2007 End-Use Monitoring Report: Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 1, 2008



EUM procedures developed in Thailand over the years are based on inventory accountability for monitoring commodities given to RTG agencies, verified by EUM site visits, and inspected by NAS staff in cooperation with representations of the recipient RTG agencies. For this EUM period, NAS staff made on-site inspections and found that RTG inventory and accountability procedures were adequate; procedures were adequate; and records generally appeared up-to-date and accurately maintained by RTG agencies. In August and September, the NAS staff inspected commodities in Bangkok metropolitan areas and four regions of Thailand.

In a few instances, where commodities were inaccessible due to remote locations, the using RTG agencies forwarded inventory forms to the regional supervisory offices, which then were inspected by USG/RTG Teams. This occurred only in the case of a few small and isolated units that hold limited quantities of monitorable commodities. During the monitoring process, counterpart agencies were generally cooperative and responsive in implementing these procedures. NAS Bangkok EUM procedures for CY-2007 resulted in a verification rate of 92.42 percent. A total of 119 end-user sites (not including SIU’s or ILEA) were visited by the NAS staff. Survey teams physically inspected 1,365 of 1,477 non-expendable commodity items accounted for in this report. Based on these inspections, inventory verifications and other information available to post, the NAS is unaware of any instances in which monitorable INCLE-funded commodities are used for anything other than their intended purpose. Commodities are dedicated to supporting of RTG activities against the abuse, trafficking, and production of illicit dugs, as well as RTG measures against other forms of crimes.

EUM accountability and verification of commodities located at ILEA was provided by the USG program Director and Deputy Director. ILEA inventory and accountability procedures are adequate and records generally appear sufficient and currently maintained. USG and FSN staff physically inspected all accountable commodities, which are in good condition with few exceptions. The counterpart agency was cooperative and responsive in facilitating EUM activities.


All commodities listed below were inspected and found to be in serviceable condition. Responsibility for vehicle maintenance rests with the recipient or using RTG agency. Some quantities differ from previous years because of damage, are out of order, or were disposed by the end-user. No significant problems were discovered while preparing the report.

Communications Equipment

Communications equipment consists of one analyzer, audio amplifiers (5), audio surveillance systems (10), audio tape recorders (22), base station radios (3), cellular phones (3), contraband detectors (2), digital sound recorders (1), handheld radios (63), microsette tape recorders (4), mobile radios (6), telephones (5), video transmitters (2).

ILEA equipment consists of cellular phones (11), handle radio (4), telephones (38).

SIU equipment consists of handheld radios (91), car radios (181), audio tape recorders (60), base station radios (2), antennas (3), and microcassette (23) and cellular phones (18).

Computer Equipment

RTG computer equipment consists of PC’s (287), printers (228), USP units (165), software (36), servers (27), scanners (55), modems (15), notebooks (42), palm recorder (1).

ILEA equipment consists of PC’s (74), Notebooks (36), printers (31), scanners (3), UPS’ (3), and modems (5). SIU equipment consists of PC’s (119), printers (30), scanners (5), notebooks (30), and UPS’ (119).

Miscellaneous Equipment

Cameras, photocopiers, video cameras, fax machines, televisions, power generator night vision devices, typewriters, tape recorders, overhead projectors, paper shredders, slide projectors, electric fans, washing machines, water coolers, barcode readers, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, lawn mowers, CD players, collating machine, laminating machine, transcribing machine, fire extinguisher and other electronic equipment were provided by the NAS to support Narcotics Crop Control, Demand Reduction, and Law Enforcement Projects. Most of the equipment is in good condition.

The following miscellaneous equipment was provided to ILEA: television , projector, typewriter, digital video camera, fax machine, paper shredder, FATS machine, digital duplication machine, office furniture, and punching and binding machine. The equipment is used to provide training for both INL funded programs and for police offices and prosecutors from ILEA member countries.

The following equipment was provided to the SIU’s: digital cameras, refrigerator, video camera system, vacuum cleaner, copy machine, file cabinets, digital cameras, air conditioners, television, transcriber machine, typewriter, paper shredder, LCD projector, fax machine.


From 1974-1979, the USG supplied seven Bell UH-1H (Bell 205A-1) and two Bell 206L helicopters to the RTG. These helicopters have been used by ONCB in support of the RTG opium crop surveillance and crop eradication program in northern Thailand. Most rotary airlift capability for support of the eradication program is provided by the Royal Thai Army Third Region Command. Of the aircraft in the inventory below, 1716 has been in inventory since October 1997; 1717 since July 1999; 1718 and 2401 since 2000; and 2402 since October 1999.













On duty in Tak province



Repair in Bangkok



On duty in Bangkok



Repair in Bangkok



Repair in Bangkok



On duty in Chiang Mai



Good condition but not In use



Good condition but not In use


The NAS and counterparts inspected 3 motorcycles, 10 pickup trucks, 36 sedans, and 2 vans provided to the RTG. All vehicles remaining on inventory that were inspected were found to be in good condition. No significant problems were noted in the End Use Monitoring of motor vehicles.

A total of 27 motorcycles, 21 pickup Trucks, 24 sedans, 7 SUV’s, and 4 vans were assigned to 10 Sensitive Investigative Units (SIU) sites. All inventoried vehicles are in serviceable condition, although some items purchased more than five years ago are reaching the end of their useful lives. Many of the vehicles have exceeded 100,000 miles of use. As SIU funding allows replacements to be procured, some of these vehicles are being surplused according to RTG regulations. During 2007 no accountable equipment was used for other than its intended support and no equipment was unaccounted for.

All vehicles procured specifically for use by the SIU’s were assigned by the RTP and ONCB to cooperate directly with DEA in this program. The SIU’s are located in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, and Chiang Rai provinces. These vehicles were procured using SIU funds during 1998-2007. All vehicles are in serviceable condition but those purchased more than five years ago are reaching the end of their useful life.

Vehicles provided to ILEA consist of sedans (6), station wagons (1), and van (1). These vehicles are high mileage vehicles. They are used to transport both staff and students between ILEA and the US Embassy, airport, hospital and the blast range off-site, none of which are located near the ILEA Bangkok facility. The maintenance costs of these vehicles have already become high. The vehicles will need to be replaced in the near future before they become dangerous to drive. Without these vehicles ILEA Bangkok would not be able to function effectively.

Defense Articles

In November 2003, the U.S. military donated 250 M4 carbines, with associated parts and support equipment to the Border Patrol Police (BPP). In Chiang Mai, an Interagency Intelligence Fusion Center (IIFC) was completed, including delivery and installation of a significant amount of data processing and communications equipment. FMF grant funds appropriated for 2002 were allocated to enhance the effectiveness of the BPP and the capabilities of all RTG agencies with counternarcotics missions in the northern region that participate in the IIFC.

Field Gear

Field gear provided to the RTG include binoculars (5), handcuffs (5), GPS’ (17), night vision goggles (2), and body armor (55).

The following equipment was provided to SIU’s: binoculars (94), cameras (15), body armor vests (100), GPS’ (2), night visions goggles (9).

Laboratory Equipment

The following equipment was provided to the RTG: dehumidifier (1), drug scale (2), evaporator (2), heating mantles (2), penetration thermometer (2), spectrometer (3), vernier digital scale (3).


The majority of equipment provided to the SIU has been in use since 1998, when the program began. Since that time, technology has changed and many of the commodities will need to be replaced when budgetary constraints are lifted.


Although it is difficult to make a direct and measurable link between a specific commodity and the overall rate of law enforcement effectiveness, the INCLE-funded commodities listed in this report undoubtedly have increased the capabilities of the RTG to combat narcotics and have clearly helped to produce a highly cooperative relationship between the US mission in Thailand and RTG law enforcement agencies.

Program Changes

The NAS concurred with the ongoing RTG program being implemented by TICA and counterpart agencies to identify unserviceable or overage motor vehicles (or other monitorable items) provided by NAS projects over ten years old and delete them from project inventories. Proceeds derived the sale of such items are returned to TICA which continues to employ them in implementing drug and crime control projects supported by the NAS. The overall size of the INL-program in Thailand continues to decrease with less need for commodity heavy traditional crop control and drug law enforcement and a continuing emphasis on training and technical assistance in crime control and the criminal justice sector.



INL Bishkek conducted inspection of equipment provided to host government agencies. These agencies include the Forensic Center under the Ministry of Interior (MOI), the Prosecutor General’s Office, the Ministry of Interior personnel Training Center, and State Traffic Police Department. The agencies were cooperative and provided all necessary information and access to the sites.

Post visited the Prosecutors’ offices in Naryn, Issyk-Kul, and Chui provinces to check on equipment donated from 2004-2007.

In the past year, post has improved the record-keeping system for INL-donated equipment, making the end use check more complete and accurate. During 2006-2007, post developed a standard transceiving act template that has serial numbers, quantity, brand, models, and amount of assistance rendered to the host government. Post also marked most of the donated equipment with special inventory labels that will facilitate tracking with equipment in the future (as well as labeled this equipment as US assistance).

Currently, INL staff is entering data into a new inventory control database. In the future, the inventory database will facilitate producing reports on the amount and status of all donated equipment by INL.


Communications Equipment

In July 2004, 1 computer, 1 UPS, 1 black and white printer, and one power surge Tripplite were donated to the canine unit.

In 2005, the Department of the Organizational Provision and International Relations of Prosecutor General’s Office received 5 sets of computers. 2 printers, 1 scanner.

In 2004, four portable radios were donated to the Canine Unit of the Ministry of Interior in 2004. Only two of the four are working. One radio was broken during recent demonstrations and then repaired; a second radio does not work and cannot be repaired.

The 30 portable Motorola radios provided to the Anti-Drug Department of the Ministry of Interior are accounted for and working properly.

Computer Equipment

The following equipment was donated to the Scientific Research Center of the Ministry of Interior in July: 1 computer, 1 UPS, 1 black and white printer HP Laserjet 1200, 1 scanner ScanJet 3570. All are in use.

The Police School under the Ministry of Interior received a set of computer equipment in 2004, including 2 computers, 2 UPS’, 2 modems, 1 projector, 1 digital camera, 1 copier, 1 color printer, 1 black and white printer, and 1 scanner. The serial numbers were verified with receiving reports by Embassy warehouse personnel.

The Prosecutor General’s Office received two computers, a UPS, printer, scanner and digital camera. The computers have surpassed their useful life and are no longer a part of the inspection process.

In 2005, the Department of the Organizational Provision and International Relations of Prosecutor General’s Office received five sets of computers, two printers, and one scanner. The equipment is maintained and used properly.

In July 2004, one computer, one UPS, and one LaserJet printer were donated to the Canine Unit of the Ministry of Interior. Due to the age of the equipment, insufficient memory, and hard-drive capacity, the computer performs poorly.

Nine computers, nine UPS’, nine power surge “Tripplite” and eight printers were distributed among the Police Department of the Anti-Drug Department of the Ministry of Interior. The computers were found to be functioning and still within the venue in which they were originally placed.

Laboratory Equipment

In 2005, the State Forensic Center received laboratory equipment including GAS Chromatography System with mass selective detector, liquid Chromatography System with diode-array detector, UV visible Spectroscopy System, FTIR Spectroscopy system with video microscope, analytical and precision balances and solvents. However, the Forensic Center was unable to find a specialist who could calibrate the equipment. All items have now been corrected. The equipment (the gas chromatography and spectroscopy systems) have been calibrated and operators have been trained. The equipment is being used regularly.

The only remaining problem with the 2005 donation to the Ministry of Interior is inoperable equipment due to a lack of software which affects the compatibility with older equipment previously acquired in 1997. This issue is being studied by the DEA lab to determine corrective action.


In 2007, the Kyrgyz Police Department received 10 Ladas VAZ and seven (7) Volkswagons fully equipped with traffic police gear. Light bars and radios were on the vehicles. The vehicles were transferred to Chuy, Issyk Kul, Naryn Provinces, and Bishkek City. All vehicles and equipment are in good condition and in use. Light bars were on the vehicles and mobile radios were inside.

In 2007, INL implemented several projects with the Police School. INL supplied two training vehicles and one van equipped with mobile radios to the Police School.

A vehicle was donated to the Prosecutor General’s Office in July 2004. According to the GOK documents, the vehicle is in use by the District Prosecutor’s Office in Naryn Province. The vehicle was found in place and in good condition.

The Customs Office was provided with three Russian vehicles “Niva.” Due to a very severe winter, travel to the Bor Dobo post to inspect the Niva vehicles was impossible. The roads to this area were impassable. Kyrgyz authorities in OSH have assured post that all three vehicles are in good condition and still within the control of the Customs office. Post has scheduled an End Use inspection in April.

Miscellaneous Items

In 2006-2007, post implemented several projects with the Police School. INL refurbished and equipped the Forensics Center dormitory, computer lab and library. During the inspection, every item was found in place and in good condition. No items were found missing. However, it was obvious that a lot of equipment and supplies are not being used by the Police School. Most of the supplies and some equipment at the Forensic Center were still in boxes and not being used. The Police School director explained that they are expecting students from other regions in the near future who will live in the dormitory that INL furnished and equipped.

In 2007, INL provided the MOI forensic units with fingerprint equipment under the Fingerprint Identification Training Project. The equipment included digital cameras and fingerprint collection kits. Post checked 13 offices in Naryn, Issyk-Kul, Chui provinces, and Bishkek City where the equipment was distributed. In general everything was in place and in use, except for one fingerprint kit and camera in Naryn, which had been transferred to the Criminal Investigation Unit of Naryn Interior Department. Members of the Forensics Unit were very grateful for the fingerprint equipment, as the Forensics Unit previously had only limited supplies or powders, inks, lifting tapes, rollers, gloves, analytical scales and color printers in several years. The unit expressed the need for an automated fingerprint identification system.


In August 2005, the INL office was staffed completely with new people. The current INL staff could retrieve most but not all information about equipment transferred to the host government. The absence of serial numbers and confusion with brand and models of the equipment in the transceiving acts made the End Use Monitoring difficult or sometimes impossible. It appears that former staff members distributed equipment without a thorough accountability for the donated items. In the near future, a more in-depth analysis of donated equipment will be conducted by Post. At this time, it is not clear how the process of equipment distribution was conducted.


The impact of the donated equipment provided to the Kyrgyz law enforcement and prosecutorial entities has been positive, aiding the Kyrgyz in responding to incidents, compiling information, tracking cases, and analyzing evidence. The motor vehicles allow Kyrgz law enforcement to respond more quickly and effectively to events, helping to resolve potential problems. The vehicles also allow for the patrolling in areas which are very rural and rugged, where in some cases drug traffickers operate.

The computer equipment allows the Kyrgyz to better establish information data bases for tracking personnel, criminal activity and other events requiring close monitoring by senior staff. From the law enforcement perspective, the computer equipment helps provide law enforcement senior staff greater knowledge of what issues require attention and where their resources can be best deployed. The Prosecutor’s Office is also better able to manage and track the cases submitted into their system for prosecution. This has been very evident at post, especially when information is requested regarding the status of suspects arrested and prosecuted for drug trafficking. This information is necessary and dovetails into post’s counternarcotics programs that are carried out with INL assistance via the Drug Control Agency (DCA).

Without the forensic equipment, narcotics and other evidence could not be properly analyzed and investigations and prosecutions would be hindered. ICITAP and DEA experts have stated that with this equipment, Kyrgyz counterparts know what they are doing and with more practice and training will become even more proficient. As the Kyrgyz receive donations and work with the equipment, their law enforcement and prosecutorial capabilities are enhanced to bring them even closer to reform and professionalism.



The DEA Singapore Office (SICO) is responsible for administering the INL counternarcotics assistance program for Indonesia. An INL secretary, who is posted at post Jakarta, provides administrative support in the purchasing provided equipment, as well as assisting in the vetting of students and logistical support needed for all training courses. SICO personnel work closely with their Indonesian narcotics counterparts; Indonesian National Police (INP) Directorate IV for Narcotics and Organized Crime (Narkoba), Indonesian National Narcotics Board (BNN) and INP Metropolitan Police Department (Polda Metro-Jaya). INL funds have been used to provide training and equipment to these agencies for the past several years. DEA SICO personnel utilize DEA intra-agency receipts when transferring accountable property to the INP as well as Memorandums of Understanding (MOU’s). DEA SICO personnel routinely conduct on-site inspections as well as annual inventories of this equipment and property. INP personnel always readily comply with these procedures. INP also maintains its own inventory records.


All of the donated equipment is in good operable condition and resides in the originally assigned locations. Post has found that the INP is very meticulous and responsible in the maintenance and operation of the equipment provided. It has found no instances where the equipment has been misused or used for purposes outside of agreement made between INP and INL.


In November 2007, SICO presented seven (7) new vehicles to INP Narkoka to help replace and augment its fleet. In 2001 and 2003, Toyota Kijang (4), Suzuki motorcycles (15); Yamaha motorcycles (4); and Honda motorcycles (5) were donated to INP Narkoba. Most of these vehicles are still operational and used for their intended purposes. They are used primarily for surveillance and transportation of equipment and prisoners. Although most are still operational, due to constant wear and tear, they are beginning to require more and more maintenance to keep them operational.

Communications Equipment

Motorola ATS VHF radios donated to the INP were distributed as follows: Regional Police South Sumatera (50); Regional South Sulawski (20); Regional Police Timur Sulawesi (20); Regional Police West Java (80); Police Academy (95); ACEH Regional Police (75); Regional Police Yogyakarta (50); Regional Police Jakarta Metropolitan (45); Regional Police Banten (35); Regional Police East Nusa Tenggara (16); Regional Police East Java (5); Head of INP (10); POSO Communications & Electronic Center (24).

All of the INL-financed communications equipment has been well-maintained and is in operable condition, assigned as agreed upon between INL and the INP, and used only in the performance of official duties and operations. In the future, the acquisition of a repeater system for these radios would be extremely beneficial as these radios are currently operational only as line-of sight radios.

Computer Equipment

The SICO recently purchased four (4) copies of i2 Analyst 7 software with accompanying dongles. This equipment was presented to officials from INP Polda Metro-Jaya to be used by their intelligence analysts for charting and analysis of telephone records in drug-related investigations. This software is the standard in intelligence analysis and is used by DEA. Therefore, information developed by INP agencies can be shared seamlessly with DEA.

Computer equipment previously donated to the INP was distributed as follows: Regional Police Center Sulawski (3 desktops, 4 laptops, 3 projector screens); Regional Police Maluku (4 laptops, 4 monitors, 4 desktops, 3 projectors); Police School Seulawah Ache (4 laptops, 4 desktops, 4 monitors, 4 LCD projectors, 4 overhead projectors, 4 projectors screens); South Sulawesi Regional Police (6 laptops); Aceh Regional Police (5 computers, 5 monitors, 5 printers); Langsa Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); South Aceh Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 2 printers); Simeulue Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Aceh Jaya Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Naga Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); South Western Aceh Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Bener Meriah Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 printer, 1 monitor); East Aceh Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Aceh Tamiang Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Gayo Luwes Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Bhayangkara Police Hospital (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); West Aceh Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Aceh Singkil Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Lhoksukon Divisional Police (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); Directorate of Downstream Chemical Industry of Industry Republic (1 computer, 1 monitor, 1 printer); National Police School Medan (4 laptops, 2 LCD projectors, 2 printers, 1 fax); Marine Police Program Ditrol Office (1 laptop,); Cyber Crime Meg Mendung (28 desktop computers, 1 printer, 2 servers); Cyber Crime INP headquarters (1 printer, 4 servers); Marine Police Directorate Tanjung Priok (5 laptops, 4 monitors, 5 printers, 4 overhead projectors); Pusdikeskrim Mega Mendung, West Java (3 monitors, 28 desktop computers, 1 printer, 3 servers); Polda Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (4 laptops); National Police School of North Sumatera (1 computer, 3 LCD projectors); North Sumatra Regional Police (2 printers, 2 projector LCD, 1 computer); Marine Police Directorate Tanjung Priok (2 laptops, 8 desktops).

All of the INL-financed communications equipment has been well-maintained and is in operable condition, assigned as agreed upon between INL and the INP and are being used only in the performance of official duties and operations.


DEA SICO presented INP Narkoba with following miscellaneous technical equipment in 2007; four (4) Nikon digital cameras; four (4) Sony DVD Handycam recorders; two (2) Pioneer DVD/CD duplication systems; four (4) body wires; four (4) tactical repeater systems; four (4) 10 channel synthesized receivers; one (1) clock radio with transmitter; one (1) minipix receiver/recorder with 10” monitor; four (4) Vidi-vest body worn wireless video concealed vests; miscellaneous batteries, formatted CD’s, and memory cards. INP Narkoba has been using this equipment on various investigations and is properly maintaining the equipment as well. The equipment is in excellent conditions.

Twelve micro cassette recorders are used by the Regional Police Center Sulawesi.

Miscellaneous equipment donated to INP was distributed as follows: CIC Megamendung (3 full-face respirator and canisters, 7 Hazmat boots, 2 Petzl headlamps, 1 com wire cutters, 1 field spade, 2 hand lanterns, 1 latex safety gloves, 1 magnifier, 1 half mask respirator, 1 tool set, 1 tool set); CID Balikpan (5 full-face respirators, 1 Sirius multi gas detector, 2 hand lanterns, 5 safety glasses, 4 half mask respirators, 3 Glock field spares, 3 folding pocket magnifier, 4 Petzl headlamps, 1 latex safety gloves, 4 respirator cartridges, 2 leatherman new wave tool); Marine Police (5 full-face respirators, 1 Sirius Gas detector, 9 Hazmet boots, 1 Felco wire cutters, 1 Glock field spade, 1 half mask respirators); Forensic Laboratory Center Jakarta (9 full-face respirators, 2 Sirius multi gas detectors, 11 Hazmet boots, 6 Petzl headlamps, 5 Glock field spade, 3 Hazmet overalls, 3 leatherman new wave tool, 8 half-mask respirators, 8 respirator cartridges, 4 latex safety gloves); Forensic Laboratory Surabaya (5 full-face respirators, 1 Sirius multi gas detector, 8 Hazmet boots, 4 Glock field spade, 3 hand lantern, 4 half-mask respirators, 3 leatherman new wave tools); Forensic Laboratory Denpasar (5 full-face respirator and canister combo, 1 Sirius multi gas detector, 8 Hazmet boots, 4 Petzl headlamps, 3 Glock field spade, 3 Hazmat overalls, 2 latex gloves, 3 leatherman new wave tool); Forensic Laboratory Medan (5 full-face respirator and cannister combo, 1 Sirius multi-gas detector, 8 Hazmet boots, 1 Glock field spade, 2 Hazmet coveralls, 4 half mask respirators, 3 latex gloves, 3 leatherman new wave tool); Forensic Laboratory Semarang (5 full-face respirator and canister combo, 1 Sirius multi gas detector, 7 Hazmet boots, 3 Glock field spade, 5 safety glasses, 4 half-mask respirators, 3 leatherman new wave tools, 3 folding chair magnifier); Forensic Laboratory Makassar (5 full-face respirator and canister combo, 1 Sirius multi gas detector, 7 Hazmat boots, 4 Petzl headlamps, 3 Glock field spades, 5 safety glasses, 2 latex gloves, 3 laetherman tools); Forensic Laboratory Palembang (5 full-face respirator and canister combo, 1 Sirius multi gas detector, 7 Hazmet boots, 3 glock field spade, 2 hand lanterns, 3 latex safety gloves, 3 leatherman new wave tool); National Police School of North Sumatera (1 cassette recorder, 1 fax machine); Pusdikeskrim Mega Mendung, West Java (7 air conditioners, 2 televisions); Marine Police Directorate Tanjung Priok (875 light sticks, 80 face masks, 72 megaphones, 40 dry suit undersuit, 40 snorkels, 40 overalls, 40 flashlight under water, 120 hose protectors, 40 knives, 80 power inflators, 40 weight bests, 80 power inflators).

Laboratory Equipment

Clandestine laboratory equipment was presented to students who attended and completed Basic Clandestine Laboratory Investigation courses. The equipment included items such as respirators, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), Tyvex protection suits, gloves, etc. INP Narkoba recently used this equipment and training during the dismantling of a clandestine crystal methamphetamine “super” laboratory on the island of Batam, Indonesia. DEA SICO, through the DEA office of International Training, has provided several Basic Clandestine Laboratory courses to INP using INL funding. As a result, there has been greater emphasis and success in the detection and dismantling of both crystal methamphetamine and MDMA laboratories in Indonesia.


INP officials continue to set records for amounts of drug and currency seized in Indonesia. The use of the training provided and equipment supplied via INL funding has had a tremendous impact on drug law enforcement in Indonesia over the past several yeas. INP drug investigators trained by DEA via INL funding were used successfully in the terrorist investigations in Bali in 2002 and 2005 as well as the successful dismantling of several crystal methamphetamine and MDMA super clandestine laboratories since 2001.

A recent record seizure of one million MDMA tablets and one million dollars in various domestic and foreign currencies came as the result of professionally trained investigators who were trained and equipped by virtue of INL funding. US and Indonesian law enforcement agencies have bridged a strong working relationship over the past several years and the continued use of INL funding will further foster this positive relationship. The impact of the use of INL funds in Indonesia cannot be underscored.



The Political FSN conducted an on-site inspection of the equipment transferred to the National Authority for Combating Drugs (NACD) laboratory in Phnon Penh. During the past year, the Ambassador, DEA-Bangkok staff, and the Pol/Econ officer also visited the lab.


Computer Equipment

One computer workstation, including a CPU, monitor, and printer were purchased in 1997. Due to political instability in 1997, the items were put into storage in 1997. They were given to the NACD laboratory in 1999. The equipment is out of order.

Laboratory Equipment

One Nicolet Avatar spectrometer and one Carver hydraulic press were purchased in 1997. Due to political instability in 1997, the items were put in storage and given to the NACD in 1999. In April 2007, post shipped the spectrometer to DEA-Bangkok, which transferred it to a Thailand -based company affiliated with the American manufacturer for testing and repairs. Tests revealed that the cost of repairing the machine was prohibitively high. Post is consulting with INL the transfer of the machine to another post where it might be used for spare parts.



All commodities procured by the NAS Vientiane using INCLE funds are delivered to agencies of the Government of Laos (GOL) pursuant to the provisions of the Letter of Agreement between the USG and GOL concluded annually for the Crop Control, Demand Reduction and Law Enforcement Cooperation projects. Delivery is made physically either directly to the recipient GOL agency’s office or location where the commodities will be used, or in the case of a few remote locations, to the Vientiane headquarters of the agency. A designated senior official of the recipient agency signs a receipt for the item(s) delivered, which is maintained on file by the NAS. The Lao National Commission for Drug Control and Supervision (LCDC), the primary GOL counterpart agency to the NAS, signs all Purchase Authorizations for INCLE-funded project commodities, is informed of any commodities to any GOL recipient, and maintains a separate inventory of commodities donated by the USG. Upon delivery, monitorable commodities are entered in the NAS EUM inventory, which is maintained by source of project funding and location of commodities. This inventory is periodically reviewed against the corresponding inventory maintained by LCDC.

At least once during each year, one NAS or other USG employee physically inspects all commodities at all locations. The FSN Program Assistant was primarily responsible for inventory maintenance and physical inspections during 2007. Inspections include a check of using agency inventories of commodities and available maintenance or use records, verification of serial or unique identifying number, verification of condition of the items, and interview of GOL officials concerning use and impact. The NAS allows reasonable exception to one hundred percent physical verification for cases such as documented absence of a motorcycle with an official on official travel when an inspection occurs. Non expendable items without unique identifying numbers (e.g. computer disks, office furniture) are verified by inventory number and physical count.

Where items are found to be inoperable, using agencies are requested to secure and provide estimates for cost of repair. When repair cost would exceed the cost of a comparable new item, NAS completes a report of survey to document the circumstance, and the item is deleted from inventory. When residual value justified it, commodities physically located in or near Vientiane are recovered and delivered by NAS to post GSO for excess property auction. When any item is determined to have no reasonable residual value, or when the item is in a location so physically remote that recovery to the capital is not economically feasible, the using agency is informed by letter that the item should be disposed of as junk. When items are reported lost, stolen, or destroyed, the using agency is requested to provide a written report of the pertinent circumstances, including a statement of whether any of the pertinent circumstances, including a statement of whether any individual has been determined to have been the primary agent of the loss or destruction and if so, what disciplinary action was found appropriate.

Upon receipt of such a report, the NAS prepares a report of survey and the item is deleted from inventory. In all instances, LCDC is informed of deletions of items from inventory. In addition to one regular annual EUM inspection, whenever NAS or other Embassy personnel plan to visit any location away from Vientiane where NAS commodities are held or used, NAS provides the traveler with an inventory of all commodities at the location to be visited, and requests that the traveler inspect the items and report observations concerning the condition and use of those items. Property procured by the NAS with PD&S funds for its own use is separately identified in the inventory of USG-owned property maintained by the post GSO, and is used, serviced and regularly inventoried by GSO under ICASS with all other USG property at post.

In June 2007, NAS Vientiane received its first INL Management Assessment visit since 2002. The team recommendations included a recommendation that the NAS EUM property inventories be re-examined and re-verified by inspection and that a systematic effort be made to purge inventories of property that is unserviceable, under used or is lost, stolen, missing or destroyed. The NAS began a complete re-verification of its EUM inventories following the MAV. Progress has been less than rapid, due in part to workload on limited NAS staff, and in part to slowness of GOL counterpart agencies to provide documentation of the condition of unusable property or the circumstances of items that are unaccounted for. With the employment of three additional FSN Program Assistants for each of the three major NAS projects anticipated by the end the first quarter of CY-2008, the NAS expects that purging of unusable or missing commodities and re-validation of current inventories of monitorable items, should be completed.



Dual-cab pickup trucks and lightweight motorcycles have been provided to drug law enforcement units at the national and provincial level, to a few PCDC’s and to drug abuse treatment centers, to provide official duty transportation for personnel of the agencies and for movement of official goods. Due to financial constraints in recent years, virtually all four-wheeled vehicles and most motorcycles have already exceeded class life. Since NAS resources now allow little replacement for vehicles, vehicles which become unserviceable will as a general rule be recovered for excess property sale by post GSO if located in or near Vientiane or sold or junked locally, if at a remote location.

Vehicles donated by NAS are in use at the following locations: Vientiane Capital-two (2) Toyota Hilux double-cab pickups, two (2) Toyota Land Cruisers, thirty-four (34) motorcycles; Vientiane Province-three (3) motorcycles; Bolikhamxay-three (3) motorcycles; Bokeo-one (1) Toyota Hilux double-cab pickup and eight (8) motorcycles; Champasak-one (1) Toyota Hilux double-cab pickup and six (6) motorcycles; Houaphan-one (1) Mitsubishi double-cab pickup and nine (9) motorcycles; Luang Namtha-one (1) motorcycle; Luang Prabang Province-one (1) Toyota Hilux double-cap pickup and fourteen (14) motorcycles; Luang Prabang LAP-three (3) Toyota Hilus double-cab-pickups and nine (9) motorcycles; Oudomxay-one (1) Mitsubishi double-cab pickup (unserviceable) and ten (10) motorcycles (1 reported lost, 1 unserviceable, and 2 in bad condition); Phong Saly Province-two (2) Toyota Hilux double-cab pickups and nine (9) motorcycles (1 unserviceable to be deleted from inventory); Phong Saly LAP-three (3) Toyota Hilux double-cab pickups and twelve (12) motorcycles; Savannakhet-two Ford Ranger double-cab pickups, two (2) Toyota Hilus double-cab pickups, and sixteen (16) motorcycles (1 unserviceable); Xayabouri-one (1) Toyota Hilux double-cab pickup and ten (10) motorcycles; Xiengkhouang-one (1) Toyota Hilux double-cab pickup and one (1) motorcycle.


In October 2000, the NAS delivered one small speedboat with a Toyota 1800 cc 16 valve engine to be used by the Provincial Drug Police in Oudomxai. The boat is located in Pakbeng and is used to provide transportation of police to locations not accessible by road. The boat and motor are operable.

Laboratory Equipment

In 1994, the NAS delivered two small triple-beam balances and two IntelKit TX-722 drug test analyzers to the Drug Control Division of the Lao National Police. This equipment is now unserviceable and given its age, is beyond economical repair and without remaining residual value. These items will be junked and deleted from inventory. The only other commodities that could be classified in this category are a limited number of very basic items of medical equipment, which are employed at drug abuse treatment centers for clinical, rather than forensic or research purposes.

Communications Equipment

In the Lao-American project, the Motorola base stations provide communications between Vientiane and the project offices in Phongsaly Province. The mobile radios allow for communication between the project area staff and the district offices. All equipment is dedicated to the Anti-Narcotics Crop Control Project with little opportunity for diversion.

One HF-SSB radio, 4 VHF-FM mobile radios, 55 VHF hand-held transceivers were donated to the Drug Control Department. One HF SSB radio and 52 handheld radios (batteries not rechargeable) are unserviceable and will be deleted from inventory. Two HF-SSB radios, three VHF-FM mobile radios, ten handheld radios are used by the Savannakhet counternarcotics Office. One HF-SSB radio and two VHF FM radios are used by the Oudomxay Counternarcotics Office. Twelve hand-held radios are used by the Xayaboury Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB radio, two VHF FM radios, and 20 hand-held transceivers are used by the Champasack Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB radio, two VHF FM radios, and 10 hand-held transceivers are used by the Phongsaly Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB base station and two VHF FM base stations are used by the Houaphan Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB radio, two VHF FM radios and 33 handheld radios are used by the Vientiane Capital (one radio is lost, four require batteries, and two are nonfunctioning). One HF SSB radio, two VHF FM radios, and 17 handheld transceivers are used by the Luang Prabang Counternarcotics Office. One HF-SSB radio, five VHF-FM radios, and 55 hand-held transceivers are used by the Drug Control Department. One VHF FM base station and ten hand-held radios are used by the Bokeo Counternarcotics Unit.

Radio maintenance and repairs were performed either by the U.S. owned distributor of Motorola equipment or by the Ministry of Interior technical staff sent to the CNO’s.

Computer Equipment

Computer equipment sets, typically including processor, keyboard, monitor, printer, UPS, with associated software and consumables such as toner cartridges, have been supplied to GOL agencies as follows: Vientiane Capital-four (4) (1 printer unserviceable); Vientiane Province- two (2) (one printer unseviceable, returned to DCD); Lunag Prabang LAP- nine (9) (1 unserviceable); Oudomxai-two (2) (1 unseviceable) Phong Saly Province- four (4) (1 monitor, 1 UPS unserviceable); Phong Saly LAP-seven (7) plus two notebook computers. All are used for general office work by drug control agencies.

Computers need constant maintenance and repair. Since computer service in the provinces is irregular, such computers must be brought into Vientiane for service. Moreover, the supply of electricity in some areas is unreliable. Consequently, post is very reliant on generators. The NAS keeps careful inventory of the whereabouts of all computer components at all times.

Communications Equipment

As part of the MAV-recommended EUM inventory review during 2007, NAS determined that its predecessors evidently considered that what post had was in part a problem in communication. NAS inventories, particularly for drug law enforcement agencies, include a number of hand-held radios and associated base stations radios procured and delivered to counterparts more than ten years ago. Most of this equipment has been documented as unserviceable for years, and after more than ten years, repair is not an economic option. NAS accordingly determined that LCDC and using counterpart agencies will be notified by letter that all such communications equipment delivered to host government counterparts before January 1, 1998 is deleted from the NAS EUM inventory. Counterpart agencies will be invited to return any of this equipment that is available in Vientiane to the Embassy. Returned items will be delivered to GSO for excess property auction, and if no bids are received, will be junked. Counterpart agencies will be informed that no funds are available to recover equipment located outside Vientiane, which should therefore be junked. The inventory of communications equipment provided below accordingly no longer includes any equipment delivered before January 1, 1998 which was still included in the inventory.

Communications equipment, including hand-held radio and base stations radios and associated batteries and chargers, facsimile machines, and land-line and mobile telephones, is used by GOL agencies in conduct of drug law enforcement activities and management of drug crop control and prevention/treatment programs as the following locations: Vientiane Capital-five (5) HF/SSB base stations, seven (7) VHF/FM base stations with repeater, one (1) VHF/FM vehicle mount, thirty-three (33) VHF/FM hand-held radios-four cannot recharge and 2 are unserviceable, five (5) fax machines (2 unserviceable), nineteen (19) mobile phones (all unserviceable and will be deleted from inventory in 2008); Vientiane Province-one (1) fax; Bokeo-one (1) VHF/FM base station (unserviceable), ten (10) VHF/FM handheld radios, three (3) fax machines; Bolikhamxay-one (1) fax machine; Champasak- two (2) HF/SSB base stations, twenty (20) VHF/FM handheld radios (eight batteries are old and debilitated), two (2) mobile phones, one (1) fax; Houaphan-one (1) HF/SSB base station (unserviceable), twelve (12) VHF/FM handheld radios (four unserviceable, eight cannot recharge. All will be deleted from inventory), one (1) VHF/FM base station, one (1) VHF/FM vehicle mount, two (2) fax machines, one (1) telephone; Luang Namtha-ten (10) VHF/FM handheld radios; Luang Prabang Province-one (1) HF/SSB base station, sixteen (16) VHF/FM base stations, two (2) mobile phones, two (2) faxes; Luang Prabang LAP- two (2) HF/SSB base stations (1 unserviceable), three (3) HF/SSB vehicle mounts, three (3) mobile phones, sixteen (16) telephones, one (1) fax; Oudomxai-one (1) HF/SSB base station, one (1) VHF/FM base station (unserviceable); one (1) VHF/FM vehicle mount (unserviceable) twenty-five (25)VHF/FM handheld radios-six unserviceable, (1 reported lost on duty) three (3) fax machines; Phong Saly Province-one HF/SSB base station, one (1) VHF/FM base station, one (1) VHF/FM vehicle mount (unserviceable), twenty (20) VHF/FM handheld radios (10 unserviceable-to be deleted from inventory), three (3) faxes; Phong Saly LAP-two (2) HF/SSB base stations, three (3) HF/SSB vehicle mounts, ten (10) mobile phones (2 unserviceable), eleven (11) telephones, two (2) faxes, four (4) GPS hand-held radios; Savannakhet-two (2) HF/SSB base stations, one (1) VHF/FM base station, two (2) VHF/FM vehicle mount, ten (10)) VHF/FM handheld radios, two (2) mobile phones, ten (10) telephones, one (1) fax; Xayabouri-one (1) HF/SSB base station (not installed), seven (7) VHF/FM handheld radios (five returned to DCD as unserviceable); two (2) faxes.

Miscellaneous Equipment

Miscellaneous equipment provided to LCDC and PCDC’s drug enforcement police and drug abuse treatment centers and employed by those agencies in general support of crop control, demand reduction and drug law enforcement activities include file and digital cameras and associated equipment; video and audio recorders, playback equipment, televisions, projectors and screens, audio-visual equipment, including amplifiers, speakers, and microphones; a few appliances including refrigerators, freezers and water coolers; auxiliary power generators; office copiers, office furnishing and equipment including typewriters. The NAS has procured and delivered basic medical equipment, and tools and supplies for vocational rehabilitation programs to the drug abuse treatment center at Savannakhet and to other drug treatment centers operated by the GOL. Drug law enforcement police at national level and in selected provinces have been provided with limited quantities of binoculars, handcuffs and body armor.

Construction Projects

The two Lao-American Projects at Phong Saly and Luang Praang were organized as integrated rural development projects which entailed a significant amount of construction. Unusually, in Laos, these projects were funded by INCLE and organized and managed by the NAS, rather than by USAID, as has often been the case in other countries. The bulk of this construction was carried out prior to 2006. The previous Lao-American project that operated in Houaphan Province from 1989 to 1999 also carried out a substantial amount of construction including access roads, rural health clinics, potable water systems, schools and other community facilities, and two dams, one of which was equipped with a 75KW hydro-electric generator. During a visit to Houaphan in 2007, the hydro power facility was found inoperable due to water intrusion under the generator slab which caused cracks in the concrete when local winter temperature dropped below freezing. Project-built roads were generally still in use. The NAS has been searching accessible documentary records for specific records of construction projects carried out by the LAP in Houaphan before 1999, without success to date. The following is a summary of the most significant construction projects carried out by the two LAP’s that terminated on December 31, 2007.

LAP Phong Saly: 91.5 km access roads constructed; 81.5b km access tracks repaired and drained; 51 km access track repaired after landslide; 18 local potable water supply systems; 200 latrines; one district high school teacher and student dormitory; 8 village schools; 8 village meeting halls; project headquarters offices, quarters, support facilities and one project field office.

LAP Luang Prabang: 140.2 km gravel road constructed; 5 local irrigation systems, including excavation of 13 canals; two local health care centers; two community treatment clinics; one permanent school; two semi-permanent student dormitories and 19 temporary quarters for teachers; project headquarters offices, quarters, support facilities and one project field office.

The NAS personnel visited the LAP areas frequently in connection with project termination preparations throughout 2007. Facilities construction for use by the staffs of the terminated projects themselves were transferred upon project termination to the PCDC’s in the respective provinces, and will be used by provincial and district officials concerned with continuing drug control economic support activities. Other facilities continue to be used for the purposes for which they were constructed. Road maintenance will be a continuing concern due to difficult terrain and weather conditions and limited provincial public works capabilities, but to date no significant impairments are know to have occurred.

The Methamphetamine abuse treatment center in Savannakhet Province opened in 2006. It is operating without significant issues arising from construction or physical facilities and is visited regularly by NAS personnel.


The most significant problem encountered is inherent in the structure of the GOL. Budget for operating expenses of government agencies generally are very limited, due both to Laos’ low overall level of economic development, and to a tax structure that leaves significant resources at the disposal of local, rather than national authorities. This is complicated by an ingrained attitude, maintained by officials regardless of what is said by any foreign donor that anything provided by a foreign donor will be supported, maintained, repaired and/or replaced by the party that provided it.

The problem is even more acute in the case of the LCDC. The organization was separated from the Ministry of Foreign Relations only in 2002. In addition, to its primary role of liaison with foreign donors, it has planning and coordination responsibilities but has no operational control of anything but its own poorly paid staff, and essentially no operating budget except what is provided by foreign donors The result is that support of donated equipment with consumables, even something as basic as gasoline, regular maintenance or repair, is almost impossible for the NAS or any other foreign donor entity to secure unless post pays for it. Moreover, particularly for LCDC, since it has virtually no operating funds, this usually cannot even be done by reimbursement if more than a nominal amount is involved, because LCDC has no funds of its own to employ pending reimbursement by a donor. The NAS will continue, like other donors, to preach the gospel that host governments that accept donations from foreign entities must accept responsibility to maintain what is donated. Post does not anticipate great success in the near future.

Another problem that has delayed NAS’ efforts to purge its EUM inventories of overage and unserviceable items is that many GOL officials are reluctant to turn such equipment back in, or to document instances of loss or destruction, unless they can obtain a replacement for what is turned in at the same time. It seems pointless to visit a provincial drug police office and see unusable computers sitting on a shelf, but the feeling often is that if the broken item is turned back in, it will be gone, while if it is kept on a shelf, someone will repair or replace it. Since NAS resources are far more limited now than was the case when most project commodities now on inventory were originally procured, one-for-one replacement is usually no longer an available option. NAS will continue efforts to recover unrepairable equipment for sale and to document cases of loss or destruction, but does not expect that success will be either early or complete.


The overwhelming bulk of about $42 million in INCLE resources employed in Laos since 1989 has been devoted to supporting efforts to reduce and ultimately eliminate the cultivation of opium poppy in Laos, largely by support of the 1989-1999 LAP in Houaphan and the LAP’s in Phong Saly and Luang Prabang which terminated December 31, 2007. Commodities procured by the Crop Control Project and construction and economic assistance provided under it, were the largest single foreign donor support. When this GOL effort began in 1989, poppy cultivation was estimated by the USG as 42, 150 hectares. In the 2006-2007 growing season, the USG estimated poppy cultivation in Laos as 1,100 hectares, a reduction of over 97%. The exact manner in which the LAP contributed to attaining this impact is still under assessment, but the extent of the positive impact is obvious and impressive.

Commodities and construction support for drug Demand Reduction activities have had a less quantifiable but generally positive impact. Drug abuse prevention programs have become better established and more widespread, and public consciousness of the dangers and serious adverse consequences of abusing drugs is visibly growing. Detoxifitation and re-integration into communities of opium addicts has been significantly successful and contributed as well to reducing the domestic demand for opium that was one of the incentives to its illegal cultivation. Maximum positive impact has not yet been attained for the substantial investment in the construction of the Savannakhet treatment center, due in significant part to a lack of funding for the UNDOC project that was intended to provide comprehensive training for the staff. INL has offered the assistance of Daytop International to enhance the professional capabilities of this and other treatment center staff during 2008. The NAS will continue to promote improvements in clinical and vocational rehabilitation programs, along with limited further improvements of physical facilities to better support detoxification of stimulant addicts.

The impact of commodities provided to the Drug Control Division and Provincial Drug Enforcement units of the Lao National Police must fairly be assessed as limited. The inherent institutional capabilities of these units, like those of the Lao Police as a whole, are severely constrained by deficient training, unacceptably low personnel, compensation, widespread low-level corruption, and a criminal justice system that is antiquated and very debilitated.

The impact of training provided over time by the USG or other foreign foreign donors is often limited by rapid-fire personnel rotations that typically leave drug enforcement units with few or no specifically trained personnel. Operating funds for law enforcement are highly limited. The NAS must not only give provincial police a motorcycle, but also pay for the gas to put in it. Finally, in large part for historical reasons, the most senior officials of the GOL have always had strong continuing suspicions about the USG and have generally sought to restrict USG-GOL cooperation in many areas, including drug law enforcement. The NAS continues efforts to make limited enhancements in the physical capabilities of selected priority provincial drug offices and national enforcement activities. There have been a few recent indications that drug police may be gradually growing more receptive to increased cooperation in this area.

Program Changes

During 2007. as has been the cases in Laos since 1989, a considerable amount of INCLE-funded property procured for the Crop Control Project, including monitorable end-items, was used by the two Lao-American Projects in Phong Saly and Luang Prabang, and at the office at the LCDC in Vientiane that managed those projects. These LAP’s were established as joint activities of the NAS and LCDC in 1999 and 2003, respectively. In earlier years, NAS PSC US citizen field advisers lived and worked in the project areas and were responsible for ongoing monitoring of commodities. These two remaining LAP’s terminated on December 1, 2007. Responsibility for opium poppy prohibition, and associated local development activities in the projects areas therefore evolved upon the Provincial Commissions for Drug Control (PCDC’s) in those two provinces and in the districts CDC’s where the projects operated. Because of the progressive reduction that has occurred in poppy cultivation and significant reductions in NAS Vientiane funding after 2003, there had been no deliveries of additional or replacement monitorable major end-items to the LAP’s for several years. Some items remained unusable but all had exceeded class life expectancy. To have recovered this property for the remote project locations to Vientiane for GSO disposal as excess was economically unfeasible, and GSO auction at the remote project locations was impracticable.

Moreover, removal of all property would have prevented local authorities from maintaining measures intended to prevent re-introduction of opium cultivation. While some of the property remained of some use to the PCDC’s and potential use for any other NAS project purpose, LCDC, for its part, considered it important that any useable items held by the LAP’s in project areas be definitely and finally transferred to the provinces, since the provinces have independent operating budget while the LCDC, except for resources provided by foreign donors and GOL salaries, does not. It is clearly beyond the capabilities of the current NAS program to provide further operating support, maintenance, repair or replacement of LAP property. But without that sustainment, this would have led all property rapidly deteriorating into uselessness. The NAS agreed with the LCDC conclusion but for a different reason. Particularly for motorcycles or other vehicles that remain operable, NAS support included liability insurance. GOL agencies “self insure,” i.e. they carry no liability insurance at all. The NAS and Embassy Management officer agreed that even given that all property is legally titled to the GOL, it is important that the USG have no remaining association with it, to avoid embarrassment or even potential claim in the event of an uninsured vehicle accident or fatality.

Accordingly, the NAS prepared reports of survey to document that upon termination of the LAP’s, their property became excess to NAS or LCDC project use, and that due to its age and condition, any residual value was exceeded by cost associated with recovery and auction. LCDC formally transferred title to all remaining LAP property to the PCDC’s concerned, and will receive no further support from LCDC or NAS. The property used by the Vientiane office in LCDC that managed the LAP’s will remain in use by LCDC and on the NAS EUM inventory until such time as it becomes unserviceable, when it will them be disposed of as with any other property located in Vientiane.