Homeland Security, DEA, USAID, FBI, IRS, CIA, Treasury, and Commerce.

In addition to the core counterdrug and anti-crime missions, INL policies and programs support several other key U.S. objectives. INL programs support U.S. counterterrorism, regional stability, rule of law and democracy efforts in countries as diverse as Colombia, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Closer to home, INL assistance to Mexico, Panama, and the transit zone strengthen homeland security. The Bureau's programs to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, corruption, intellectual property rights theft, cybercrime, and human smuggling, help defend against terrorism and support democracy and economic development.

Over the past decade, and particularly since 9/11, INL has also played an increasingly important role in stabilizing post-conflict societies, primarily by supporting civilian police programs as part of international peacekeeping missions in such areas Iraq, Afghanistan, Haiti, and Kosovo.

Within the Foreign Assistance Strategic Framework, the primary program areas and program elements that INL program funds target are:

Functional Objective: Peace and Security

Program Area 1.3: Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Program Element 1.3.1: Operations Support
Program Element 1.3.6: Defense, Military, and Border Restructuring, Reform and Operations
Program Element 1.3.7: Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations

Program Area 1.4: Counter-Narcotics

Program Element 1.4.1: Eradication
Program Element 1.4.2: Alternative Development and Alternative Livelihoods
Program Element 1.4.3: Interdiction
Program Element 1.4.4: Drug Demand Reduction

Program Area 1.5: Transnational Crime

Program Element 1.5.1: Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
Program Element 1.5.2: Intellectual Property Theft, Corporate Espionage, and Cyber Security
Program Element 1.5.3: Trafficking-in-Persons and Migrant Smuggling
Program Element 1.5.4: Organized and Gang-related Crime

Functional Objective: Governing Justly and Democratically

Program Area 2.1: Rule of Law and Human Rights

Program Element 2.1.3: Justice System
Program Element 2.1.4: Human Rights

Program Area 2.2: Good Governance

Program Element 2.2.4: Anti-Corruption Reforms
Program Element 2.2.5: Governance of the Security Sector

The goals of the bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs in support of the foreign assistance strategic framework are:

Strengthen Criminal Justice Systems: Establish and facilitate stable criminal justice systems to strengthen international law enforcement and judicial effectiveness, bolster cooperation in legal affairs, and support the rule of law, while supporting human rights.

Counternarcotics: Disrupt the overseas production and trafficking of illicit drugs by means of counter-drug and anti-crime assistance and coordination with foreign nations and international organizations.

Minimize Transnational Crime: Minimize the adverse effects transnational crime and activities have on the United States through international cooperation and coordination, and foreign assistance.

INL strategies are:

Establish governmental control and rule of law in conflict and post-conflict areas; safeguarding human rights and increasing freedom-of-movement.

Strengthen law enforcement and the judicial systems to deter, investigate, and prosecute domestic crimes within identified nation-states.

Reduce the cultivation and production of drugs.

Restrict and remove trafficking options and capabilities of criminal organizations.

Prevent the resurgence of drug production and limit the collateral effects of the drug trade through international drug control and demand reduction projects

Protect the homeland by enhancing the physical and procedural security at designated international sites.

Build institutional capacity for international cooperation in combating transnational crimes while correcting weaknesses in international and regional multilateral institutions, international financial markets and transnational law enforcement regimes.

INL programs produce:

Fewer illegal and dangerous drugs on America's streets;

Greater host nation law enforcement capabilities to work jointly with U.S. agencies on counterdrug, countercrime and counterterrorism operations;

Improved security and political stability in post-conflict situations;

Enhanced host nation capabilities to stem money laundering and interdict sources of terrorist financing, fight corruption, protect intellectual property rights, deter cybercrime, secure borders, and counter alien smuggling;

Greater host nation capacity to directly combat corruption and organized crime; and

Improved adherence to international human rights standards by the police and the prison systems.

INL counterdrug and law enforcement country programs are the primary vehicles for the provision of bilateral assistance. Country programs:

Are developed on the basis of country strategies coordinated at post by the Country Teams and/or Law Enforcement Working Groups and host nation officials;

Are formalized through bilateral Letters of Agreement that set out key objectives, program priorities, performance targets, and funding levels;

Strengthen relationships with various host country ministries and law enforcement authorities;

Support operational law enforcement cooperation between the host governments and the FBI, DEA, and others by providing valuable training/equipment/technical assistance platforms;

Are coordinated at post by Narcotics/Law Enforcement Section Officers directly linked to INL;

Are supported in Washington by INL subject and country experts and policy apparatus;

Are implemented by a wide variety of U.S. law enforcement and regulatory agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and international assistance agencies.

INL's regional and global programs complement country programs in key areas:

Interregional aviation provides aviation support to respective country programs for aerial eradication, mobility, interdiction, reconnaissance and logistical support.

Anticorruption programs strengthen the political will to reduce corruption and implement international standards in transparency and good governance;

Regional law enforcement training brings together professionals from neighboring countries and builds them into a network for future cooperation;

Demand reduction programs reach out to grass-roots constituencies with education and support, improving American's own image in the process;

Anti-money laundering/terrorist financing programs identify vulnerabilities in key countries and provide speedy assistance to create sound financial institutions;

Anti-alien smuggling and border security programs help extend our first line of defense against all forms of transnational crime;

Cybercrime, cybersecurity and intellectual property crime programs address the growing impact of criminal misuse of information technology.

International crime and terrorism remain serious threats to the United States and many close friends and allies. Both follow the path of least resistance; where laws and law enforcement are weak or compromised, those who thrive by preying on others move in.

Global recognition of the dangers of drugs and crime -- and the need for stronger international cooperation to fight those threats -- has steadily increased. The one-time divide between "producer" and "consumer" countries of illicit narcotics has vanished, replaced by understanding that all countries are vulnerable and that domestic drug problems are on the increase in drug producing and trafficking states around the world. Similarly, nations on all continents have begun to accept that corruption and money laundering associated with trafficking relentlessly undermine governments and national economies. U.S. leadership has galvanized support for new multilateral instruments, such as conventions against organized crime and corruption. Meanwhile, the international community continues to support strongly the ambitious antidrug commitments embodied in the three U.N. drug conventions.

Policy Goals

The fight against transnational crime and international narcotics is a national security and foreign policy priority. INL plays a key role in carrying out the President's foreign policy agenda by coordinating U.S. international drug polices with the Office of National Drug Control Policy and leading in the development and coordination of U.S. international drug and crime assistance. For countries in transition from conflict, INL's policies and programs promote stable environments, good governance and stronger public institutions. INL also uses technical expertise and capacity-building in lower-income developing and transforming nations in order to create reliable partners within a network of international legal cooperation. With sustaining partners, such as (but not limited to) the European Union, INL works to strengthen the international legal network of laws and conventions against narcotics trade, international organized and gang-related crime, and corruption.

To deal with the increasing linkage and overlap among drug, crime, and terrorist groups, INL has an integrated law enforcement effort through a range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives to build up the law enforcement capabilities of foreign governments so they can help stop these threats before they reach U.S. soil. This includes extending our first line of defense by strengthening border controls of other countries in addition to our own, ensuring that global criminals have no place to hide, attacking international financial and trade crimes, and responding to emerging crime challenges, such as cyber crime.

INL efforts center on two Department performance goals, which relate to the foreign assistance framework areas of promoting peace and security, and governing justly and democratically:

Achieving Peace and Security: The United States promotes peace, liberty, and prosperity for all people; security is a necessary precursor to these worthy goals. The Department and USAID will use every means at our disposal to achieve this goal: traditional and transformational diplomacy, both bilateral and multilateral; vigilant and informed consular operations; reformed and effective foreign assistance; creative and energetic public diplomacy; and where appropriate, new technologies and operating constructs. State will directly confront threats to national and international security from terrorism, transnational crime and narcotics, weapons proliferation, failed or failing states, and political violence. State will strengthen the capability of the American Government and of international partners to prevent or mitigate conflict, stabilize countries in crisis, promote regional stability, protect civilians, and promote just application of government and law. Our diplomatic, consular, and foreign assistance activities will help shape the international security environment in ways that promote political and economic freedom and protect the dignity and human rights of all people.

For INL this means employing counternarcotics work and combating transnational crime. For counternarcotics, this includes reducing drug crop cultivation through law enforcement, eradication, and alternative development programs in key source countries, and improving the capacity of host nation police and military forces to dismantle narcotics production and trafficking centers. It also includes strengthening the ability of both source and transit countries to investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations and to block and seize their assets.

Governing Justly and Democratically: The United States supports just and democratic governance for three distinct but related reasons: as a matter of principle; as a contribution to U.S. national security; and as a cornerstone of our broader development agenda. First, our political system and national identity are grounded in the belief that all people share fundamental rights that are best exercised and guaranteed by capable and democratic governance. Second, as outlined in the President's Freedom Agenda and the National Security Strategy, anticorruption, good governance and democracy promotion are central to our national security and global war on terror. Failed and authoritarian states that do not respond to the needs of their people or respect international human rights and democratic norms pose a long-term threat to the security of the United States and other democracies. Finally, U.S. support for anticorruption, good governance and democratization reinforces our development and transformational diplomacy goals of working with partners to help them build their own sustainable institutions of democratic governance The U.S. Government goal is to promote and strengthen effective democracies and move them along a continuum toward democratic consolidation.

Since drug and crime groups tend to thrive best in developing nations where justice sector institutions are weak, institution building in the criminal justice sector is a core ingredient of INL programs. INL's programs are directly related to the Department's "Governing Justly and Democratically" goal for these reasons.

To carry out our institutional development and cooperation programs, INL works closely with, and draws on, the expertise of sixteen other USG agencies, including (but not limited to) USAID, Justice, Treasury, Commerce, Homeland Security, Defense, DEA, FBI and the Coast Guard.

Program Performance

Although the FY 2008 INL counternarcotics budget represents only a small part of the federal drug control budget, INL bilateral and multilateral programs and diplomatic initiatives are currently strengthening counternarcotics and law enforcement efforts in more than 150 countries around the world in support of the President's 2005 National Drug Control Strategy and other strategies aimed at fighting crime and protecting our national security interests. INL's counternarcotics and criminal justice sector capacity building programs are focused on Afghanistan and on the countries of the Andean Region in South America, the world's primary source of the heroin and cocaine, respectively. INL is committed to combating the threat posed by criminal gangs from Central America and Mexico and to working in cooperation with other countries principally affected by it. INL is also giving increased attention the entry of synthetic drugs via the Western Hemisphere into the United States, particularly Mexico, which is a source country for methamphetamines as well as heroin and marijuana.

CY 2006 posed many new challenges as INL focused on criminal justice sector capacity building in many partner countries. INL continued law enforcement advisory operations in Haiti, Iraq, and Liberia as the United States and its allies work to build stability, democracy, and economic progress in difficult post-conflict environments. Highlights of INL programmatic and diplomatic accomplishments over the year include the following:

ACI: Promoting peaceful stability by combating narcoterrorism.

In 2006, the seven ACI countries made good progress against drug trafficking. The Government of Colombia set new records in eradication and interdiction, demobilized one of its three narcoterrorist illegal armed groups, and exposed narco-penetration of the government and public institutions. In Peru, despite violent ambushes of police and intimidation of alternative development teams in coca growing areas by the terrorist group Shining Path/Sendero Luminoso, the government of Peru exceeded its eradication goals. The government of Bolivia met its eradication goal, although 2006 marked the lowest level of eradication in ten years and the eradication operations did not keep pace with the replantings of coca. Ecuador scored record interdiction successes but quarreled with Colombia over perceived effects of coca spraying north of their border. Seizures in Brazil and Panama also set new records. Seizures of illicit drugs within Venezuela dropped sharply in 2006, while seizures by other countries of drugs coming out of Venezuela more than tripled. The major transit countries surrounding the drug producing countries made record drug seizures.

Colombia: Colombia continued its series of consecutive record-breaking years for eradication of illicit crops in 2006, spraying 171,613 hectares of coca and manually eradicating another 42,111 hectares. These represent improvements of 24 and 35 percent, respectively, over 2005's efforts, and also represent the first time Colombia has exceeded 200,000 hectares eradicated in a single year. Colombia also eradicated over 1,900 hectares of opium poppy in 2006, and declared that no plantation-sized cultivations of opium poppy remained in the country.

INL-supported programs are also working in conjunction with USG investments in alternative development programs to encourage farmers to abandon the production of illicit crops. They also help the GOC provide the public security necessary for the success of not only these programs, but of Colombia's continued social and economic development.

Peru: Eradicated over 10,000 hectares of coca and over 2,500 hectares more in voluntary eradication linked to alternative development. Port programs directed at interdicting maritime drug shipments contributed to the seizure of over 11 metric tons of cocaine of the national total of approximately 20 metric tons in 2006. The U.S. supported alternative development program accelerated the implementation of infrastructure and productive activities in communities participating in voluntary eradication in 2006. At the close of its fourth year, over 53,700 families have committed to the voluntary eradication program. Assistance in increasing licit business activity in alternative development areas resulted in $5M of additional sales in districts where voluntary eradication is taking place and $20M in other regions. Over 17,000 more families joined the Peruvian alternative development/voluntary eradication program in 2006.

Bolivia: Estimated coca cultivation rose 8 percent in 2005 to 26,500 hectares and the Government of Brazil (GOB) eradicated just over 5,000 hectares. However, the GOB also announced policies that would expand coca cultivation and would violate international agreements if implemented. The GOB continued a strong interdiction performance in 2006, seizing 14 metric tons of cocaine, destroying 2,619 cocaine base labs and making some 4,503 arrests duringin 9,132 operations. Alternative development efforts contributed to licit family income increases, with average licit gross farm gate family income in the Chapare reaching $2,739 in 2006 (compared with $2,667 in 2005). Chapare and Yungas high-value licit crop exports-such as bananas, pineapple, coffee, cocoa, and palm heart-increased from $36.4 million in 2005 to $40.6 million in 2006.

Other ACI Successes: Ecuador seized over 38 metric tons of cocaine in 2006, a large increase over previous years. In 2006, Brazil seized 13.2 metric tons of cocaine and 144 kg of crack. Marijuana seizures totaled 161.1 metric tons in 2006. Brazilian Federal Police also seized 57 kg of heroin. In Panama, INL and other USG financial assistance, technical help and professional cooperation enabled the GOP to further enhance its capability to interdict drugs and secure its land, maritime and air borders that resulted in increased drug and drug money seizures in 2006. This included over 36 metric tons of cocaine, 107.24 kgs of heroin, 4,276.9 kgs of marijuana, more than $8 million in currency, diamonds and gold, 299 arrests for international drug-related offenses, and seven extraditions for such offenses in 2006. The United States again determined that the Government of Venezuela (GOV) had failed demonstrably to adhere to its obligations under international counternarcotics agreements and take other counternarcotics measures in 2006. This was due to the Venezuelan government's lack of action against drug trafficking within and through its borders and its obstructionist behavior. The GOV has not signed a letter of agreement for 2005 nor 2006, so there is no new money available for projects.

Other Key Successes

Mexico: Protecting our Border and Partnering Against International Threats: In 2006, Mexico was the principal transit country for cocaine entering the United States, with approximately 90 percent of the cocaine destined for the United States passing through the Mexican mainland or the country's periphery. Most cocaine smuggled into Mexico from Colombia for distribution in the United States arrived via Eastern Pacific and Western Caribbean maritime routes in ocean vessels or go-fast boats. Traffickers also used air cargo, couriers, and mail parcels through Mexico and Central America, particularly for Colombian heroin. Geographic proximity contributed to Mexico's share of heroin market, despite Mexico's relatively small percentage of worldwide production. Mexican marijuana cultivators provided the largest foreign source of marijuana for the U.S. market. Mexico is the largest foreign source of methamphetamine distributed in the United States. While there are no reliable estimates, the annual increase in methamphetamine seizures along the United States southwest border since 2001 suggest that Mexican trafficking organizations have significantly increased methamphetamine production in Mexico for distribution into the United States. Trafficking organizations established clandestine methamphetamine laboratories in western and northwestern Mexico. Methamphetamine is smuggled along the entire southwest border. U.S. and Mexican authorities worked closely to dismantle these operations on both sides of the border.

During 2006, Mexican authorities arrested numerous drug traffickers in an attempt to dismantle major drug cartels operating in Mexico. According to the Government of Mexico (GOM), law enforcement authorities seized over 21 metric tons of cocaine, 351 kg of heroin, 621 kg of methamphetamines, 1,849 metric tons of marijuana, and 75 kg of opium gum. The Office of the Attorney General (PGR) and the Secretariat of National Defense (SEDENA) acted against personnel who engaged in corrupt practices and eradicated poppy and marijuana crops. According to the GOM, 29.928 hectares for cannabis and 16,381 hectares for opium poppy were eradicated in 2006.

Afghanistan: Total poppy cultivation rose in 2006 due to a deteriorating security situation primarily in southern Afghanistan. INL is working vigorously with the Government of Afghanistan in 2007 to increase governor-led eradication and forced manual eradication in the southern part of the country. Notably, production has been stable or declining in the northern and northeast provinces that have more infastructure and are subject to central government control. This success is due largely to President Karzai's anti-narcotics campaign, pressure from key governors, and an improved central Afghan Eradication Force (AEF). Despite large gains in eradication over the 2006 season, the 2007 elimination/eradication program still faces many challenges in achieving long-term success. In 7 key poppy-producing provinces, the Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) - which is staffed by Afghan members of the Ministry of Counter Narcotics and supported by INL - developed programs to tie together public information on Afghan narcotics law and policies; locally-based Alternative Livelihood projects and partners; and monitoring and verification teams to follow crop cultivation and farmers' intentions. A robust public information campaign was carried out throughout Afghanistan employing radio, television, print materials, and community outreach activities. Early reports indicate that cultivation is down in some Northern provinces due - in part - to these activities during the 2006 pre-planting season. The public information program funding also enabled communications capacity building in Afghanistan's Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Reconstruction and Rural Development, and Ministry of Agriculture. In addition to leasing fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, INL also fielded 10 Huey II helicopters funded by the FY 2005 Supplemental to support both PEP's poppy elimination teams as well as ground-based poppy eradication conducted by the AEF. Interdiction efforts continued with DEA working closely with the Counternarcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) to develop investigations leading to arrests while developing the CNPA's capacity with the support of INL. In February 2006, the first ever arrest warrant was authorized under the new Afghanistan Drug Law. Also, in July 2006, Haji Baz Mohammed, a major Afghan trafficker, who was the first Afghan extradited to the United States, pled guilty to conspiracy to import heroin to the United States. Working with Germany to help rebuild the national police force, the U.S. continued to provide training to more than 60,000 police including nearly 6,000 border police at our Central Training Center in Kabul and seven Regional Training Centers. In addition, we deployed approximately 100 experienced U.S. law enforcement professionals throughout Afghanistan to provide on the job training and mentoring to provincial and local Afghan police. We also began implementation of a major new Ministry of Interior reform project - the pay and rank reform initiative which completely reorders the organizational structure and payroll of the Afghan Police. INL has also helped reform and support the Afghan Attorney General's Office by supporting a team of legal reform advisors who are working with Afghan police, prosecutors, courts, defense and prisons personnel to improve management and efficiency of the criminal justice system. Notable achievements of the justice program include playing a leading role in developing strategies for the Attorney General's Office and Ministry of Justice, coordination of a number of provincial justice conferences, and training for over 800 prosecutors, defense attorneys, and corrections personnel in four provinces. In addition, INL's efforts on demand reduction have been strongly supported by leading Islamic clerics and organizations, and our collaboration with the Afghan Religious Affairs Ministry has provided us with rare access to mosques, allowing us to establish prevention and outreach centers in these institutions.

Pakistan: A Major Non-NATO ally and key partner in the global war on terrorism and narcotics, Pakistan has taken into custody hundreds of suspected al-Qaida and Taliban militants, while suffering high numbers of troop losses. Sharing a rugged 1,500-mile border with Afghanistan, Pakistan is challenged by terrorists seeking safe haven and traffickers attempting to move arms, persons, and narcotics through desolate, poorly policed areas. INL assistance through the Border Security Program involves helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft to provide surveillance capability, border outpost and road construction, patrol vehicles, communications equipment and training to address this vulnerability. Assistance also provides law enforcement agencies with training, equipment, and managerial reforms to strengthen capacity. Although counternarcotics cooperation has been excellent, and drug seizures have increased, assistance is necessary to continue to address opium poppy monitoring and eradication, economic alternatives, and demand reduction/drug awareness education programs in order to assist the Government of Pakistan with returning to poppy-free status. Increased cultivation in Afghanistan will also increase assistance needs in Pakistan, as traffickers attempt to move higher amounts of narcotics through Pakistani territory.

Liberia: Using a combination of INCLE and Economic Support Funds (ESF) (the former for support of the Liberian National Police (LNP) and the latter for support of the Liberian justice sector), the INL Civilian Police and Justice Sector Support programs provided material and technical support to the Liberian government. Up to ten American police officers, working through the UN Police, provide mentoring, training, and other technical assistance for the LNP. (The following aid was made through the use of ESF funds.) In addition, the USG donated more than $800,000 in non-lethal equipment to the LNP in the spring of 2007. American prosecutors, court administrators, and a public defender provide technical assistance to their Liberian colleagues. In December 2006, the USG donated three buses to the Liberian Ministry of Justice and the judiciary. In the first half of 2007, major renovations will commence of the main judicial building in Liberia. In addition, other structural repairs of the same building were undertaken in 2006. INL partially funded a UN assessment mission of the LNP at the beginning of 2007.

Fighting Corruption and Setting International Standards Against Crime: Early in his Administration, President Bush identified the fight against corruption as a key foreign policy objective. In support of this objective, INL championed and helped deliver the first global and most comprehensive instrument against corruption - the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC). In 2006, the United States became a party to UNCAC, and the Department played a key role in promoting international acceptance and implementation of UNCAC. Efforts included working with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime and other countries to promote ratification and acceptance of UNCAC and promoting UNCAC as a pillar in regional anticorruption groups in the Middle East and Asia. The U.S. also worked in APEC, the Organization of American States, and other fora to promote acceptance of the "denial of safe haven" policy related to corrupt officials and their assets. The Department was also successful in developing a historic anticorruption initiative in the Middle East, which leaders endorsed at a Dead Sea, Jordan gathering hosted in February 2005 by the King of Jordan. The United States continues to advance a strong anticorruption agenda in Asia, the Middle East, and the Americas. The U.S. also used INCLE funding to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms - the Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), and the OAS Follow-up Mechanism - that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in dozens of countries.

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering: Terrorist groups, drug traffickers, and traditional transnational crime organizations share many traits, but none so compelling as the need to launder, hide, or secretly move their profits and operating funds. Over the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. In FY 2006, INL funding provided multi-agency training, bilaterally or through multilateral organizations, for more than 100 countries. To assist countries in combating money laundering, INL, in conjunction with DHS/ICE, has assisted in the development of Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) in South America. Developed as a bilateral mechanism to detect trade-based money laundering and customs fraud, TTUs have been established in Colombia, Brazil and Argentina. Another TTU in Paraguay is in the process of being implemented. Analysis conducted by the TTU in Brazil, less than six months after its establishment, detected a scheme involving the under-valuation of U.S. exports to Brazil to evade more than $200 million in customs duties over the last five years. Investigation of the scheme resulted in 128 arrest warrants in 238 different locations for tax evasion, document fraud, public corruption and other illegal activities. To promote global cooperation on anti-money laundering, INL provides support to the multilateral Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which has added a special set of anti-terrorist financing recommendations to both its general anti-money laundering and recently revised recommendations, and to five FATF-style regional bodies. Our programs helped "graduate" eight countries from FATF's list of non-cooperating states and territories in 2002, five in 2003, three in 2004, four in 2005, and the remaining two jurisdictions in 2006. INL has also provided assistance to nearly half of the more than two dozen states identified by the USG as most "at risk" for terrorist financing operations. INL's regional Pacific Anti-Money Laundering Program, designed to assist the development of viable anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist regimes to the fourteen non-FATF member states of the Pacific Islands Forum, became operational in September 2006.

Establishing Rule of Law in Post Conflict Societies: To meet urgent needs in countries in the post-conflict period, INL is taking measures to enhance the USG capacity to identify, train, equip, deploy and support civilian police and law enforcement and criminal justice advisors to participate in multilateral peacekeeping and complex security operations. Using INCLE, Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), Peace Keeping Operations (PKO), Freedom Support Act (FSA) and Support for East European Democracy (SEED) money, INL currently deploys more than 1,000 police and corrections advisors and justice experts in eight countries, including over 300 uniformed and armed U.S. police to conduct law enforcement operations in UN peacekeeping missions in Kosovo and Haiti, and unarmed missions in Haiti, Liberia and Sudan. INL continues to implement programs that have helped establish, train, and equip 7,300 members of the new Kosovo Police Service as well as provide training for the 3,000-member East Timor Police Service. Programs in Liberia provide mentoring, training and technical assistance for the 3,500-member Liberian police service and struggling court system. INL participated in the first police/criminal justice assessment mission to Southern Sudan following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). INL has also deployed and supported one U.S. CIVPOL officer to the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) with funds from the Bureau of African Affairs. In Iraq, INL has provided 690 international police liaison officers and 191 police trainers to support the reconstruction of the Iraqi police and the Iraqi Government's efforts to provide effective internal security. INL also is continuing to implement justice and prison programs by providing over 100 trainers/advisors in Iraq and constructing additional prison space. In Afghanistan, INL is managing police and justice programs designed to stand up and train 62,000 police in eight training centers in Kabul and the provinces, as well as assist with reform of the Justice Institutions, including the Attorney General's Office and Ministries of Interior and Justice.

Law Enforcement Training and Technical Assistance: To date, the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, New Mexico and El Salvador have trained over 28,000 officials from over 75 countries, including over 2,700 officials trained in 2006. ILEA curricula will continue to be modified to respond to emerging transnational criminal trends in terrorism, terrorist financing, organized crime, cyber crimes and human trafficking.

Demand Reduction: INL's demand reduction program supports the development and evaluation of research-based prevention and treatment programs whose accomplishments can be used to improve treatment and prevention services in the United States and abroad. An independent, science-based evaluation on the long-range impact of INL-funded training for drug treatment revealed that overall hard-core drug use in Thailand was reduced from 90 percent to 8 percent (pre and 6-month post treatment) in the target population. Methamphetamine use was reduced from 82 percent to 7 percent, marijuana was reduced from 20 percent to 3 percent, and opiates were reduced from 7 percent to 1 percent, and arrests for other crimes were reduced from 40 percent to 6 percent. In addition, 3 percent of residents reported HIV risk behavior through injection prior to entering treatment. Finally, INL-funded training targeting predominantly Muslim populations resulted in the doubling of mosque-based drug intervention centers to 50 throughout all provinces in Afghanistan.

Trafficking in Persons: The annual Trafficking in Persons Report, produced by the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, is the USG's principal diplomatic tool used to engage foreign governments on the issue of trafficking in persons. The sixth Trafficking in Persons Report was released in June 2006 and included ratings of close to 150 governments' anti-trafficking efforts. The Report continues to be a powerful and effective tool to spur foreign governments to take action to eradicate human trafficking. Forty-one countries adopted new legislation or amended existing legislation to combat TIP. Concrete actions taken by foreign governments have resulted in more prosecutions, convictions, and prison sentences for traffickers and comprehensive assistance for victims. In 2006, the TIP program supported public awareness and education campaigns; training for government officials, criminal justice professionals, and medical personnel; development of anti-trafficking laws; and a vast array of victim services, including medical and legal assistance, shelter, and reintegration efforts. Public affairs and outreach programs continued international coverage and widespread dissemination of trafficking information through popular media outlets including print news articles, wire stories, TV and radio segments, Internet publication, and digital video conferences - reaching an estimated 500 million people in 2006. Outreach to the business community continues to strengthen strategies to prevent sex trafficking, child sex tourism, child labor and other forms of servitude. For example, to date over 250 travel companies in 23 countries have made a commitment to combat child sex tourism by signing the Global Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children in Travel and Tourism.

Program Justification

The FY 2008 INL budget request of approximately $1.24 billion is designed to support President Bush's comprehensive strategy for combating the global threat of narcotics, organized crime, and terrorism. It also reflects INL's shift away from separate programs for counternarcotics and anticrime to a broader and more integrated law enforcement approach. The request builds on and strengthens ongoing initiatives in South Asia, the Andean region, and international law enforcement training while continuing to place increased emphasis on border projects. While attacking the core targets in Asia and Latin America, the strategy focuses on strengthening host nation capabilities to fight international drugs and crime and to rebuild justice sectors in post-conflict societies. It is a long-term approach to create competent and honest counternarcotics and anticrime forces in countries where laws and institutions are weak. The strategy also supports efforts by multilateral organizations to reduce drug crop production in those major growing areas where our access is limited. Finally, the budget places special attention on anti-corruption, money laundering and financial crimes.

The FY 2008 budget request focuses on three areas: building stability and democracy in South Asia, combating narcotics and terrorism in the Western Hemisphere, and building a democratic Iraq. The United States has embarked on an ambitious and historic mission to ensure that Afghanistan - the world's largest source of opium and heroin - is never again a haven for terrorists or a source of instability in the region or of oppression towards its citizens. Combating the drug trade there is critical to this mission, as are rebuilding the Afghan justice sector and strengthening the borders of neighboring states. The approach in Latin America is regional, aimed at eliminating both the production and trafficking of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana from the Andean Region and Mexico - as well as methamphetamine and its precursors from Mexico. The budget focuses on eradication and alternative development. It also includes a strong interdiction component both for source countries and the transit zones, as well as furnishing training and equipment to strengthen local law enforcement's ability to capture and prosecute drug traffickers and seize their assets. The program supports projects initiated under the FY 2000 Emergency (Plan Colombia) Supplemental and continued under the Andean Counterdrug Initiative. The challenge in Iraq is to rebuild a justice sector that completely withered away under the security state of Saddam Hussein.

Country and Account Programs

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) - $442.8 million

A total of $192.5 million for Alternative Development programs in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador historically funded under the ACI account are being requested in FY 2008 under the Economic Support Fund (ESF) account.

Colombia ($367 million): Despite the gains made in recent years, Colombia remains a country fighting a multi-front internal war against narco-terrorists and narco-traffickers who have relied on the illicit drug economy to fund their operations. Colombia remains the supplier of roughly 90 percent of the cocaine and 50 percent of the heroin entering the United States. Aggressive disruption of the illicit drug trade, therefore, remains a top USG priority. The funding requested in FY 2008 will continue to consolidate the successes of the Plan Colombia Emergency Supplemental of 2000 and subsequent Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) programs. It will also be used to further develop and strengthen the Government of Colombia's (GOC) institutions, a necessary prerequisite for Colombia's assumption of ownership and responsibility for USG-funded programs. INL's FY 2008 assistance program in Colombia seeks to further Colombia's transformational process in the areas of Peace & Security and Governing Justly & Democratically by continuing to support Colombia's successful counternarcotics, public security, and judicial reform programs. At the same time, we will continue to transfer responsibility and operational control of these programs to the GOC so that USG funding levels can continue to decline in the long-term.

INL's funding for Colombia will support Colombia's Strategy for Strengthening Democracy and Social Development, the GOC's follow-on to Plan Colombia. The strategy continues Plan Colombia's successful counter-terror, counter-drug, democracy, human rights, alternative development, and humanitarian policies, and places increased emphasis on consolidating state presence and development through sustainable growth and trade. Improving national security and consolidating state presence are two of the Strategy's six components which INL-funded programs directly support.

In FY 2008 the Critical Flight Safety Program ($50 million) is being included in the Colombia program budget. We will continue refurbishing and upgrading aging Vietnam-era UH-1H helicopters, refurbishing UH-1N helicopters (giving first priority to eradication helicopters), extending the service life of OV-10D spray plane airframes, and initiating armament upgrades for Colombia search and rescue (SAR) aircraft.

Peru ($36.8 million): Peruvian FY 2008 plans include enhancing the capabilities of the Peruvian National Police Narcotics Directorate (DIRANDRO) to conduct advanced road interdiction, riot control, greater security for eradication teams, and interdiction in hard-core areas. There will be an expanded eradication effort by the Government of Peru's Coca Reduction Agency (CORAH) in entrenched coca growing areas and areas of expansion, and continual monitoring of new coca. Police eradication targets the near-inaccessible opium poppy cultivation areas. An increased number of police and eradicators, and expansion of the area of operations will fully engage the Huey IIs, INL-owned fixed wing aircraft, and available Peruvian MI-17 helicopters. FY 2008 funds will also cover fuel, maintenance, hangars and warehousing, aircraft rental when needed, and operational support for PNP Aviation (DIRAVPOL) personnel. To help protect both program assets and personnel, funds will be used to acquire a second aircraft that can provide additional airlift to support the increase of DIRANDRO police from 400 to 2,800 personnel east of the Andes in the next two years.

Bolivia ($30 million): In FY 2008, counternarcotics assistance to the Government of Bolivia (GOB) will focus on continuing to fortify law enforcement cooperation and strengthen law enforcement capability in areas such as interdiction, building local support for coca control and eradication, and highlighting the damage to Bolivian society and Bolivia's neighbors caused by increased coca cultivation, cocaine, and human trafficking. Support will boost the presence and effectiveness of the police in the Yungas and replace obsolete equipment throughout Bolivia. New eradication operations in the Yungas will require improvements to existing forward-operating bases, additional infrastructure and vehicles. The Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF) will consist of approximately 2,000 military, police and civilian personnel, with separate units conducting eradication (including the provision of force protection) in the two zones. The Blue Devils Task Force will continue the replacement of aged equipment, including 25 boat motors and 30 Zodiacs, along with 30,000 spare parts and support for 170 members, six land bases, and five mobile bases to control natural river chokepoints. The Green Devils Task Force will provide for the repair of the aging fleet of 119 vehicles, as well as support for its personnel. The Red Devils Task Force will continue to provide support eradication and interdiction operations in the Yungas and to GOB expansion of forced eradication into the Yungas while supporting similar operations in the Chapare. Funds will also support operations and maintenance for 108 UH-II upgraded helicopters and increased operations and maintenance costs for the seven additional UH-II helicopters scheduled to arrive in FY 2007. The Black Devils Task Force goal for FY 2008 is to maintain a trained, reliable medium-lift-capable aviation unit that provides aviation support to INL projects, maintaining an operational rate of 90 percent of requested missions with several aircraft, including three C-130Bs. Alternative development projects will be funded through ESF in FY 2008. FY 2008 alternative development programs will focus on: increasing the competitiveness of licit rural enterprises, fostering more effective, transparent and responsive democratic institutions, and improving basic public services and social conditions.

Other ACI Country Programs ($15 million)

Ecuador ($13 million): Funds will support the Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA) port and canine operations and acquisition of law enforcement and communications equipment. Funding will support expanding police presence and counternarcotics operations to sensitive outlying locations inadequately protected against narcotics trafficking. Program funds will construct new DNA bases, complete with inspection stations and living quarters, which will enable the Government of Ecuador (GOE) to maintain 30- to 40-member units at key interdiction points, especially in remote sites on the northern Ecuadorian border with Colombia, and major roadways connecting Ecuador's borders and ports. Program funding will also extend and refine law enforcement police and judicial training, which is essential to improving the detection and seizure of drugs. Supporting military border and coastal control units, such as the quick reaction forces and the marine detachments, with vehicles, field equipment and operational support in FY 2008 will further strengthen Ecuador's ability to protect its national territory against narco-terrorist incursions and to interdict illicit international shipments of drugs and chemicals. Also on the demand reduction side, FY 2008 support to the Ecuadorian Ministry of Education and non-governmental organizations active in the awareness and prevention fields will continue projects that work to counter Ecuadorian public misunderstandings and disinformation regarding U.S. policies and activities and explain the true nature of drugs, terrorism and other transnational challenges

Brazil ($1 million): Funding will contribute to the Government of Brazil's expanding Operation COBRA (Colombia-Brazil) to reinforce its northern borders with Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Guyana and Suriname. Funds will also support Brazilian law enforcement by assisting in the purchase of equipment used in conducting effective investigations and interdiction operations against narcotics cartel leaders and their associates.

Panama ($1 million): Funds will enhance Panama's interdiction capability to disrupt the regional flow of illicit drugs, chemicals, weapons, and people by improving its law enforcement infrastructure and control of its borders and international ports of entry and exit.

International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement - $634.6 million and $159 million requested for Iraq in a Supplemental

Other Latin America - $50.5 million

Mexico ($27.8 million): The FY 2008 funding will support expanding the Government of Mexico's (GOM) institutional capabilities to detect and interdict illicit narcotics, contraband items including explosives and weapons, trafficked/smuggled persons and individuals seeking to enter the United States to conduct terrorist activities. INL will provide Non-Intrusive Inspection Equipment (NIIE), assistance to create up to four Center for Imagery Sharing (CIS) command centers to coordinate the operation of Portal VACIS devices throughout the country, and support the creation of improved data sharing mechanisms to public security agencies. INL will support GOM initiatives to improve its justice system and law enforcement capabilities by providing computers and communications equipment to establish a case-tracking system that will provide law enforcement officials access to a unified computer database. INL will also provide equipment and technical assistance to modernize the GOM's forensic laboratory capabilities. To assist in eradication efforts, funds will be used for imagery analysis computer hardware and software to enhance the GOM's ability to deploy its assets most effectively. For interdiction purposes, INL will provide special investigative equipment, vehicles, and computers to support the new Federal Police Corps and its Special Investigative Units. FY 2008 funding will also be used to procure additional clandestine laboratory vehicles, trailers and safety gear to assist the GOM in combating methamphetamine trafficking. INL will provide the GOM with equipment and specially trained canines for responding to drug-related crimes and work with DHS/CBP to assess security and recommend corrective action at Mexico's largest maritime ports. FY 2008 funding will be used to provide law enforcement training, including specialized training courses such as ethics in government, supervision and management, criminal investigative techniques, crime scene search and preservation of evidence, anti-corruption, and train-the-trainer. INL will also partner with governmental and nongovernmental leaders to develop, evaluate and institutionalize sustainable rule of law education programs and support anti-corruption programs.

Haiti ($9 million): The FY 2008 program is divided in three general categories: police programs (crime control assistance), corrections program (criminal justice assistance) and counterdrug programs. The U.S. will contribute up to 20 police officers to the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) stabilization mission. U.S. officers will continue providing expertise in the areas of academy training, field training, patrols, community policing, investigations, traffic, crime analysis, forensics, police management, supervisory skills, police administration, and other specialized skills. The U.S. will continue to assist with the training of new recruits, and in-service training for existing HNP officers, including specialized training, such as supervisory, duty officer and human rights training. The U.S. will continue to assist in forensic training and the development of HNP capacities for crime analysis. The U.S. will also help the HNP to be able to respond to civil disturbances in a manner that takes advantage of non-lethal police tactics. The U.S. will continue to support the model stations program, teaching officers how to respond to crime and run a police station on a station-by-station basis. The U.S. expects to continue providing technical assistance on corrections issues, as well as support for refurbishing some corrections facilities. These programs will closely coordinate with the Haiti Stabilization Initiative (HSI) aimed at providing concentrated, comprehensive support to Cite Soleil, including a criminal justice component. Funding will support the operations of a vetted unit of Haitian police officers, established by DEA, with special authority to conduct drug investigations. Funding to support the intelligence collection and analysis center within the HNP will also be provided. In partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard, funding will continue the ongoing effort aimed at restoring the logistical and maintenance capacity of the HCG. The refurbishment of bases at Killick and Cap Haitien will continue and additional vessels will be provided consistent with HCG capacity to maintain and operate them. Funding will be directed toward equipping and training the HCG for maritime drug interdiction operations.

Central America ($8.5 million): An estimated 80-90 percent of the drugs flowing to the United States from South America passes through the Central American Corridor. The current trafficking pattern appears to focus on maritime traffic, increasingly in the Pacific, followed by land and then air traffic. Funding in FY 2008 will concentrate on interdiction of that flow in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras. The largest program, in Guatemala, strengthens police ability to interdict drugs and eradicate opium poppy, model community-based operations against organized and gang-related crime, and justice system reform. Guatemala and Nicaragua programs also prevent drug addiction, combat corruption, and counter trafficking in persons.

Caribbean ($3.8 million): The Caribbean accounts for an estimated 10-20 percent of the drug flow to the United States. FY 2008 funding will concentrate on the maintenance of Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. In The Bahamas, the Dominican Republic, Guyana and Jamaica, equipment and technical assistance will be provided to support vetted counterdrug units supervised by DEA. Funding will also be provided for financial investigation mentors to assist with the development and prosecution of money laundering and other financial crime cases.

Southern Cone ($1.5 million): Funding will enhance the institutions and capabilities of the law enforcement agencies in Argentina, Chile and Paraguay to enable them to more effectively act against narcotics trafficking, other transborder crime, international terrorism, and possible spillover of cultivation and/or processing operations from Colombia. Funding will also support programs to encourage cross-border operations and intelligence sharing. Anti-trafficking in persons projects in Bolivia, and anti-money laundering projects in Ecuador will also be supported.

Africa - $34.2 million

Democratic Republic of Congo ($1.8 million): The Democratic Republic of Congo is transitioning from years of conflict. Its law enforcement services are in need of reform and institutional development in order to meet the foreseeable security and rule of law gap that may arise when the international peacekeepers in Congo begins to draw down. FY 2008 funds will be used to implement sustainable improvements in the capacity of DRC law enforcement institutions. Funds will provide a needs assessment, training, and technical assistance to the DRC police. The program will focus on general skills training, police academy development and possibly some specialized training courses.

Liberia ($4.1 million): Strengthening Liberia's law enforcement and criminal justice capacity remains a key priority of the USG. FY 2008 funds will continue to assist Liberia develop a credible and competent criminal justice system through provision of senior advisors for the Liberian National Police and the Ministry of Justice.

Nigeria ($1.2 million): Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade, transporting drugs to the United States, Europe, and Asia. Nigeria-based criminal organizations are engaged in advance-fee fraud, and other forms of financial crime, including identity theft, that defraud American citizens and businesses. FY 2008 funding will be used for counternarcotics and interdiction training for Nigerian law enforcement and customs institutions, and the development of police capacity through technical assistance on digitized record keeping and training on community-based policing. Funds will also cover Program Development and Support costs for an INL Section Chief and his office staff. The section chief is responsible for overseeing INCLE programs in Nigeria, which provide assistance in counternarcotics, police modernization, and financial crime.

Sudan ($24 million): Since the signing of the North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 (CPA), the United States has been working to support the implementation of the CPA and to assist the development of the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS). To this end, INL programs in FY 2008 will continue to provide support to the UN Mission in Sudan through the assignment of police, corrections, and judicial officers, and enhance its bilateral assistance in the development of the police and criminal justice system through technical assistance and training to the GOSS.

Other Africa ($3.1 million): Weak law enforcement institutions throughout Africa corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress toward democracy and provide an attractive environment for terrorism and transnational organized crime. The Africa program supports states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing, and the political will to achieve these goals. FY 2008 funds will be used for programs designed to upgrade core policing and prosecutorial skills through modernization of academies and teaching methodologies, forensic laboratory development, and counternarcotics programs. Programs will improve the capacity of governments to combat trafficking in narcotics and other contraband, illegal migration, public corruption, and financial fraud.

East Asia and the Pacific - $18.2 million

East Timor ($1 million): Funds will be used to develop the civilian-led national police service, focusing on organizational management, curriculum development, training and technical assistance that will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks.

Indonesia ($10.1 million): Indonesia, the largest Muslim country in the world, is a key strategic partner in terms of fighting transnational criminal organizations and promoting regional stability. As an emerging democracy, Indonesia is an important nation in providing leadership to the Islamic world. Indonesia is also a center of criminal activity, including drug trafficking, cyber-crime, illegal migration, piracy, and is a home to terrorists. Corruption is endemic in Indonesia, including within Indonesia's National Police (POLRI). Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands and the strategically important Malacca Strait, are largely unprotected and undefended, leaving the country vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics smuggling to terrorist infiltration. With FY 2008 funding, INL-funded projects will continue to assist POLRI establish organization-wide mechanisms to root out corruption. INL projects will also enhance the Marine Police's effectiveness by providing both patrol craft and training. FY 2008 assistance will also continue efforts to assist Indonesian in building a well-trained police force based on democratic principles, community policing, and respect for rule of law and individual rights. INL projects will assist and advise on prosecutorial and judicial reform.

Laos ($1.6 million): Laos is one of the world's least developed countries, with an almost total lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence. Laos is also the second largest producer of opium in Southeast Asia. Opium crop control projects have been highly successful, with an estimated 83 percent drop in the area under cultivation between 2004 and 2006. During the same period, production declined from an estimated 49 metric tons to only 8 � metric tons. INL development projects reduce the production, trafficking and abuse of illicit opium by detoxifying and vocationally-training addicts and providing market-based income alternatives for farmers. Regionally produced amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have eclipsed opium. With the nearly completed highways connecting China to Thailand through Laos, and Thailand to Vietnam, again through Laos, plus the Mekong River, Laos remains a transit route of choice for Burmese drugs going to China and other Souteast Asian states. With FY 2008 funding, INL development will continue efforts to stem production, and deter trafficking and abuse of illicit opium by providing market-based income alternatives for farmers. FY 2008 funding will also support INL's support of Lao law enforcement operations and reform, drug awareness and demand reduction programs.

Philippines ($1.1 million): The Philippines is a strategic ally and a partner in the global war on terrorism. Enhancing the capabilities of Philippine law enforcement and criminal justice sector is central to strengthening our mutual security. FY 2008 funding will continue to support law enforcement development, improved police-prosecutor cooperation and counternarcotics police development.

Thailand ($2.3 million): Thailand is a long-time U.S. ally in the fight against drugs and host to one of our regional International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs). It also plays a leading regional role in the fight against narcotics and transnational crime. At one time, a source country for heroin, Thailand's aggressive counternarcotics strategy kept opium poppy cultivation below 1,000 hectares in 2006, for the eighth year in a row, and at the lowest level since the mid-1980s. Even so, Thailand serves as a transit zone for heroin and the sharp increase in methamphetamines coming out of Burma and other states in the region. At U.S. urging and with INL assistance, Thailand is in the process of amending virtually all of its basic narcotics laws and all substantive and procedural criminal laws, including those that pertain to money laundering and official corruption. FY 2008 funding will continue support to Thailand's criminal investigative agency, the Department of Special Investigations (DSI), which is responsible for investigating significant, non-drug transnational and organized crime.

Other East Asia and the Pacific ($2.1 million): Funds will be used primarily for law enforcement reform and development, criminal justice institution development, narcotics interdiction, and border security projects.

Europe - $0.5 million

Turkey ($0.5 million): Funding would also be used to build on joint Turkish-Afghan counterdrug training conducted in early 2007, bringing in other key partners as appropriate, for example, investigative agencies from Southeastern Europe. Training and technical assistance, provided by DEA and/or other training experts will be directed at Turkish counter-drug, customs and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land and sea ports of entry.

Near East - $88.3 million + $159 million supplemental

Iraq ($75.8 million regular and $159 million supplemental): With FY 2008 funds, INL will build on existing efforts to promote sustainable security and respect for the rule of law in Iraq by promoting a fair, efficient, and effective criminal justice system. Pursuant to NSPD-36, DOD/CENTCOM will continue to exercise primary responsibility for, and fund, the further development of the Iraqi Ministry of Interior and policing institutions, including a 135,000-person Iraqi Police Service (IPS). The funds requested by INL will focus primarily on the other two pillars of an effective criminal justice system - the courts/judiciary and corrections institutions. INL specifically will enhance security for judges, courts, and other judicial system actors so that they can carry out their official duties without fear of intimidation; further expand cooperation, coordination and information-sharing among police, courts, and corrections entities - through development of new policies and procedures and use of technology - to improve the quality of cases coming before the courts and tracking of detainees throughout the court system (to better ensure the guilty continue to be held and the innocent released); provide training and technical assistance to judges, judicial investigators, and other court personnel focused on both technical skills and development of reasonably efficient administrative systems; promote human rights standards within the criminal justice system; support the continued deployment of federal and other U.S. criminal justice experts to provide advice and technical assistance to the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs), the Major Crimes Task Force (which investigates major cases), the Central Criminal Court of Iraq (which hears insurgent cases) and anti-corruption institutions including the Commission on Public Integrity; and assist in efforts to modernize Iraq's laws, with a focus on facilitating investigation and prosecution of modern, complex crimes. Funds also will help the Government of Iraq securely and humanely incarcerate suspected criminals. Specifically, we will facilitate the further development and expansion of the Iraq Correctional Service by continuing to deploy U.S. correctional advisors; and build additional secure jail/prison facilities to house suspected criminals. INL will also use FY 2008 funds to develop, manage, and oversee its programs in Iraq as well as to maintain a capacity in country to provide logistics, transportation, life support, and security for advisors and trainers deployed to Iraq.

Egypt ($3 million): Egypt is a democratizing and moderate Muslim state that is not only a victim of terrorism, but also a committed partner in the global war on terrorism. Egypt has long borders, which lend to the country's substantial problems with illegal migration, human smuggling, movement of transnational terrorists through Egyptian territory, drug trafficking, and smuggling of weapons and other contraband. The profits from these illicit enterprises could provide revenue sources to terrorists, and Egyptian law enforcement personnel lack many of the sophisticated tools and training required to combat these threats. These criminal activities also lead to corruption of public officials, and could weaken Egyptian institutions, undermining the rule of law in Egypt. Policing reform efforts administered through the INL program focus on the key roles that law enforcement plays in support of the rule of law, notably ensuring public safety and bringing criminals to justice. The program will seek to continue assisting Egypt's law enforcement agencies to improve the management and administrative skills of its officers, to expand capacity for strategic planning, and to promote organizational transparency.

Lebanon ($1.8 million): In the wake of the 2006 Hizballah-Israel war, much of Lebanon lies in ruins, especially in the south. Lebanon had just recovered from decades of war and outside occupation and seemed headed for unprecedented economic growth and democratic development following the April 2005 withdrawal of Syrian military forces and the election of the first "made in Lebanon" government in nearly 30 years. However, Lebanon's democracy remains fragile due to sectarian tensions and continuing Syrian interference using local proxies, Hizballah, and heavily armed Palestinian rejectionist (terrorist) groups. Despite the war, Hizballah retains its arms and its dangerous state-within-a-state status. Lebanon's massive reconstruction program and the UN-supported deployment of Lebanese security forces into hitherto-Hizballah-controlled southern Lebanon provide the opportunity not only to restore Lebanon's economy but to rebalance its political system and help restore Lebanon's full sovereignty.

Supporting the democratic government of Lebanon, and the people of Lebanon, are urgent U.S. priorities. We are working toward the rapid and full implementation of UNSCR 1701, the establishment of the full sovereignty of a Lebanese Government representing all its people, and Lebanese security forces capable of protecting Lebanon's borders, sovereignty and dignity. The INL program consists of civilian police training programs to build the capacity of the Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) - the national police - to help them meet this challenge. Training is provided to all police of all levels and the requisite equipment is provided to help them carry out their mission.

Jordan ($1.5 million): Jordan is a key U.S. ally, committed to progressive democratic reform, and in lockstep with the United States in the war on terrorism. However, Jordan's progress implementing reform is constrained by external threats and domestic economic and political challenges. Jordan suffered two serious terrorist attacks in 2005, and disrupted numerous other plots. Jordan is buffeted by conflicts and instability on most of its borders, and faces a critical terrorism threat. A deterioration of the security environment would damage the tourism sector and prompt foreign investors to retreat from Jordan's markets, devastating the economy, and creating political instability. The INL program will aim to assist Jordan's efforts to maintain its security.

Morocco ($1 million): Morocco is a liberalizing, democratizing, and moderate Muslim state that is not only a victim of terrorism, but also a committed partner in the global war on terrorism. Morocco has relatively weak border control systems that could be exploited by terrorists and other transnational criminals. Due to its long and poorly controlled borders, extensive coastline, and proximity to Europe, Morocco has substantial problems with illegal migration, human smuggling, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, drug production and trafficking, and commercial smuggling. The profits from these illicit enterprises could provide revenue sources to terrorists. These criminal activities serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, lead to corruption of public officials, and weaken Moroccan institutions. INL programs focus on border control, including extensive technical assistance and equipment.

West Bank/Gaza ($3.5 million): The funds will support U.S activities which complement broader international efforts, as called for in the Roadmap, to transform and strengthen security capabilities of the President of the Palestinian Authority (PA). Our efforts will enhance current and future operational effectiveness with the goals of: ensuring adequate protection for PA President Mahmoud Abbas and other foreign VIPs (including visiting American officials) and improving the security and management of Palestinian crossing points with Egypt and Israel, and other key areas. Funds will also be used to promote and develop activities and programs that will strengthen cooperation against financial crimes and terrorist financing.

Yemen ($0.5 million): Yemen has distinguished itself as a solid partner in the fight against global terrorism. In 2004, a Yemeni court sentenced two men to death for their roles in the bombing of the USS Cole, and four others were sentenced to prison terms of five to ten years for their involvement. Given threats to peace and security in Yemen, particularly from terrorist and other transnational groups, INL assistance will be used to help enhance security by building the capacity of Yemeni law enforcement to combat these threats.

Other Near East ($1.2 million): Funds will be used primarily for trafficking in persons projects in Israel and Tunisia, as well as money laundering and financial crimes projects in Algeria and the United Arab Emirates.

South Asia - $311.75 million

Afghanistan ($274.8 million): The U.S. will continue to support the UK lead on counternarcotics by providing: enhanced assistance to Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) teams working with provincial officials to proactively discourage the growing of illegal crops; continued support to the Afghan Eradication Force, the Government of Afghanistan's (GOA) centrally-directed, manual poppy eradication program; expanded specialized training and equipment of drug enforcement units; sustained search and rescue (SAR), recon, transportation, and air cover for ground-based counternarcotics programs via fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, both INL-owned and leased; an enhanced public information campaign that amplifies the GOA's message that opium poppy cultivation is illegal and contrary to Islam; and ongoing demand reduction programs to address Afghanistan's rising rates of drug abuse and emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic. To the extent practicable, our efforts will key on strengthening the GOA's capacity to incrementally assume the management and direction of these programs. These INL-sponsored programs will work in conjunction with Alternative Livelihoods programs funded by USAID as well as INL's civilian police training and justice reform programs. We will continue to provide support for eight INL Training Centers and approximately 330 police advisors and mentors to continue the classroom-based basic skills training program for low-level police officers as needed, provide field training and mentoring for all police, provide new specialized courses emphasizing greater professionalization and skills development for the police, and Ministry of Interior reform efforts including payment of police salaries through a contribution to the United Nations Development Program Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan. Justice funds will support four strategic objectives: development of institutional capacity of the permanent justice institutions, development of the operational capacity of criminal justice sector in key provinces, development of the corrections system, and professionalization of justice sector personnel, with a focus on Kabul, Wardak, Herat, Balkh, Nangarhar and Paktia provinces. Specific activities will include advisory support to the criminal justice system, specialized training and mentoring of prosecutors, defense counsel and other justice personnel, equipment and infrastructure support, a legal education program for Afghan law professors, and continued support for legal associations, licensing development and legal aid centers. Funds will also support an international trust fund for justice sector officials to help reduce corruption within the system. Funds will also be used to improve the capacity of the corrections system through training and mentoring, capacity-building projects such as setting up a prisoner tracking system, and equipment and infrastructure support for correctional facilities in Kabul and key provinces. The reintegration of Afghan women into the legal sector and improving their legal awareness will remain a focus through FY 2007. INL will also continue supporting DEA interdiction efforts by providing operational support for the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA), including the National Interdiction Unit teams, and the creation and development of the Sensitive Investigation Unit. The Huey IIs will also reinforce DEA-led interdiction, as available.

Bangladesh ($1.5 million): Despite serious problems related to a dysfunctional political system, weak governance, and pervasive corruption, Bangladesh remains one of the few democracies in the Muslim world. In March 2006 Bangladesh and India signed two agreements: the Revised Trade Agreement, and the Agreement on Mutual Cooperation for Preventing Illicit Drug Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Related Matters. FY 2008 funded INL programs would address money laundering and terrorist financing, drug demand reduction, interdiction, intellectual property, and trafficking in persons.

Nepal ($2.7 million): Law and order are prerequisites to the re-establishment of peace and security in Nepal, following the ten plus-year insurgency; the alternative being a failed state. Disenfranchised sizeable minorities are resorting to Maoist tactics of violent protest and strikes to seek inclusion in the political process in the run up to the Constituent Assembly elections, part of Nepal's constitution drafting and adoption, as well as the establishment of a new government. The Nepal Police (NP) and Nepal's Armed Police Force (APF), cannot as presently staffed, equipped and trained, fill the security sector gap left by the Nepal Army's confinement to barracks. The NP and APF, having been mostly focused on counterinsurgency efforts for the past ten years, are woefully under equipped and lack modern police training to enforce law and order throughout Nepal, let alone ensure safe and fair democratic elections. INL-funded assistance, be it training or logistical support, is focused on assisting the NP and APF in their efforts to reform into police organizations that are customer-focused, service-oriented and that understand the importance of human rights in law enforcement.

Pakistan ($32 million): The events of September 11 shifted the focus of INL assistance to Pakistan from drug control and related programs to law enforcement, including security of the critical border with Afghanistan and Iran. The Border Security Project provides operational support, commodities, and training to the Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) and other law enforcement agencies to strengthen the capacity of law enforcement agencies in Pakistan to secure the western border against terrorists, criminal elements, and narcotics traffickers. U.S. assistance has enabled construction of additional Frontier Corps outposts along the porous Afghanistan-Pakistan border and of new roads to open up remote areas to law enforcement, allow forces to eradicate poppy, and facilitate farmer-to-market access for legal crops. Funding will also provide maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, based in Quetta. The Air Wing provides aviation support to several law enforcement agencies, particularly the Anti-Narcotics Force, the Frontier Corps in NWFP and Balochistan, and the Pakistan Coast Guards, to increase surveillance capability, improve mobility in remote areas, and assist with aerial poppy surveys. INL will also continue to support law enforcement and development activities to help modernize Pakistan's antiquated crime prevention and investigation system. Funds will be used to further enhance law enforcement capacities and to encourage more effective law enforcement cooperation within the Government of Pakistan, as well as with the United States and other countries. Funding will provide training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills and forensics capacities, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Due to the ever-increasing threat of opiates from Afghanistan, INL's counternarcotics program will begin to increase resources for interdiction, including disruption of transit routes, while maintaining resources devoted toward source disruption. Funding will also support construction of roads in opium poppy growing areas and will include small water schemes to improve the economic potential of newly accessible areas and encourage the cultivation of high-value, legitimate crops and intensive farming. On a more limited scale, we will continue to fund the introduction of alternative crops, such as off-season tomatoes, particularly in the non-traditional areas. We will also continue to fund drug demand reduction initiatives, including support for faith-based outreach centers and drug rehabilitation NGOs.

Other South Asia ($0.7 million): Funds will be used primarily for drug awareness and demand reduction activities in India and law enforcement reform and development in Sri Lanka.

Regional and Global Programs - $131.1 million

Anticrime Programs ($14 million): INL will continue to support a range of diplomatic and programmatic anti-crime initiatives focusing on money laundering, corruption, alien smuggling, border security, and various intellectual property theft and cyber-related threats.

Alien Smuggling: The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. INL will address this concern by conducting fraudulent document training in South and Central America. The training will last five days and will cover passenger profiling, as well as fraudulent documents. The course will be attended by mid-level police and immigration officials.

Border Security: Porous borders greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid apprehension. However, as the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls can be a substantial deterrent to such activity and be a vehicle for gleaning useful information for identifying, investigating, and dismantling crime syndicates. Funds will be used to support the counterterrorism staff of the Organization of American States in their efforts to provide police training to port and airport police and private security officials. A special effort will be made to provide practical training to customs officials on inspectional techniques. This training will be conducted in an operational environment to enhance the effectiveness of the training.

Anti-Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing: INL will promote the use of legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. With the Department of Homeland Security, INL will fund training and equipment for the nascent Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) in selected countries to combat funds moved through alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. Funding will support continuation of the regional technical assistance/training program in the Pacific Island region. Regional programs are particularly cost effective because they provide training and assistance to several countries sharing similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. Funding will also provide short- and long-term advisers to selected countries to help strengthen their overall anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes. Through the U.N.Global Programme against Money Laundering (UNGPML), INL will fund an innovative "Financial Investigative Unit (FIU) in a Box" initiative that will develop scaled-down software that will enable small FIUs to collect, analyze and disseminate financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. This program will enable jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing at a fraction of the current start-up costs for a full-scale FIU. INL will continue to fund UNGPML's long-term residential mentoring program and innovative programs in the Western Hemisphere through the Organization of American States. INL will also continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and regional FATF-style bodies.

Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and Intellectual Property (IP) Crime: INL fills a key role in the overall USG strategy to combat criminal misuse of information technology through our ability to provide capacity-building training to foreign law enforcement. INL will continue to support law enforcement training and legislative-drafting workshops in critical IP countries. As part of the USG inter-agency working group on critical infrastructure protection (CIP), INL provides policy support and training assistance to our foreign partners to help them address cyber security concerns.

Fighting Corruption: Any effective anti-crime/anti-terrorism program must also attack corruption. Funding will support several international mechanisms - at the U.N., Council of Europe, OAS, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperative (APEC) and others - to monitor and assist implementation of anticorruption commitments by more than 80 nations. Funding will also support continued implementation of the UN Convention Against Corruption, a comprehensive global framework to fight corruption that has been signed by 140 countries and ratified by 88.

Civilian Police Program ($2 million): FY 2008 funding will sustain the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police and criminal justice components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations. The FY 2008 program will sustain INL's capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police and law enforcement, justice and corrections trainers, advisors and experts overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also maintain a capacity to deploy these U.S. advisors, trainers and experts. Funds additionally support further development of relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement, justice and corrections associations, organizations and unions; promote high quality, standardized civilian police peacekeeping training; maintain INL management and oversight capabilities, and support in-house law enforcement, justice and corrections expertise. INL expects to continue managing post conflict operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Haiti, Liberia and Sudan as well as new missions as determined by policy makers.

Criminal Youth Gangs ($5 million): FY 2008 funding will integrate law enforcement, prevention and rehabilitation through regional training and technical assistance in the most heavily impacted countries, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and Panama. The program will support anti-gang units, regional sharing of law-enforcement information, and fund activities to complement/coordinate with prevention and rehabilitation interventions. INL will also support a Regional Gangs Advisor.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction ($3.5 million): FY 2008 assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, the drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemics in Southeast Asia and Africa, the gang problem in Central America, and address the heroin threat from Asia, Afghanistan and Colombia. A continued area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.

INL funding will provide support for its strategically located, sub-regional demand reduction training centers in Brazil (Southern Cone region), Colombia (Andean region), and Thailand (Southeast Asia) that disseminate latest science-based information on effective methods to prevent and reduce drug use and related violence. Training will specifically target methamphetamine abuse, intravenous drug use that leads to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS, family support groups, relapse prevention/aftercare methods, drug use among gang members, school and peer-based prevention programs, and community and correctional-based treatment services. Funding will also support the enhancement of effective drug-free community coalition programs in Central America and the Andean sub-region of South America that assist civil society/grassroots organizations in fighting illegal drugs. These public/private sector coalitions work towards reducing substance abuse among youth, enhancing intergovernmental collaboration, and strengthening collaboration among organizations and agencies in both the private and public sectors across countries. Finally, funding will continue to enhance anti-drug outreach and aftercare centers in volatile Muslim regions where the U.S. needs to increase access to civil society such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Indonesia. These centers are co-located in mosques and madrassahs in collaboration with the INL/Colombo Plan network of Muslim-based anti-drug programs/civil society organizations in the Middle East and South/Southeast Asia, which includes the participation of 500 Afghan mullahs. This initiative will also benefit efforts to reduce drug consumption whose proceeds are a potential source of terrorist financing, cut into the recruitment base of terrorist organizations, enhance America's image in Muslim countries, and provide youth in at-risk areas with alternatives to radical or terrorist indoctrination centers.

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) ($16.5 million): Funds will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell, and continue the development of the newest ILEA for El Salvador. Instruction will continue to focus on critical topics such as counter-terrorism, financial crimes, illegal narcotics, trafficking in persons, culture of lawfulness and accountability in government. Other activities will include continuing to modify curricula for core and specialized curriculum to address emerging international criminal activities, and also preliminary construction efforts for a new building to house administrative staff and student classrooms for ILEA San Salvador. INL will also continue taking steps to develop the ILEA Regional Training Center in Peru to augment the delivery of regional-specific training for Latin America.

International Organizations ($5.5 million): Funding multilateral approaches to fighting crime and drugs, the International Organizations budget complements INCLE and ACI bilateral programs. Such funding has a multiplier effect by encouraging financial and political burden sharing by other countries. It not only demonstrates a U.S. commitment to combating the aforementioned global threats, but also provides the United States with an invaluable multilateral option through which to pursue U.S. bilateral objectives. For many countries, assistance from international organizations is often more acceptable politically than direct bilateral assistance.

FY 2008 funds will support the UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in continuing and expanding ongoing international programs that enhance law enforcement as well as judicial and financial institutions in developing countries. Funds will be used to promote the implementation of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its supplemental protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling, the three UN drug control conventions, and the legal instruments against terrorism. Funding to UNODC will also support regional precursor chemical control projects, which track the flow of those substances used in the manufacture of cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, including methamphetamine. In addition, INL resources will support the International Narcotics Control Board's global database of precursor chemical shipments and legitimate industrial needs. USG assistance will also help fund the UNODC Global Program against Money Laundering to combat traditional forms of money laundering and the financing of terrorism; and the global legal advisory program, which promotes full implementation of the various international drug conventions. Resources will also support the activities and assessments of UNODC's Independent Evaluation Unit, which provides reporting and analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of UNODC program implementation. Finally, funding will also provide for a senior counter-narcotics and anti-crime policy officer to be stationed at the U.S. Mission to the European Union, to leverage EU support for U.S. policy goals in Afghanistan, Latin America, the UN and elsewhere.

Funding for the Organization of American State/Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) will continue to support the leading drug control entity within the Western Hemisphere. INL resources support key technical assistance and training projects for Latin American countries as they seek to enhance their counternarcotics institutions to effectively fight drugs and related crime. CICAD's priority areas are identified through the Mutual Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) which will begin its fourth round evaluation in 2007 - 2008. INL funding will continue to support the streamlining of the MEM process as it offers a rapid and effective diagnosis of the current drug problem in individual countries. INL additionally works with and through the organization to build multilateral support to strengthen efforts against the consumption, production, and trafficking of illegal drugs and against other forms of transnational organized crime, particularly corruption and money laundering. USG assistance to CICAD will continue to support supply reduction programs in the region that have contributed to improved institutional capacities, expanded cross-border and maritime regional capacity. INL funds will also provide CICAD the resources necessary to expand demand-side projects. CICAD has increased the number of countries - with USG funds - that are able to conduct basic epidemiological surveillance, expanded availability of drug abuse prevention education and information materials, and are developing minimum standards for treatment.

Interregional Aviation Support ($60.1 million): In FY 2008, the Interregional Aviation Support budget provides coordinated core-level services necessary to operate the Department's current fleet of 189 fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities worldwide. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. Centrally-administrated oversight includes: setting and implementation of uniform safety and training standards consistent with aviation industry practices, uniform operational procedures, logistics support, fleet level maintenance administration (including the Critical Flight Safety Program), and aviation support contract administration. INL air assets are deployed as directed by administration policy with current deployments to Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The air assets are also available, as needed, to other temporary deployment locations.

Operations include eradication, mobility, interdiction, monitoring, and logistical support. The primary focus will continue to be on the aggressive aerial eradication of Colombian coca and poppy, where U.S.-funded planes sprayed over 169,000 hectares of coca in 2006. This marks the sixth consecutive year of record spray results. Aviation services in Bolivia, Peru, and Afghanistan will continue to support manual eradication as well as limited interdiction efforts. INL-owned aircraft provide Pakistan with an Air Wing capability for integrated helicopter, fixed-wing, and ground forces operations in day, night, or using night vision goggles (NVG). These assets provide surveillance along the porous, 2,000-mile Afghan-Pakistan border area to permit interdiction of trafficking in persons, narcotics, arms, and other contraband, as well as to assist in monitoring areas where opium poppy is cultivated to permit eradication efforts. The establishment of host-government self-sufficiency remains a central goal for Air Wing operations in several countries.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) ($19.6 million): Funds will be used for the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL Staff. Funding covers the salaries and benefits of U.S. direct hire employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel. These funds also cover field travel necessary for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are also used to maintain reliable and secure information resource management systems, and for office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, and the purchase of materials, supplies, furniture and equipment.

Trafficking in Persons ($4.95 million): Efforts to combat human trafficking are still at an early stage. The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons will continue to use the annual Trafficking in Persons report as a tool for aggressive diplomatic engagement. Continued foreign assistance will be needed to help draft trafficking legislation, train law enforcement, and encourage governments to develop or expand comprehensive assistance to victims. International programs to combat trafficking will provide foreign assistance to countries with economic need and the political will to address the problem and will be prioritized in four ways: a) support for projects in Tier 3 countries; b) support for projects in Tier 2 Watch List countries; support for projects in Tier 2 countries that target law enforcement or victim protection deficiencies that may jeopardize the Tier 2 ranking; and d) support for pilot projects that are replicable and show promise. Outreach efforts will be expanded and enhanced and will focus on the faith-based, legal, and medical communities. Interagency coordination will focus on facilitating increased federal support to combat trafficking in persons in the United States and globally.