2007 End-Use Monitoring Report: Southwest Asia
In 2007, post provided equipment to Government of Kazakhstan (GOK) institutions throughout Kazakhstan, including the Statistics Division of the Procurator General’s Office, the Ministry of the Interior’s Committee on Combating Narcotics, the Legal Institute of the Ministry of the Interior, the Border Guard Service of the Committee for National Security, the Military Institute of the Committee for National Security, and the Financial Police Academy. Over the course of the year, post conducted periodic spot checks on the equipment in conjunction with separate programs such as training events, site visits, and follow-up trips.
In 2004, post purchased 62 computers, 62 printers, two color printers, and four notebook computers for the Statistics Division of the Procurator General’s Office. The computer equipment was distributed throughout Kazakhstan to 17 different branches within the Criminal Statistics Division. In March 2007, an INL Program Manager conducted End Use Monitoring at the PGO’s Kokshetau (Northern Kazakhsan) Olbast Department and confirmed that the computer transferred in 2004 was in place and being used by an employee of the Statistics Department for collection of criminal statistics. The monitor, processor and printer were in good condition. During an elections monitoring trip in August, an INL Program Manager conducted End-Use Monitoring of computers in the Taraz and Zhambyl oblasts. All equipment was in good condition and being used.
Upon completion of renovation of the Saryagash Border Guard Training Classroom in October 2006, office equipment and furniture were delivered. An INL team conduced End-Use Monitoring during the Advanced Training on Improved Border Inspection conducted in April 2007. Fourteen computers provided for the classroom were checked and were operating. The trainers extensively used the 15th computer for showing presentations and video. The furniture was in good condition and other equipment, including a digital video camera and TV were also used during the training.
Within the Anti-Trafficking in Persons project, post is strengthening the Study Center on Combating Illegal Migration and Trafficking In Persons of the Karaganda Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Anti-TIP Center). Office equipment delivered to the training center include two computers, two notebooks, one printer, one scanner, one projector and one projector screen. All equipment is being used and in good working condition.
End Use Monitoring revealed that a few subdivisions did not have the computers and printers. In addition, post representatives suspected that one set had only recently arrived in time for the inspection visit. The Statistics Division advised representatives that a computer set was not delivered to one of the regions because of lack of program specialists to operate the new equipment. Personnel have not received necessary training. Post will follow up to confirm the installation and use of the computers and that operators have received the necessary training.
Twenty-five desktop computers, two projectors, two projector screens, office furniture, two printers, two scanners, and two servers were donated to the Financial Police Academy in Astana in 2005. All computers are being used in a classroom and all but three are in good condition. Three are no longer operational because of a power surge in the lab.
Sixteen desktop computers, two laser printers, six office chairs and desks, one electronic scale, one laboratory scale, and one technical scale were installed at the National Laboratory of Forensics Control. Post maintains a close relationship with the Head of the National Laboratory of Forensics Control to confirm proper use of the equipment. All but three computers are being used in a classroom and all but three are in good condition. They are no longer operational because of a power surge in the lab.
In 2007, INL transferred a digital language laboratory to the Financial Police Academy. The lab includes an instructor’s terminal, 15 terminals for students, an instructor’s computer, one multimedia centralized control system, 15 tables with divisions, 15 monitors, 16 pairs of headphones, and accessories. The manager of the language lab at the Academy received training on the use of the lab; however, due to the fact that the manager left the Academy, the staff needs additional training. Post will make sure that the staff of the academy receives proper training.
In February, post jointly with IOM as implementing organization, conducted a follow-up trip to the checkpoints on the Kazakhstani-Uzbec border. During the follow-up trip, the INL representative conducted End-Use Monitoring of the 4WD UAZ minivans transferred to four guard checkpoints during the IOM project in 2006. The checkpoints are Zhibek Zholy, Kazygurt, Tolebi and Gani Muratbayeva. The heads of the checkpoints confirmed that the vehicles are used to transport border guards and equipment. The vehicles are also used to respond to border incidents.
During the ”Enhancing Immigration Inspection and Border Control on the Land Border of Kazakhstan with Ubekistan” project implemented by IOM, INL funded renovations and purchased equipment for a training classroom at Saryagash Border Control Division (Kazakhstani-Uzbek Border) in 2006. IOM hired a local construction company to do all necessary renovations, which included replacement of windows, installation of doorways, and replacement of linoleum flooring. An INL team visited the classroom in Mach 2007. The classroom was fully equipped for training.
In July 2005, post provided an inspection hanger to the MVD’s committee on Combating Narcotics for use at the Ulken counter-narcotics checkpoint that was completed in 2005. In January 2006, an INL team traveled to Ulken and discovered that the inspection pit was not properly constructed and the soil used was not satisfactory. In December 2007, an INL program manager visited the Ulken checkpoint during the assessment of six internal “Rubezh-Narkotiki” checkpoints and saw that a new inspection pit had been built and the inspection hanger moved. The new inspection pit was properly built and being used for inspection of vehicles and trucks.
As part of the INL project to improve border security, INL funded the renovation of a classroom at the Military Institute of the Committee for National Security. During the visit of the Head of the U.S. Border Patrol Academy, INL was able to inspect the classroom, which had been well renovated. The Military Institute has asked to provide showcases for equipment which has been transferred by international organizations, including INL for training purposes.
To enable the GOK to analyze suspected narcotics in a scientific, legally defensible process that will produce admissible evidence, post upgraded the equipment at the Almaty Forensic Laboratory of the Ministry of Justice. INL purchased infrared spectrometer and gas chromatograph, scales, and a digital camera. The gas chromatograph was in place and effectively used by the employees of the lab. The Director advised that law enforcement officers bring in an average of 15 to 20 materials of which 5 to 7 are found to be drugs. The first gas chromotograph transferred by INL in 2003 was broken and had not properly functioned for more than a year.
In September 2005, INL and the Canine Enforcement Program of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) co-sponsored an exchange of puppies between the U.S. Canine Training Center and the Kazakhstani Customs Canine Center with the goal of more effectively interdicting the flow of narcotics. In June 2007, post conducted End-Use Monitoring of the dogs. One of the dogs was at the Canine Training Center going through a regular medical examination and another was serving on the Kazakhstani-Russian border.
Post transferred technical equipment to be used at the Ulken checkpoint. The equipment included drug test kits, fiber optics bore scopes, and CT30-480 kits. Post inspected the equipment in conjunction with the inspection of the hanger. All donated equipment is located at the checkpoint. The equipment is not yet in use due to the need for additional electrical work at the checkpoint. The head of the Ulken checkpoint asked post to translate the drug test kits instructions from English into Russian.
In support of the Anti- TIP Center, INL provided office furniture and furnished a dormitory in 2007. INL purchased standard sets of furniture for bedrooms and kitchens so that officers in training from different cities of Kazakhstan can stay at the Center.
The endoscopes provided to the “Aul” and “Zhezkent” border checkpoints located on the Kazakhsani-Russian border were very useful in the detection of drugs. They were used to examine the gas tanks. Border Guards were able to find drugs hidden in inaccessible places.
Post also transferred technical equipment, including drug tests, fiber optic inspection system, and other tools to “Aul” and “Zhezkent” checkpoints located on the Kazakhstan-Russian border. Post verified that all equipment was in place and in use. Equipment used most often were fiber optic inspection devices.
In June 2006, post transferred a fiber optic horoscope, a set of metric tools and other equipment to the Ministry Institute of the Committee for National Security to provide hands-one training to border guards. The equipment is in working order and being used for its intended purpose.
In July 2005, post provided an inspection hanger to the Ministry of Interior Committee on Combating Narcotics for use at the Ulken counternarcotics checkpoint that was completed in October 2005. Post has an excellent relationship with the Vice-Minister of the Interior who is also the Head the Committee on Combating Narcotics. The hanger was installed in 2006.
The renovation of two offices and two auditoriums of the Law Institute in Karaganda was completed in 2006. They will be used as the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Study Center.
The host government cooperated with post on matters related to equipment monitoring. Due to the fact that Kazakhstan’s territory is about four times the size of Texas and the fact that post’s counter-narcotics and anti-money laundering programs are implemented throughout the country, post is not always able to perform on-site inspection of equipment. Furthermore, the host government’s requirement stipulating that all diplomatic notes are due at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs six weeks prior to a proposed event, meeting, or monitoring visit created additional difficulties for post in its monitoring efforts.
The Statistics Division of the Procurator General’s Office: the computers transferred to different regions in 2004 were the initial part of the project. Another 146 computers were transferred to other remote villages and towns. The employees of the Statistics Division no longer need to submit paper copies of crime statistics. The GOK plans to provide an internet network for all statistics to be transferred directly to the oblast and control levels.
The National Laboratory of Narcotics Contro ( Forensics Science Center of the Ministry of Justice). As many as twenty samples a day can be processed by the lab with the available equipment. Post hopes that with the new liquid chromatograph being delivered in 2008, the forensics experts will increase their capacity to resolve criminal investigations through forensic analysis evidence.
The Committee on Combating Drugs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD): the hanger at the Ulken “Rubezh-Narkotiki” checkpoint allows detailed inspection of vehicles in severe weather conditions. The highest seizures of drugs are registered at the Ulken and Syrdarya posts. In 2006, police working at Ulken seized five kilos of heroin; during the first ten months of 2007, police seized more than two kilos of heroin. The next step for strengthening the “Rubezh-Narkotiki” checkpoints is to provide training and communications equipment.
Financial Police Academy in Astana: As soon as the language lab is working at full capacity, the Financial Police Academy will be able to improve the English language skills of its cadets, who will be able to participate in training at law enforcement institutions abroad to improve their financial crime detection and investigation skills.
Karaganda Legal Institute, Anti-Trafficking in Persons Study Center: The Anti-TIP Study Center is used to provide training for migration police and MVD officers. During each cycle of training, about 30 students are enrolled. In 2007, post conducted four training events and trained 77 law-enforcement officers, including migration and criminal police. Post will continue conducting raining at the Anti-TIP Study Center.
Border Control Service of the Committee for National Security: The relationship with the Border Guard Service has continued to improve. INL provided equipment to the Kazakhstani-Russian borders. Equipment provided helps border guards to detect drugs and other contraband.
The Military Institute of the Committee for National Security: The relationship with the Military Institute was initialed in March 2006. In June 2006, post provided samples of equipment purchased for use at the border. In November 2006, post conducted Identification of Fraudulent Documents and Detection of Drugs training for 34 cadets of the Institute. In May the Head of the Military Institute visited various U.S. Government Agencies and the U.S. Border Patrol Academy. The visit resulted in an invitation to the Head of the U.S. Border Patrol Academy to visit Kazakhstan which took place in September 2007. The professional relationship has been firmly established between the two institutes. As a result, two graduates of the Military Institute were invited to take part in a four-month training course in Artesia, New Mexico. Post will continue working with the Institute. In March 2008, the Military Institute will receive a language lab which will help to improve the language skills of cadets and trainers.
Since 2003, post has provided INL assistance to a wide variety of Government of Turkmenistan law enforcement agencies. These agencies include the Ministry of Internal Affairs, State Customs Service, State Border Service, State Service for Registration of Foreigners (immigration), Ministry of National Security, Supreme Court, Ministry of Justice, Parliament and Prosecutor General’s Office. Post procedures for equipment transfers require that a representative of the relevant Turkmenistan end-user agency signs an End-User Certificate for each transfer of INL equipment.
Post’s INL assistant conducted on-site inspections to confirm proper use of all equipment. The Government of Turkmenistan agencies were cooperative during the inspection and provided necessary information and access to the sites.
During 2004-2006, INL provided computer equipment, including desktop computers, printers, digital cameras, video recorders, scanners, a copy machine, a fax machine, a laptop, and a projector to the Criminal Research Center (CRC) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the State Forensic Service (SFS) of the Ministry of Justice. In 2006, the latter agency was dismantled and its function and INL equipment were transferred to CRC. All equipment is in good working condition and used for the purpose intended.
In January 2005, the State Forensic Service (SFS) of the Ministry of Justice received two light model vehicles. In June 2006, SFS was dismantled and its functions were transferred to the Criminal Research Center (CRC) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. SFS has transferred these two vehicles to the CRC. All vehicles were accounted for and in operating condition.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs’ CRC Laboratory is equipped with Agilent Technologies gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer systems, gas chromatograph and infrared spectrophotometer system, hydrogen generators, a deionized water system, drug air cleaner, air compressor, eye wash, module and battery packs for laboratory equipment, drug and precursors kits, electronic scales, and compound and stereo microscopes. This equipment, donated during 2004-2007, is in excellent condition. This lab equipment will support the growing capacity of Turkenistan law enforcement agencies to carry out counter-narcotics activities and help to resolve criminal investigations through scientific and forensic analysis of evidence.
In December 2007, INL organized a two-week Crime Scene Processing Course for 25 police officers from the Ministry of Internal Affairs investigation units. At the completion of the course basic forensic equipment and crime scene investigation tools were given to each of the five provincial investigation units as well to Ashgabat headquarters. The equipment and tools will help police investigators to collect evidence and conduct basic forensic examinations in the field.
In December 2007, INL provided interactive software programs for learning English to State Customs Service training centers. INL funds the English language Training programs for law enforcement officers from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the State Customs Service, the State Border Service, the State Service for Registration of Foreigners (Immigration), the Ministry of National Security, and the Prosecutor General’s Office.
Frequent staff turnover of CRC laboratory management has created some difficulties in maintaining a consistent and proper inventory list on INL donations to the CRC. In addition, it has created some uncertainty among CRC staff members who should be responsible for maintaining the laboratory’s inventory records.
Through the CRC laboratory support program and donations other law enforcement agencies, INL assistance facilitated a good working relationship between the Embassy and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Following recommendations made by U.S. government experts, the CRC conducted major renovations of the laboratory facility in 2007, using its own resources. The CRC’s work on equipment and facilities will support Government of Turkmenistan effort to raise its national forensic capacity to international standards. In 2007, some embassy officers noted an improvement in the English language skills of Government of Turkmenistan officials at entry and exit points, which they consider is a positive impact of the English Language Training course. The Government of Turkmenistan requested an increase in the number of students in the next term’s training course, which indicates that the INL program is well received and a success.
During EUM activities, the Ministry of Internal affairs transferred some of its responsibilities to the newly established State Counternarcotics Agency. Post plans to consider assistance to this new DEAS-style agency when planning future INL programs.
Post monitored the use of equipment purchased for Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s), Sri Lanka Anti-Narcotics Association (SLANA). Post received verbal updates on the status of equipment from each organization.
A photocopier was provided to the SLANA in 1998. SLANA has reported that the photocopier is not functioning. It has reached the end of its useful life.
The photocopier, when operable, helped the post provide comprehensive anti-narcotics support.
Post visited the Department of Narcotics Control (DNC) lab; examined the INL-funded equipment; and questioned laboratory personnel on its maintenance and use. Lab staff members were cooperative in showing the equipment and answering questions.
The political officer viewed the analytical balance and the top-loading balance from 2000 and one of the high-powered microscopes from 2005. The top-loading balance and the high-powered microscopes were in use and working properly, although the balance appeared to have rust on its surface. The analytical balance was broken and the laboratory staff said they had no idea what was wrong or how to fix it. One high-powered microscope is in storage because there are not enough lab technicians to make use of it.
The DNC lab is understaffed and under-funded. In 2003, it had 16 employees who tested about 4,000 samples; last year it had only nine employees who tested nearly 20,000 samples, primarily suspected heroin, cannabis, alcohol and amphetamines. The staff is requesting training on lab equipment upkeep.
USG efforts to support the lab are not enough to ensure efficient operation without increased GOB support. Encouraging the DNC to increase staffing would allow the lab to use the equipment it already has more effectively and would help ensure further investments would not be for naught.
INL Dushanbe has provided equipment to host government institutions located throughout Tajikistan. These institutions include the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), Drug Control Agency (DCA), and the State Committee on National Security, with separate provisions to the Border Guards, which are now a sub-unit of the committee on National Security.
During 2007, INL Dushanbe staff conducted periodic spot checks of the equipment in conjunction with separate programs such as training events, site visits, and performed specific End Use Monitoring trips. The government cooperated with all requests for verification concerning the use of donated equipment.
Post continues to improve its procedures to monitor NAS-financed/provided equipment. Locally employed Program Managers personally accept and inventory all equipment upon arrival to post. Program management assistants also maintain an internal record of donated goods and periodically request detailed inventories from the receiving agencies. Regular monitoring of INL-supported projects provides a ready opportunity for specific End Use Monitoring of previously donated equipment. Results of the checks have show that the government agencies, generally are using equipment properly, and donated equipment is helping to combat drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, and preventing crime.
In November 2005, NAS Dushanbe donated two Toyota Prado trucks to the Minister of Interior and the Deputy Minister of Interior. The vehicles are stored at the Minister of Interior when not in use. Both trucks are in good condition and are properly maintained.
In February 2005, the Trafficking in Persons Department (TIP) received thirteen vehicles from NAS Dushanbe: two Chevrolet Nivas, one Gazelle mini-van, and ten sedans. During a recent inspection, post verified that all donated vehicles were in good working condition and used in Trafficking-in-Persons (TIP) operations.
In September 2005, the Counternarcotics Department received fourteen vehicles: four Gazelle mini-vans, six sedans, one Russian Niva jeep, two Niva Chevrolets, and one Toyota Camry. The vehicles are located in different regions of Tajikistan and used in counternarcotics operations around the country. One of the vehicles is damaged beyond repair because of a traffic accident. This vehicle will no longer be accounted for in future End Use Monitoring. The reminder of the donated vehicles are in good working condition and are properly maintained.
In 2005, the Drug Control Agency (DCA) received sixteen vehicles from NAS Dushanbe: three Gazelles, four Niva Chevrolets, six Vaz sedans, two Russian Nivas, and one Toyota trucks. All are well maintained and used daily in counternarcotics operation across Tajikistan.
During 2006, the State Committee for the Protection of State Borders (TBG) received twenty-six vehicles: five KAMAZ trucks, five Russian UAZ-Hunter jeeps, eight ambulances, two Toyota Prados, one Toyota Camry and five Volges. They have not yet been transferred to the field. During the inspection, Embassy officials determined that one KAMAZ truck is totally damaged beyond repair due to a traffic accident in the Badakhshan area. This vehicle is no longer monitored. Checks showed that remainder of vehicles are being properly used and maintained.
Post provided 160 pieces of furniture for the Khirmanjo border outpost. Until reconstruction works are completed, all the furniture is stored at the sealed Border Guards Department warehouse.
In February 2006, NAS Dushanbe donated ten Dell Pentium computers, one server, two printers, one scanner, one Xerox machine, furniture (desks, chairs, rolling chairs, bookcases, file cabinets, safes) and software to the new Minister of Interior Criminal Investigation Analytical Center. During its inspection, NAS found a minor problem with one computer; the rest of the computers are in good condition.
Post provided the following equipment to the State Committee on National Security Headquarters: one Night binocular NVB8 Gen III, three Olympus digital voice recorder with earplugs, two Garmin Global Positioning Systems, one UNIDEN Bearcat scanner, one D221 Generation II binocular, two inspection mirrors, two parabolic dishes, two Steiner binoculars, ten Galls digital voice recorder w/wireless microphones, eight Command ear units, and ten UNIDEN trunk tracker radio scanners. Checks show that the equipment is being properly used and maintained.
In 2005, the MOI Police Academy received thirty-nine Dell Pentium 4 computer desktops, two printers, furniture (desks, chairs, bookcases, whiteboards) for a computer classroom, a language laboratory, civil law classroom and a forensic classroom. INL also provided an electrical transformer to insure continuous electricity support for the equipment provided.
Nine Samsung computers, five HP Scan Jet scanners, one HP laser Jet printer, and nine voltage regulators, were provided to the Forensic laboratory. The equipment is being properly maintained and used.
INL provided three Dell computers and three UPS units to the Airport Security Department in Dushanbe. The equipment is being properly used and maintained.
Post donated ten computers, a server, 2 printers, and a scanner to the new Analytical Center in February 2006. The center is responsible for collecting, organizing, storing, processing, and exchanging information related to all criminal investigations conducted within MVD Departments and information exchange with other law enforcement agencies of Tajikistan. Post provides ten additional computers to different MVD departments to connect them with the Analytical Center for the purpose of exchanging information. Checks shows that the equipment is being properly used and maintained.
The following equipment was provided to the Forensic Laboratory: Millipore water purifier, Atlas air compressor, spectrometer, Laser Jet printer, Epson Stylus color printer, HP monitor, economy start kit, voltage regulator, two canon LBP printers, two Central Processing Units.
The Counternarcotics Department received two video cameras, three photo cameras, three CT-30 kits, three Gen IIIA night shadow binoculars, three Steiner binoculars, ten Galls 16 MB digital voice recorders w/wireless microphone, two Command ear units, three Olympus digital voice recorders with earplugs, three Parabolic dishes, three Gateway laptops, two UNIDEN scanners bearcat, five UNIDEN truck tracker radio scanners, three GPS units 72 Garmin, three Inspection mirrors, one fax machine, one air-conditioner, on LaserJet printer, one Laptop Gateway, one projection Cannon, one projector screen, five wide angle binoculars, ten Garrett hand0held super scanner, fifteen combat ballistic helmet and five safes.
Post provided the TIP unit with ten wide angle binoculars, ten Garrett hand-held super scanners, and ten combat ballistic helmets, all of which are accounted for and in good working condition.
The DCA received three Sony digital video cameras, three CT kits, 15 wide angle binoculars, ten Garrett hand held super scanners, five generation II binocular, three Detect Ear Parabolic dishes, five Galls 16 MB digital voice recorder with wireless microphones, four Command Ear sound amplifiers, two Steiner military binoculars, five inspection mirrors, five safes, seven night vision binoculars, four portable hand-held GPS, 1 Motorola Professional two-way UKF radios, three Bearcat scanners, one refrigerator, and one air conditioner. Checks show that the equipment is being properly used and maintained.
INL provided twelve CT-30 kits to the TBG warehouse in Dushanbe. They will be released to the Committee in 2007 after appropriate specialized training is completed.
INL provided gym equipment to ensure Mobile Team physical fitness; 45 lb weight plates, 10 lb-100 lb Hex dumbbells with Ergo Grip, star track bicycle, Landice running track, Kettler Delta 300, Power Station, U.S. Strength Olympic 4 in1 bench, U.S. Strength Olympic incline bench, U.S. Strength adjustable decline, U.S. strength arm curl bench, U.S. strength 45 degrees hypertension, Chin Dip vertical knee raise. Check shows that the equipment is being used and maintained.
INL provided the following equipment to the “BOG” border outpost: one Steiner binocular, one NVD 221 Generation II binocular, and one night shadow Generation III binocular. Post provided the following to “Sarigor” border outpost: one Steiner binocular, one NVD 221 Generation II binocular, and one night shadow Generation III binocular. Post provided the following equipment to the Shurabad Otryad border post: one Steiner binocular, one NVD generation II binocular, one Steiner binocular, and one shallow Generation III binocular. Checks showed that the equipment is being properly used and maintained.
INL funded ten thousand uniforms for Border Guard troops serving on the Tajik-Afghan Border Sector, including one thousand sets designed specifically for the severe winter conditions of the Murgab area. Checks show that the uniforms are being properly used and maintained.
Since 2005, post has funded the reconstruction of the MVD Analytical Center, Counter Narcotics Department Training Room, MVD Forensic Lab, MVD Police Academy third floor, Drug Control Agency Mobile Teams facility (sixth floor of the main headquarters), Drug Control Agency Mobile Teams gym, and the State Committee on National Security Training Academy roof.
The Government of Tajikistan uses all resources provided for the intended purpose. Frequent arrests of drug traffickers and the multiple kilo drug seizures are excellent examples of how the GOTI law enforcement agencies are effectively using the equipment in their fight against drug trafficking and related crimes. Overall, law enforcement and security ministries combating border smuggling and organized crime have demonstrated greater capacity and willingness to be proactive than during the period before Russian border guards withdrew in early 2005. Post will continued to use it contributions to press host country partners to move beyond seizures and arrests, toward successful prosecutions of organized crime.
The NAS performs End Use Monitoring in the course of day-to-day program management, on-site inspections, procurement of new equipment and commodities, and contact with GOP counterparts. The NAS Director, Deputy Director, and Management Officer routinely reinforce EUM objectives with counterparts in recipient agencies. As needed, NAS management raises issues of commodity abuse with appropriate officials; recommends areas of improvement; and follows up to ensure timely compliance. GOP agencies are generally cooperative and responsive to EUM requirements.
NAS inspected all commodities upon receipt from suppliers and maintained up-to-date inventory records. The transfer of commodities to the end user agencies were documented with a Memorandum of Receipt (MR), including serial numbers and descriptions of commodities, signed by the appropriate GOP officials. Copies of MR’s were retained by the NAS Inventory Officer. Items reported by the end-user agency to have been lost or destroyed were accounted for using the appropriate records and were deleted for the NAS inventory. Auctioned items were written off in the same manner. The NAS maintained an additional report to track all items deleted from the active inventory.
After a schedule of EUM visits for the year was finalized and end user agencies were notified, NAS EUM teams conducted on-site inspections of commodities provided to the GOP. The findings of the EUM teams were then cross-checked against inventories submitted by GOP agencies and inventory records maintained by the NAS.
In 2007, all GOP agencies receiving NAS assistance continued to provide quarterly reporting on a NAS-provided template, including inventory, status, location, and impact of NAS-provided items.
In 2007, the NAS EUM team organized a schedule of thirty six (36) visits to recipient agencies throughout Pakistan, including Quetta, Karachi, the Makran Coast, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Peshawar and FATA agencies. Of these, only twenty-five (25) were actually carried out. During these inspections, the NAS and counterpart agencies jointly verified and updated inventories. The remaining eleven visits were canceled for security reasons in parts of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Balochistan. In cases where travel to an area was neither feasible, such as the remoteness of the location, nor safe, agencies transported commodities to main locations for inspection by the NAS staff. When taking vehicles or equipment away from their main area of deployment would have harmed operational effectiveness, the NAS staff compared NAS-generated computerized inventory records of commodities against recipient agency written inventories provided in quarterly reports.
Agricultural, Area Development and Construction
During 2007, NAS teams physically inspected forty-five (45) percent of the 2,496 INL-funded vehicles and motorcycles, verifying their condition and location of deployment. The NAS physically inspected seventy-nine (79) percent of twenty-four (24) FLIRs, seventy-two (72) percent of the 1,012 night vision goggles/night vision binos, and thirty-five (35) percent of the 4,338 pieces of communications equipment. NVBs and NVGs that were not seen were deployed in authorized counterterrorism operations in North and South Waziristan and in other frontier areas posing security risks to NAS personnel.
NAS agricultural staff participated in all agriculture activities from planning to procurement to distribution to the end users. This hands-on effort assured the procurement of quality inputs and the distribution of inputs to the agreed target groups. NAS staff evaluated the effectiveness of demonstration plots over the course of the year.
For construction activities, road, and small water schemes, the NAS engineering section was involved from the planning and costing stage to implementation to the final certification and payment. NAS voucher examiners monitored the bills and expenses submitted and made occasional field visits to verify expenditures. NAS engineers monitored independently and with GOP counterparts to enforce contract compliance and qualify control. The NAS staff conducted oversight and final inspections for all road projects and small water schemes. Completion reports were jointly signed by the executing GOP technical agency, NAS and the GOP political agent in the agencies to assure accountability. In cases such as South Waziristan where the security situation hindered physical inspection, the Pakistani implementing agency was required to provide detailed information and photographs for monitoring and quality control purposes.
In 2007, the Senior Aviation Adviser (SAA) with the assistance of NAS personnel, carried out field-based End Use Monitoring of the aircraft and equipment provided to the Ministry of Interior (MOI) Air Wing. The SAA’s frequent travel to the Air Wing’s operating base in Quetta provided USG oversight of the aviation support contractor’s performance as well as necessary reviews of the MOI’s aviation procedures. Helicopters and aircraft were operated and maintained under the direct supervision of USG contractors, except when deployed. The MOI Air Wing was required to notify the NAS before launching a mission, though NAS approval was not required so long as the mission was within the scope of the Letter of Agreement. Historically, it has been difficult to monitor the use of the aircraft once they deploy, particularly for protracted missions or in remote areas.
Aircraft fuel use and billing was monitored through flight logs that were maintained and reviewed by State Department contractor personnel. Jet fuel was obtained from contracted fuel services and government sources located countrywide by Pakistani Government contractor prices. When deployed away from Quetta, fuel invoices were given to flight crews for aircraft fuel provided. These invoices were verified by MOI personnel and periodically audited by the NAS.
Generally, agencies had commodities in place and were using them for their intended purposes. Overall, post found that GOP law enforcement agencies impose tight controls and strict administrative practices. GOP agencies generally maintained current inventories of NAS-provided equipment. The condition of items varied from location to location.
Law enforcement agencies continued to report appropriate use of INL-funded vehicles for counternarcotics and counterterrorism operations. Vehicles helped law enforcement staff move to check points for stakeouts; patrol border areas; pursue, apprehend and transport suspected border smugglers; conduct background investigations; and search for drug storage areas and laboratories. For example, Frontier Corps NWFP reported using vehicles to establish daily and nightly mobile check points to check the movement of traffickers and other criminals. Vehicles also transported GOP managers to carry out feasibility studies for development projects; monitor the implementation of various development schemes and road construction; and verify GOP reports of crop eradication.
The vehicles provided to Home Department/FATA were found to be in assigned locations. The logbooks are being maintained which will help with maintenance of vehicles.
The Frontier Corps (FC) reported proper use of BSP vehicles during the year. In 2007, FC-NWFP reported that 13 vehicles were destroyed during counternarcotics operations. These vehicles include 3 troop carrier trucks destroyed during counterterrorism operations. To date 29 FC-NWFP vehicles have been destroyed during counternarcotics operations. Two single cabin pickups of FC-Balochistan were also destroyed by landmines in the Dera Bugti area.
Two vehicles from the Excise and Taxation Department, Karachi were found to be in scrap condition and will be auctioned.
In a handful of cases, the NAS has been notified of vehicles provided for operational purposes being used by GOP agency administrative staff. The NAS has also received one or two reports of NAS-provided vehicles and equipment (e.g. generators) being used for personal purposes by the principals of the end-user agencies or their relatives. In all cases, the NAS is following up with the concerned GOP agencies to ensure that all commodities are being used for the intended purpose in accordance with the Letter of Agreement (LOA) with the GOP.
Customs Intelligence reported that two motorcycles were stolen. In such cases, the NAS required the responsible agency to provide a written statement detailing the steps taken to locate the stolen item, including any police investigation, before removing it from inventory.
Current vehicle inventory is as follows ANF- 400 vehicles, 229 motorcycles; ANF/SIC-20 vehicles, 26 motorcycles; Frontier Constabulary-35 vehicles, 20 motorcycles: Frontier Corps (NWFP)-470 vehicles; Frontier Corps (Balochistan)-692 vehicles, 30 motorcycles; Customs Intelligence-64 vehicles, 54 motorcycles; Aviation Program-4 vehicles; Police Training Program-1 vehicle; New Horizon Care Center-3 vehicles, 4 motorcycles: Home Department (NWFP)-313 vehicles, 6 motorcycles; Coast Guard-102 vehicles; Excise and Taxation-6 vehicles; Home Department Balochistan (Levies)-36 vehicles; Intelligence Bureau -34 vehicles, 45 motorcycles; Ministry of Narcotics Control-8 vehicles, 1 motorcycle; Ministry of Interior-2 vehicles; NAS office/ICITAP-7 vehicles; NAS Office (Peshawa)-15 vehicles, 1 motorcycle; NAS Office (Quetta)-1 vehicle; National Police Academy-3 vehicles; Kala Dhaka-6 vehicles, 6 motorcycles.
The NAS staff found proper use of all-inspected computers, printers and other office equipment given to recipient GOP agencies within Pakistan.
Agencies reported proper use of INL-funded bullet-proof jackets and other field gear in law enforcement operations. In 2006, 1,824 units of bullet-proof jackets and 2,850 units of bullet-proof helmets were provided to various agencies.
Communications and Surveillance Equipment
Recipient GOP agencies reported using surveillance (FLIRs, NVGs, and NVBs) and communications equipment to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics and counterterrorism operations. Equipment includes VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF handheld repeaters, and VHF mobile transceivers. Radio equipment plays an important role in the ability of various law enforcement headquarters to communicate with their stations nationwide. The Coast Guard noted that communications equipment has ensured a 24-hour link among all its posts and timely passage of information related to smugglers activities. In some remote areas, radio equipment is crucial to operational outposts. The NAS has provided solar panels and power generators to various agencies to provide uninterrupted service to non-electrified areas. Much of the communications equipment is deployed in extremely rugged, remote and dangerous terrain, making physical monitoring difficult.
The high turnover of qualified and experienced technicians has hampered the proper use and maintenance of NAS-provided communications equipment by the ANF, Customs, and agencies in the FATA who rely on NAS communications engineers to provide maintenance and repair service. In 2006, 228 pieces of equipment were reported defective, and of those, 222 were repaired jointly by NAS and the respective agency technical staff. About 54 radio technicians and technical staff of various GOP agencies were trained to carry out programming, installation and maintenance of NAS-provided radio equipment.
The Customs Drug Enforcement Cell reported that it is using the INL-funded 27-foot Challenger Boston Whaler, provided in 1987, for surveillance of any illegal movement outside Karachi Port.
Area Development/Agricultural Projects- In 2007, a total of sixteen (16) different road projects were under construction in Mohmand, Bajaur and Khyber during the year with a total length of 77 Km. Twenty-four km were completed in 2007 while an additional 53 km will be completed in the next two years. Five counternarcotics roads projects were under construction in Kala Daka and Mansehra. Ten km were completed in 2007 and an additional 29 km will be completed in the next two years. During 2007, 22 small schemes were completed of 28 schemes planned in Khyber Agency. A total of 1,093 acres of demonstration plots were established in Khyber Agency, 524 acres in Kala Dhaka and 384 acres in Kohistan, 300 acres in Mohmand Agency and 250 acres in Bajaur Agency.
Border Security Roads-In 2006-2007, 51 km of roads were blacktopped against the remaining 2991 planned. Due to poor weather and security problems, road projects were held up in Khyber, North and South Waziristan Agencies.
Outposts-In 2007, the 15 border outposts were completed in Baluchistan. An additional 10 are currently planned for that region. The final 4 outposts of 24 planned in NWFP are currently under construction. In NWFP, construction of the remaining 4 out of 24 border outposts are under construction. Twenty-eight tribal Levy outposts were completed in the FATA, bringing the total to 62.
Nine UH-1H II helicopters flew a total of 1987.3 hours from January to December 2007. The helicopter’s Operational Readiness rate for the year was 69.0 percent. Three fixed-wing Cessna Caravan 208 aircraft were flown 1177.5 hours and were maintained at an Operational Readiness Rate of 83.2 percent.
The Air Wing’s nine (9) Huey IIs executed 555 operational missions which included MOI support, poppy surveys, and medevac support for personnel injured during FC and ANF operations and border reconnaissance. The three fixed-wing Cessna Caravans, equipped with FLIR surveillance equipment, executed 426 missions, including tactical surveillance, medavac support and command and control support for combined operations involving fixed and rotor assets.
Pakistan made progress toward sealing its porous border with Afghanistan against infiltration by drug traffickers, terrorists, and other criminals, using INL-supplied helicopters, vehicles, and other equipment. In general, law enforcement agencies have stressed that the commodity assistance has provided them with greater mobility and a more rapid response capability for operations in the remote region, especially on the Pak-Afghan border.
The Frontier Corps NWFP reported using NAS-provided vehicles, communications and surveillance equipment in search operations for suspected terrorists.
From January to December 2007, GOP authorities reported arresting 50,100 individuals on drug-related charges. All GOP security forces reported seizing 15,266 kg of heroin, 93,842 kg of Hashish and 10,856 kg of heroin/morphine. The Frontier Corps Balochistan reported the use of NAS-provided vehicles, surveillance and communications equipment in the seizure of 465 kg of heroin, 2,064 kg of opium, 4405 kg cannabis and the apprehension of 43 smuggles. The Pakistan Coast Guard reported using NAS-provided vehicles, surveillance and communication equipment in the seizure of 11 kg of heroin, 56 kg of opium, and 4,863 kg of cannabis and the apprehension of 52 smugglers. In October, the Customs Intelligence, Faisalabad region seized 581 kg Cannabis and 23 kg opium using NAS vehicles and equipment; the Customs Intelligence, Quetta, using NAS provided vehicles and communications equipment seized 320 kg Hashish that are artfully concealed in the secret cavities especially designed in a passenger bus.
From January to December 31, 2007 GOP authorities reported arresting 50.100 individuals on drug-related charges.
Opium Poppy Control
With USG assistance, the GOP conducted extensive ground and aerial monitoring the increase in Pakistan’s poppy cultivation over the previous year to 2,315 hectares in 2007. This was due to an increase in cultivation of 102 hectares, 31 hectares and 111 hectares in Mohmand, Bajaur and Khyber agencies of NWFP respectively as well as significant increase in cultivation in Balochisan from 46 hectares to 416 hectares. USG-provide aircraft, vehicles and communications equipment were used to investigate and monitor the 2006-2007 opium poppy crop; to help forces eradiate it and verify its destruction. After destruction, the poppy harvest resulted in a yield of 1,701 hectares.
Vehicles, Night Vision goggles and Commo Equipment
In a single operation on May 15, 2006, the Coast Guard used INL-provided vehicles, night vision goggles, GPS and communications equipment to seize 900 kgs of hashish. In a joint operation on August 29, 2006, the Frontier Corps NWFP seized 400 kgs of hashish.
On July 21, 2006, the Balochistan Levies Force was tipped off about an armed group setting up a roadblock to extort illegal fees from local transporters. Using NAS vehicles, Levies rushed to the scene, and removed the roadblock after exchanging fire with the militants.
On August 5, 2006, Khassadar Force (police) used NAS-provided vehicles and radios to conduct a raid near the Torkham Border Crossing (on the Pak-Afghan border), recovering 171 containers of diesel and patrol fuel stolen from a tanker truck traveling to Afghanistan.
The MOI Air Wing was the first night vision goggles (NVG) capable helicopter squadron in Pakistan. The MOI Air Wing has both fixed wing night surveillance assets and a NVG-trained night interdiction Heliborne Assault Force (HAF). Surveillance of the border improved significantly with the fixed wing aircraft, providing useful background information, as well as mission-specific information to the border security agencies.
Air Wing Assets
Air Wing assets directly contributed to the seizure of 88 kgs. of morphine, 889 kgs. of opium, and 312 kgs of hashish, as well as the weapons and vehicles used by the smugglers. The NAS has made clear to senior GOP interlocutors that the Frontier Corps and the ANF, in particular, need to make greater tactical use of the assets in counternarcotics operations.
The MOI Air Wing was the first night vision goggle (NVG)-capable helicopter squadron in Pakistan. The MOI Air Wing has both fixed wing night surveillance assets and a NVG-trained night interdiction Heliborne Assault Force (HAF). Surveillance of the border improved significantly with the fixed wing aircraft, providing useful information to the border security agencies.
Limited Maintenance Resources
GOP resources to operate, maintain, and support NAS-provided vehicles and other commodities remain limited. Maintenance of communications equipment in particular, continues to be a problem, because law enforcement agencies lack the required resources and trained technicians required. The NAS provided maintenance support for the radios of all agencies in 2007, but worked with the Pakistani technicians to enhance their capabilities. The NAS also helped agencies set up proper repair shops, equip them with tools and text equipment, and provide parts and accessories needed to repair the radio equipment.
In 2007, the NAS (and at times the GOP) had difficulty monitoring assets and construction projects due to ongoing counterterrorism operations, particularly in North and South Waziristan. Given that these are some of the highest impact areas for INL assistance, the NAS worked with agencies to come up with procedures that meet End Use Monitoring needs but allow work and operations to continue.
Air Wing Missions
The Embassy still does not always receive timely prenotification from the Air Wing of all missions. The ability of the NAS to monitor use of the aircraft once deployed is also limited; the Letter of Agreement that governs the program specifically states that U.S. personnel are permitted to ride only on training flights, not operational missions.
Analysis of the pattern of requests for repair/replacement suggests that some sensitive equipment, particularly communications and surveillance equipment delivered to the GOP has a short useful life. This can be partially attributed to the lack of expertise and training in the maintenance of this type of equipment by GOP technicians. The NAS proposes to streamline its approach to providing maintenance training and maintenance supplies and equipment to end-user agencies. Through Congressional supplemental aid, the NAS has provided thousands of vehicles and thousands of pieces of communications equipment to Pakistani end-user agencies since 2002.
The Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) performs End Use Monitoring (EUM) in the course of day-to-day program management, through on-site inspections, and through contact with International Advisors assigned to various ministries of the Government of Afghanistan (GOA). The NAS Director, Deputy Director, and Management Officer routinely reinforce EUM objectives with Afghan counterparts in the various ministries. GOA officials are cooperative and responsive to EUM requirements and visits.
The NAS Management Officer has primary responsibility for EUM under the general supervision of the NAS Director. NAS Program Officers, INL contractors, and officials of other agencies, including the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Department of Justice (DOJ), assist the NAS Management Officer in the preparation of the annual EUM report.
Given the infancy of many of the GOA ministries, post has not transferred much equipment to the GOA under the INL program. Most of the facilities and equipment supporting eradication, counternarcotics, and police training programs in Afghanistan remain under INL control.
NAS Kabul has confirmed the location and proper use of all items transferred thus far to the GOA.
Radio Communications System
INL provided the Ministry of Interior (MOI) with 40 CODAN High Frequency radios in 2004, enabling MOI Kabul headquarters to communicate with its provincial units in Afghanistan’s 34 provinces. Each provincial MOI office received a CODAN radio while the MOI used the remaining six radios to establish a Communications Center at MOI Kabul Headquarters. NAS Kabul conducted a site inspection of the communication center in Kabul and verified the CODAN radios are operational. To verify the CODAN radios out in the field, NAS Kabul requested the MOI Communications Center call several provinces at random. Once contact was established, NAS Kabul requested that the radio operator on the other end read back the serial number located on the back of the CODAN radio. NAS officials then compared the serial number to the inventory list. No discrepancies were found. MOI officials cooperated throughout the on-site inspection.
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
INL supplied ten Garmin Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Model 72 units devices to seven Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) team spread throughout Afghanistan which use the equipment to collect grid references of poppy fields for eradication purposes. The INL International Advisors assigned to each of the PEP teams submitted written reports to NAS Kabul verifying that the ten devices are operational and in the possession of the seven PEP teams.
Through Inter-Agency Agreements (IAA) with DEA and DOJ, INL supplied one CANON copier each to the counternarcotics Police-Afghanistan (CNPA) and the Criminal Justice Task Force (CJTF). DEA officials often see the CNPA office copier in operation during visits with their GOA counterparts. Meanwhile, the DOJ Legal Advisors assigned to post verify that the CJTF office copier is functional.
Because of the current security environment in Afghanistan, there are limitations on the travel outside of Kabul, and often times, travel restrictions within the city. Such conditions make it difficult to conduct site visits to the MOI provincial units and the PEP teams. To surmount these obstacles, NAS Kabul uses radio checks and written reports to verify the location and status of the INL-supplied CODAN radios and Garmin GPS equipment.
The GOA is using the INL-provided CODAN radios and Garmin GPS units efficiently to support counternarcotics and eradication efforts. The CODAN radio system offers the MOI an effective means of communications that provides nationwide coverage overcoming the atmospheric and mountainous conditions of Afghanistan. The office copiers enable the CNPA and CJTF to conduct routine office operations and permit the flow of information among the various sections of each organization.
As the various GOA ministries and office mature, NAS Kabul expects to transfer significant numbers of computers and other office equipment to the GOA in CY-2008. In preparation of that effort, NAS Kabul is developing a database that will list the equipment transferred, its location, the expected service life of each piece of equipment and how long it needs to remain under EUM. NAS Kabul is also developing a standard set for forms to be used for on-site inspections whenever the program officers or DEA/DOJ colleagues go out to meet their GOA counterparts.
Embassy officers visited Nepal Police headquarters, the Central Police Laboratory at the Police Academy, and the headquarters of the Nepal Drug Control and Law Enforcement Unit (NDCLEU). Post contacted a Supreme Court representative but did not visit the district courts.
The NDCLU still uses the bicycles (20) provided in 1997 and 1998 despite their age and need for frequent repairs. Neither of the two motorcycles are still operational because of engine failure.
The Nepal Police Women’s Cell, a unit to combat crime against women and children continues to operate eight motorcycles distributed to Women’s Center in 1999. However, these motorcycles require constant repair, and the Women’s Cell has insufficient funds for required maintenance.
INL last funded laboratory equipment for narcotics law enforcement in 1997. The equipment for the mini-forensic lab at the Central Police Laboratory is no longer functional.
The NDCLEU no longer uses any of the computer equipment it received in 2002 for a trafficking database. The laptop computer has hard drive failure. The desktop computer and scanner each has unspecified damage. The screen display on the digital camera does not function.
Sixty-five (65) Dell computer monitors, 61 DELL central processing units, and 20 DELL printers were presented to the Supreme Court for the distribution to 15 district courts in 2005. The Supreme Court requested that post exchange 65 Uninterrupted Power Supply Units (UPS’) that are incompatible with Nepal’s electrical system. The units are in storage at the Supreme Court. Post’s Senior Law Enforcement Advisor in charge of INL program has agreed to facilitate the exchange.
Seven of the 20 bicycles provided to the NDCLEU in 1996 are still in use in branch offices. The other 13 are damaged beyond repair. All five cameras given to the NDCLEU in 1996 reportedly are still in use.
Nepal is not a regular recipient of INL-funded programs and much of the equipment provided in the past decade, particularly computer equipment, has exceeded its useful lifespan. Additionally, the law enforcement agencies lack the tools to maintain or repair specialized machinery, further limiting the length of time these items could be used.
Police officials were more than eager to provide an update on equipment beyond post’s monitoring scope to show their appreciation for U.S. assistance. Support provided in previous years to the NDCLEU and the Women’s Cell of the Nepal Police increased the mobility and investigative capabilities of the units. Laboratory equipment enabled the police to analyze drug samples within days. The courts have recognized the results as expert testimony.
Future INL-funded programs would have a high impact on the capability of Nepal to counter narcotics and Trafficking In Persons. The use of obsolete or damaged equipment hampers the ability of officials to obtain accurate lab results, maintain electronic files, and connect to international law enforcement networks.
Due to the size of the country, the locations where the majority of the items are dispersed and post’s lack of travel budget, it is not possible or feasible to conduct a physical inventory of all INL-donated commodities and vehicles. Post requires host government officials who receive INL-funded commodities to sign a receipt and agree to maintain the commodities in accordance with LOA standard provisions, and track such purchases through GSO purchase orders and accounting.
The Government of India (GOI) has never been timely in providing post with information on the status of INL-donated resources. GOI’s late submissions combined with post’s constant interaction with counterpart law enforcement agencies allow post to provide some modicum of regular oversight.
In the past, INL-funded commodities were donated primarily to recipients in Northeast India (in the states of Assam, Mizoran and West Bengal) and in North Central India in states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. However, over the last three years, vehicles and commodities were delivered to other parts of India: Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedadad, Varanasi, Tribandrum, Jodphur, and Chandighar, making the physical inventory of INP-donated items difficult. Post found that most of the commodities were well maintained and in excellent condition.
One Maruta Van was donated in 2000 to the NCB headquarters in Imphal. The Eastern Zonal Unit in Calcutta has (1) Maruti Esteem and (1) Toyota Qualis. The Mizoran State Excise received (6) Maruti Gypay 4-wheel drive utility vehicles in 2001; three are at the Excise headquarters in Aizawl; and one each are in the office of the Superintendent of Excise at Champai, Koasib and Saiha. Of the six Yamaha RX 135 motorcycles delivered in 2001, four are located in Aizwal headquarters and are used by the Anti-Narcotics Squad; one bike each is located at the district offices of Aizwal and Champai. All vehicles donated to the NCB in the Northeast and the Mizorem State Excise remain in good condition with maintenance and necessary repairs done at the authorized workshops. The Units’ officers use the vehicles for preventive duty and easy, unidentifiable movement. CBN’s Preventive and Intelligence Cell, Guwahati, Assam has two Yamaha motorcycles that are in good condition and receive regular servicing and maintenance. These bikes are used primarily for intelligence gathering and for special operations. Two Ford Endeavour (SUV) vehicles were donated to the Office of the Commissioner of Customs (Preventive), North Eastern Region in July 2006. One Tavera (SUV) was donated to the Indian Customs office in Kolkata in 2006. All vehicles are in good condition and are being used for special operations and surveillance.
Nine Mahindra Boleros (SUV) were donated to North East Customs in June 2007.
Over 50 motorcycles were provided to the CBN and distributed to the following CBN offices throughout Uttar Pradesh, Mahya, Pradesh, and Rajasthan: 6 to Chittorgarh in Rajastban; 2 to Neemcuh in Rajastan; 1 to Gwallor; 2 in Delhi; 2 in Guwahati, Assam; 5 in Mandsaur; 4 in Jaora; 3 in Garoth; 1 in Ratlam, 1 in Indore; 1 in Singoli; 1 in Ujjain; 5 in Kota; 1 in Jahlawar; 3 in Bhilwara; 3 in Pratapgarh; 3 in Barabnaki; 2 in Bareilly; 2 in TilThar; and 2 in Faizabad. All are in excellent working order. The motorcycles are used to patrol the licit opium growing fields for enforcement operations; chase and apprehend criminals; search for drug laboratories; monitor field measurements; and test measurements for poppy harvest. The motorcycles have also been used for the detection and eradication of excess poppy crop, physical checks at weighment centers, and the carrying out of out drug and chemical interdiction efforts.
The three vehicles (Hero Honda motorcycle, Maruti Esteem, and Toyota Qualis) donated to the NCB South Zone in Chennai remain in good condition, receiving routine maintenance. Two Taveras SUV’s were donated to the Indian Customs Office in Chennai in 2006. All vehicles are used for surveillance, search, seizures and arrests.
The NCB Zonal Unit in Mumbai received two Qualis SUV’s and the one Hero Honda motorcycle in March 2003. These vehicles are routinely used for surveillance and operations. Two Taveras (SUV) were donated to the Indian Customs in Munbai in 2006. All vehicles are used for surveillance, search, seizures, and arrests.
NCB New Delhi received 1 Toyota Quali, 2 Hero Honda motorcycles, 1 Mahindra Bolero, and 2 Maruti Esteems. The area that the New Delhi Zonal unit is responsible for includes four states as well as the national capital district of Delhi. The Qualis is the New Delhi Zonal Unit’s main operational vehicle used primarily for preventive work, searches, and seizures of illicit narcotics. The Maruti Esteems are used for surveillance as these vehicles blend into the urban traffic pattern of New Delhi. The Hero Hondas’ primary functions are to perform reconnaissance, issue subpoenas, and make deliveries. All of these vehicles are in good condition. Two Taveras’ (SUV) were donated to the Indian Customs Office in Delhi in 2006. One Taveras (SUV) was donated to the Indian Customs Patna office in 2006. All vehicles are in good condition and are being used for surveillance and intelligence gathering work.
The Hero Honda motorcycle, the Maruti Esteem, and the Toyota Qualis donated to the NCB South Zone in February 2003 remain in good condition and receive routine maintenance. All three vehicles are used for surveillance, search, seizures and arrests.
The following vehicles located at the Zonal Units in Chandigarh, Varanasi, Jodhpur, and Ahmedabad remain in good condition and are used primarily for enforcement and surveillance work- Chandigarh: 1 Hero Honda motorcycle and 1 Qualis; Varanasi: 1 Boleo; Jodhpur: 1 Qualis and 1 Bolero: Ahmedabad: 1 Hero Honda motorcycle and 1 Bolero.
Three Sony Digital cameras were donated to three Central Detective Training Schools (CDTS) in Chandigarh, Hyderabed, and Calcutta. These cameras were donated to each of the schools by the ICITAP training team when they conducted a training program in each of the cities in August 2004. All three cameras are in excellent condition and are used to enhance the CDTS’s training.
Four Sony digital cameras were delivered to the Superintendent of Excise in Saiha and, the Anti-Narcotics Squad in Champhai and two to the Excise Headquarters in Aizawl in 2001. All four cameras are reported to be inoperable and are unserviceable. Post will explore the option of replacing the cameras.
NCB Headquarters New Delhi received a Hitachi camcorder that is used by the Investigative and Intelligence Branch in Delhi for surveillance and to record seizures. The camcorder is in good condition.
Eight digital cameras were purchased for the Central Bureau of Narcotics for use in their Joint Licit Opium Poppy Survey (JLOPS) in 2003. The cameras are used mainly to photograph and catalog the different stages of poppy growth in each field office and are used by inspectors visiting the fields. The cameras remain in good condition.
Eighteen Cannon Powershot A400 digital cameras and (4) Canon Powershot A520 digital cameras were donated to the CNB in September 2005. They are in excellent condition. They are used for recording various stages of poppy cultivation as well as documenting seizures and arrests of diverted poppy/opium.
Two Sony camcorders, two Panasonic multimedia projectors and five Motorola two-way radios were donated to the NCB Kolkata in February 2006.
Two Cannon Canoscan scanners were donated to NCB, Kolkata in February 2006.
Two Panasonic DVD players and two Sony Wega television sets were donated to the NCB, New Delhi in May 2006.
One Accord EPABX machine, two backup batteries for the EPABX and 12 Beetel phones were donated to the NCB, New Delhi in May 2006.
Two Steiner binoculars, four night vision binoculars, and two Braun photo Technik projectors were donated to the NCB, New Delhi in May 2006. All of the equipment provided to the NCB is in good condition and is being used to enhance intelligence gathering and training.
Twenty-two Garmin Etrex Personal Navigator GPS receivers were donated to the Department of Revenue Intelligence of the Indian Customs Service in July 2006. The equipment is in good condition and used for communications.
One Gas Chromatograph was donated to the Central Revenue Control Laboratory of the Central Board of Excise and Customs in October 2006.
The following laboratory equipment was donated to the Government Opium and Alkaloid Works (GOAW) in May 2006: moisture meter-one Ohaus moisture analyzer; AAS-one Perkin Elmer analyzer 200/400 Spectrophotometer; one flow injection analysis system for atomic Spectroscopy; one air compressor; GC- one Perkin Elmer Clarus 500 GC, one capillary injector starter kit with one syringe and one HP business inkjet 1000 printer. All equipment is in good condition.
The following equipment was purchased for the CNB for use in the JLOPS survey in 2003. The majority of commodities remain in good condition, except as noted below.
Mitutoyo digimatic calipers (11)–They are used for measuring the poppy capsules to determine the optimum yield at harvest time.
Hot air ovens (11) –They are used to dry the poppy crop.
Hygrothermeter (60) –They are used to record temperature and humidity, necessary statistics required for the JLOPS survey. Mid-range weighing balances (10) –They are used in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh for weighing poppy samples. Three damaged scales were repaired in 2005.
Sharp LCD projector (1)–It was donated to the Competent Authority, Northern Region in May 2005. The CA uses the projector with the laptop to give presentations and workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers. The projector is in excellent condition.
Thales Mobile Mappers (GPS) (2)-They were donated to the CNB in September 2005. They are used to plot coordinates of all the licit poppy fields to pinpoint their exact locations. The CBN used the GPS units to determine the plot sizes to better estimate opium crop yields. They are in excellent condition.
Forty (40) Sensor Technology Radiation Pagers were donated to Indian Customs this year, and are in excellent condition. They have been distributed to various Indian Customs Offices for their use in determining whether shipments contain radioactive material. Often, drug traffickers will mark containers radioactive, concealing contraband, hoping that no one will verify the contents.
Two GE Ion Track Itemizers were donated to Indian Customs for use in the airports in Mumbai and New Delhi. They will be used to scan suspicious luggage where they suspect contraband is being smuggled. They are in excellent condition.
Sixteen Steiner 7 x 50 binoculars that will be used in various Indian Customs operations for surveillance are in excellent condition.
Six Nikon Tundra 10 x 50 binoculars were donated to the CBN in July 2005: 4 are in Gwalior, 1 in Kota, and 1 in Neemuch. They are used for surveillance and undercover operations. They are in excellent condition.
In 2004, post purchased (18) IBM desk top computers and monitors, (18) HP desk jet printers, (18) webcams, (18) back up UPS’s and (16) copies of Analyst Notebook Software for donation to the NCB nationwide. The NCB New Delhi headquarters received (7) sets of computer equipment and the following NCB Zonal Offices received one complete set: Varanasi, Kolkata, Jammu, Chandigarh, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Delhi, Jodhpur, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Imphal. This equipment remains in good condition. In April 2005, post donated an HP ML570 with keyboard and monitor to the NCB headquarters in New Delhi. The server is also in good condition.
Four Compaq Four Compaq computers and printers were donated to the Excise Department in the Northeast. The computers can be found in the following locations: (2) Excise Headquarters Anti-Narcotics Squad; (1) Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Champai, and (1) Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Saiha. In 2005, INL replaced two defective printers. All items are in good condition and used for intelligence gathering, record keeping and data exchange.
Nine HP laptop computers were donated to the CBN in July 2005. The computers were distributed to the following CBN offices: (4) CBN HQ Gwalier, (2) New Delhi, (1) Kota (1) Neemuch, and (1) in Lucknow. The computers are in good condition and are used primarily for storage of opium poppy cultivation data (JLOPS) and data related to the poppy crop. Four HP Laserjet printers and one HP Deskjet printer were donated to CBN in May and July 2006 respectively. All items are in good condition and are being used for intelligence gathering, record keeping, and data exchange.
One IBM laptop was donated to the Competent Authority (CA) in New Delhi in May 2005. The laptop is in excellent condition and is used to prepare materials and presentations for workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers.
The following computer equipment was donated to the CBN in March 2006: 4 Dell cabinet assembly; 4 Dell short tacks; 4 servers; 4 analog switches; 40 CPU’s; 40 Dell 17” monitors; 4 15” LCD monitors; 40 speakers; computer cables. All equipment has been accounted for and is in good condition.
In May 2006, the CBN received four APC 1000 VA backups and 40 APC 650 backups. In April 2006, 30 Dell laser printers and four IBM Power vault 110T LTO-2 external driver for servers along with 4 Norton anti-virus and 40 copies of Microsoft Office Pro 2003 were donated to CBN. All of the equipment is in good condition.
Two Dell computers and one HP Laser jet printer were donated to the Government Opium and Alkaloid Works in June 2006. One Compaq HP laptop and one Panasonic LCD projector were donated in November 2006. The equipment is being used for documentation. record keeping and data exchange.
One HP Compaq laptop, two Aceer Veritron desk top computers and two HP Laserjet printers were donated to the NCB Kolkaa office in February 2006. The equipment is being use for data and intelligence exchange.
Three Motorola headsets are in the headquarters at Aizawl, and two each are with the Aizawl district office and the Anti-Narcotics Squad at Champhai. One each is at Saiha, Office of the Superintendent in Kolasib, and at Vairengte. All handsets, which were delivered in 2001, remain in good condition and are very useful for communication in this remote region.
The NCB’s Northeast Unit in Manipur used the digital recorder for taping statements and telephone conversations. It remains in good condition.
The following equipment was provided to CBN for use in field locations in JLOPS survey in 2003: 8 digital cameras, 11 digital calipers, 60 hygrothermometers, 6 electric weighing scales, and 11 heavy-duty drying ovens. The cameras have been used to photograph and catalog the different stages of poppy growth in each field office. The 11 calipers were used for measuring the poppy capsules to determine the optimum yield at harvest time. The 11 hot air ovens were used for drying out the poppy crop. The hygrothermometers were used to record temperature and humidity.
Mid-range weighing balances were procured for use in Madhya Pradesh, Rajashan and Uttar Pradesh for weighing poppy samples. Three damaged scales were repaired last year.
A Sharp LCD Projector was donated to the Competent Authority (CA), Northern Region in May 2005. The CA uses the projector with the laptop to give presentations and workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers. The projector is in excellent condition.
Two Thales Mobile Mappers (GPS) were donated to the CBN in September 2005. They are used to plot coordinates of all the licit poppy fields to pinpoint their exact locations. The CBN uses the GPS’ to determine the plot sizes to better estimate opium crop yields. They are in excellent condition.
Forty sensor technology radiation pagers were donated to Indian Customs this year. They are in excellent condition. They have been distributed to various Indian Customs offices for their use in determining whether shipments contain radioactive material. Often, traffickers will mark containers radioactive, concealing contraband, hoping that no one will verity its contents.
Two Ion Track itemizers were donated to Indian Customs for use in the airports in Mumbai and New Delhi. They will be used to scan suspicious luggage where they suspect contraband is being smuggled. They are in excellent condition.
Sixteen Steiner binoculars were used in various Indian Customs operations and surveillance. They are in excellent condition.
Six Nikon Tundra binoculars were donated to CNB in July 2005. Four are in Gwalior; 1 in Kota; and 1 is in Neemuch. They are used for surveillance and undercover operations to apprehend diversion of the licit opium crop. They are in excellent condition.
The CBN Guwahati has 10 weed trimmers that were intended to be used to destroy illicit poppy growth- 8 belong to the Guwahati Office and the other 2 are borrowed from CBN headquarters in Gwalior. The weed trimmers are not being used since there is no current program to eradicate poppy in Arunchal Pradesh. CBN found the weed trimmers to be very cumbersome and difficult to carry over the hilly areas where illicit poppy is grown.
Two Buster contraband detector kits, one contraband team inspection kit, and two generational night vision binoculars were donated to the Office of the Commissioner of Customs Preventive, North Eastern Region, Shillong in August and November 2006 respectively and remain in good condition.
Uniforms and Field Gear
Galis Lite Extended Coverage Level II body armor (bullet proof vests) was donated to the Office of the Commissioner of Customs Preventive, North Eastern Region, Shillong in June 2006 and remains in good condition.
INL’s assistance to the Indian law enforcement agencies, namely the NCB, CBN, Indian Customs, North East Customs and North East Excise, through donated computers, software, communications and other miscellaneous has greatly enhanced the operational efficiency in conducting complex drug trafficking investigations. This has enabled Indian law enforcement agencies to target high level drug trafficking organizations rather than couriers and low level drug traffickers.
The INL-funded vehicles donated to these Indian law enforcement agencies have enhanced their abilities to apprehend traffickers and make seizures, especially in outlying areas.
The CBN controls licit cultivation of opium poppy and the processes associated with it in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh-an area of over 150,000 square kilometers. INL’s assistance to the CBN in the form of vehicles and equipment has made the job much easier by increasing the mobility of CBN’s staff and helped CBN effectively monitor the harvest and processing of opium.
The Indian Central Government Bureaucracy makes it very difficult to finalize decisions and provides for no flexibility to change plans once they have been put in place. As a result, over the past two years, INL New Dehli has repeatedly encouraged its counterparts, through the LOA project Implementation Committee Chair by the Ministry of Finance, to reprogram funds from underperforming projects to those that have achieved some level of success. In May and December 2007, post was finally successful in persuading the Committee to approve reprogramming of funds to separate projects that train law enforcement official on asset forfeiture and precursor chemicals.
During the first half of 2007, the bilateral relationship was particularly strained and Embassy travel outside of Tashkent was limited. However, in recent months the situation improved and post made a concerted effort to make field visits to check the status of key INL-funded equipment. Post prioritized major equipment such as vehicles, laboratory instruments, and the extensive equipment provided to the counternarcotics focused Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU) within the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).
Political officers and INL LES visited Customs posts in Termez, Bukhara, Navoi and Tashkent; the explosives laboratory of the Ministry of Interior; the main laboratory of the Ministry of Interior; and the counternarcotics focused Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU) within the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Post has one full-time locally Engaged Staff (LES) position to support INL initiative in Uzbekistan. The Embassy continues to improve procedures for INL equipment monitoring. During 2007, post created an INL equipment database containing records of all equipment provided to the GOU and records of previous inspections. The database includes all equipment and related information and supports dozens of different queries. INL equipment has been distributed throughout all 12 provinces of Uzbekistan.
In August 2000, Uzbek Customs Committee received nine 4-wheel drive Jeep Cherokees and spare parts. All vehicles were equipped by Customs with a HF radio. Uzbec Customs assigned three vehicles to counter-smuggling units in Tashkent Province (which includes rugged mountain terrain in its territory) as well as one each to Bukhara, Navoi, Karakalpakstan and Ferghana Provinces. Customs officers have clearly done the best they can to maintain the vehicles, although the government has not provided resources to make repairs. Thus the vehicles in Buhkara and Navoi are inoperable and awaiting repairs. However, they are securely stored and offices were able to explain how they use the vehicles to support their operations.
In contradiction to the intended purpose, one Jeep was transferred to the State Prosecutor’s Office, but post was given access to it and confirmed that it is in excellent condition and being used for law enforcement purposes. Another was requisitioned by the National Security Service (NNS) and despite requesting access via diplomatic note, post was unable to inspect the vehicle. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not provide any contact information or access to the vehicle used by the National Security Services and unlike previous years, post could not verity its location or condition. The National Security Service yields extraordinary clout in Uzbekistan and it is not surprising that Customs, which is lower in the pecking order, had to give up a few vehicles essentially as an internal tax. Customs officials are eager to resume cooperation with the United States after a difficult time in the bilateral relationship, but they do not have the power to reassert control over these two vehicles.
The Jeeps were transferred in 2000. However, the Letter of Agreement which serves as the basis for the modern era of INL assistance to Uzbekistan was not signed until 2001. There is no institutional memory at post about the specific conditions placed on the Government of Uzbekistan with regard to vehicle use prior to the current Letter of Agreement. The current Letter of Agreement states that other current and future INL-funded resources will not be transferred to other agencies. The previously documented transfer of the two Jeep Cherokees at some point during 2004 was clearly not in the spirit of the intended purpose of the INL equipment donation; however post is seeing encouraging signs of rapprochement with the Government of Uzbekistan. Post will try again in 2008 to access the remaining Jeep Cherokee being used by the National Security Service.
Twenty-eight vehicles were obtained for use by the Special Investigative Unit (SIU) in 2003. Tashkent conducted a thorough check and found all vehicles in good condition and used by police officers of the current unit. The fleet is intentionally mixed, including several local models, to allow undercover units to blend in with their surroundings. The local models are much easier for the SIU to maintain since there is availability of spare parts and mechanical expertise. The Political Officer and LES checked the Vehicle Identification Numbers (VIN) of all vehicles and verified the cars are in good condition, even after years of intensive use. Two Opel Astras require about $2,000 of repairs that the SIU has no funds to complete; however, the vehicles are kept in a secure garage and otherwise appear to be in good condition. Since the SIU does shift work, some portion of the vehicles were in active use on patrol or investigations during post’s visit, and on-duty officers quickly responded to calls for the supervisor to return to headquarters for post’s inspection.
In December 2002, post delivered 27 INL-funded laptop computers for use at 12 remote border railroad ports of entry/exit on the borders with Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. Post did not check the computers this year due to strained relations with the host country and difficulty in accessing border posts; however, the equipment is believed to be at the end of its useful lifespan after years of productive use.
In 2004, post delivered 25 workstations to the counternarcotics focused Sensitive Investigative Unit within the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) of Uzbekistan. The equipment is in good condition and being used actively by law enforcement officers for its intended purpose. Extra equipment is carefully packages and stored on the premises.
In July 2003, 30 cellular telephones, 30 Motorola GP-360 handheld radios, and four Thuraya satellite phones were provided to the SIU within the Ministry of Internal Affairs. An officer has been designated as responsible for maintaining and tracking the inventory, and all equipment is accounted for and in good condition given the timeframe of use. The cell phones are now obsolete but many are still in use; in other cases, officers have returned the phones for inventory purposes and prefer to use their personal phones instead. The satellite phones are not in use due to the high cost of the service, which the SIU could no longer afford when the Government of Uzbekistan suspended cooperation with the DEA.
In 2004, post furnished laboratory equipment to enhance the GOU’s capabilities to perform forensic analysis of explosives and narcotics substances. Equipment donated to the explosives laboratory at the Ministry of Internal Affairs included a Sabre-2000 portable explosive detector, five digital scales, and an Agilent Electrophoresis system. A Nicolet IR Spectrometer system was previously delivered to the lab in 1999. The Ministry of Internal Affairs Central Laboratory received an Agilent Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer System which greatly supported evidence processing in criminal drug cases. At both laboratories, the political officer is extremely impressed by the professionalism of the staff and the obvious pride they have in carefully maintaining their scientific instruments.
Basic investigative equipment was distributed to the Counterdrug Department of the Uzbek Ministry of Internal Affairs. The equipment included 21 digital video cameras, 68 portable digital audio recorders, 36 digital cameras, and 19 TV sets and VCRs. The equipment helps the MVD outfit their counternarcotics units with basic equipment they previously did not possess. It is all maintained in excellent condition and a full-time technician helps officers use the equipment; they even made their own creative modification to use local handbags that make hidden cameras more discreet.
INL supported a joint border project with the Embassy Export Control and Related Security Program by providing modular shelters for Uzbek Border Guards. They were placed in rural areas of the Uzbek borders with Kyrgystan and Turkmenistan. INL Tashkent purchased, delivered and installed custom- made furniture for the shelters. Post did not visit these border posts during this review cycle.
In October 2001, INL provided the Committee for State Border Protection document examination equipment to improve passport control activities at border checkpoints. Donated equipment included: 100 Universal Desktop Magnifiers and spare lamps, 200 hand-held UV-spot detectors and spare UV lamps, 8 multifunctional passport readers, and one set of passport computer software with samples of more than 2,000 different passports and identification documents. The equipment was distributed to more than 40 border posts and the computer software was donated to the Border Guard Academy. Post did not specifically inspect this equipment during this reporting cycle, but the political officer noted the equipment was used at the recently constructed modern border checkpoint on the Afghan border of Termez.
In December 2002, inspection mirrors (300), “Mag-Lite” flashlights (300), and Narcotics Identification Kits (140) were provided to the State Customs Committee to ensure that every Customs post on the border had a least basic inspection testing equipment. The equipment was distributed to 60 stationary and mobile Customs border posts, as well as to Customs training facilities. The Political Officer personally observed officers using one of the mirrors to search a vehicle at the Hayraton checkpoint on the border of Afghanistan during an unrelated trip. Customs officials reported that all mirrors are still functioning and post will continue to try to observe Customs searches at border checkpoints during post’s travels in 2008. The maglite flashlights are now in their seventh year of use and are also widely distributed throughout the country. Many are now believed to be broken after heavy use in harsh climatic conditions that range from bitter cold to extreme heat.
Seven thousand (7,000) drug testing kits were provided in 2006 and have been widely distributed to border posts throughout Uzbekistan. Instructions were provided in the Russian language and training programs increased officers’ skill in conducting the tests. Local authorities reported that the kits are very userful and are gradually being used.
In August 2001, equipment was provided to the then-independent Committee for State Border Protection (since reorganized within the purview of the National Security Service) in conjunction with training courses administered by U.S. SEALS. The equipment included: socks (70 pairs); boots (42 pairs); canteens (35); compasses (35); diving fins (40 pairs); flashlights (35); digital waterproof watches (3); First Aid kits (35); Garmin Etrex global positioning system (GPS) devices (10); and one cargo net. U.S. SEALS conducted a subsequent training program in 2002 using the equipment. Some of the equipment was already heavily worn or broken. All equipment is beyond its reasonable expected lifespan and will no longer be monitored.
The following equipment was donated in support of the SIU for use in targeting and dismantling high-level transnational drug trafficking organizations operating in the area: office safes, binoculars, handcuffs, scanners, digital scales, digital camcorders, SLR cameras, folding chairs, Polaroid cameras, computer software, GPS units, Motorola radios, voice recorders and supplies, TV sets, cellular telephones, typewriter, office furniture, printers, digital CD cameras, laptop computers, desktop computers, VCR’s, televisions, high power telephoto lens, technical investigative equipment, and mobile printers, USP units.
Most INL-donated equipment is located in secure law enforcement compounds, whether in the capital Tashkent or at remote border checkpoints. The Government of Uzbekistan requires official diplomatic notes for virtually all access to such facilities or meetings with appropriate personnel. Any attempts to access facilities without the advance approval of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are denied. Even as a modest rapprochement began in the latter part of 2007, this rule was not relaxed. For example, the Political Officer submitted a diplomatic note informing MFA about a planned visit to the Jar-Tepa border checkpoint east of Samarquand on the Tajik border. In October; the request was denied by phone o n the eve of travel and border guards turned the Political Officer back near the checkpoint. Another Political Officer attempted to conduct undeclared End Use Monitoring of equipment in Khorezm Region in northwest Uzbekistan in November, but local authorities serving as minders on that trip kept finding reasons why this was not possible. A few days later the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan also denied the Political Officer’s request to conduct End Use monitoring there on the grounds that the Minister himself had to approve this and he was unavailable.
The restriction of access facilities is not specifically directed to embassy officials; diplomats from other mission report having to go through similar cumbersome proceedings to access any sites or arrange meetings wit the Government of Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan is a sensitive, deeply suspicious police state and, some corrupt and powerful elements may have reasons to want to restrict access to foreign diplomats. Ever mindful of these conditions, embassy officers ask as many questions as possible about the equipment when post finally gets in the door. The Political Officer was satisfied during the round of visits, which included visits to government facilities in Bukhara, Navoi, Termez and Tashkent, that local rank-and-file law enforcement officials are using INL-donated equipment for its intended purposes and taking good care of it given limited resources. In no case did post get the impression that equipment was suddenly returned or brought back “to show the Americans” because they knew post was coming.
Many of the laptop computers delivered to the Border Guards are now broken after years of extensive use. The products have now exceeded their useful expected lifespan. Post has had difficulty accessing border posts, but expects to discontinue monitoring the equipment in the near future.
One of the computers delivered to the SIU arrived without a hard drive several years ago and it has never been used. The SIU staff continues to carefully store and keep track of the hardware for possible future use. Other computers are in active use at the facility.
Since the Government of Uzekistan suspended cooperation with the DEA, the SIU has not been able to use the satellite phones due to insufficient operational funding to pay the expensive monthly bills. However, officers have placed the equipment back in its original packaging and carefully keep track of it for possible future use.
Post has discovered that due to the low quality of the fuel in the Uzbekistan retail market, the majority of vehicles require replacement of the fuel systems. The counter-smuggling unit in Tashkent city already replaced the engine on its Jeep Cherokee and the Navoi counter-smuggling department is currently trying to identify the resources to replace its system. The vehicle in Bukhara has not worked in well over a year after sustaining engine damage in a collision with a smuggler’s truck. They do not have the funds at this office to repair it and greatly is the contribution the Jeep made in remote stretches of desert. Jeep parts are also not available in Uzbekistan, nor do mechanics know how to work on this American model.
The Nicolet IR spectrometer and portable Sabre-200 explosive detector have long since broken and require replacement. The Political Officer noted the staff at the lab are very professional and have nonetheless taken excellent care of all equipment, but their effectiveness could be enhanced by the repair of these instruments. The gas chromatograph at the main forensic laboratory requires a replacement hydrogen gas pump.
During the End-Use Monitoring inspection visits, the political officer was favorably impressed by the amount of goodwill that INL contributions have generated among rank- and-file law enforcement officials. Customs and border posts throughout the country have benefited from U.S. government-funded equipment and, equally important, numerous training programs. Uzbek officials still proudly recall their participation in previous training events, especially ones that took place in the United States. Uzbeks also enjoyed programs in which their counterparts from the United States personally came and conducted training, providing a chance for counterpart professionals to discuss their field of expertise. Many veterans of these programs have been promoted and now occupy more senior positions at field posts or in Tashkent headquarters. They have requested more training programs on a variety of topics.
Border Guard officials reported that the laptops enabled officers to more efficiently process train passengers transiting the borders. Officials can register passengers and identify wanted criminals using the database loaded onto the laptop computers. Previously, Border Guards used paper notepads to record passport data and submitted it to headquarters for criminal check analysis. SIU officers actively use their computers for investigative work in counternarcotics cases. The workstations are well-maintained and a dedicated technical officer provides support services, such as camera uploads and multimedia assistance, to help officers document evidence.
On all the inspection visits, the Political Officer was satisfied that local Customs officials did their best to take are of the equipment despite a lack of resources from the Government of Uzbekistan. Local officials described how effective the Jeeps are in supporting operations in rugged desert and mountain terrain; however, it is difficult to find spare parts for foreign models, especially given the lack of resources provided by the Government of Uzbekistan.
The sophisticated laboratory equipment enabled the Ministry of Internal Affairs explosive laboratory to identify the explosive substances used by the suicide bomber who attached embassy Tashkent in July 2004.
Border Guards have the ability to more thoroughly and confidently check passports and other documents right in the border checkpoints without having to consult with officials in Tashkent or make ill-informed spot decisions.
The budget for new INL projects dropped as the bilateral relationship deteriorated. However, now that relations are steadily improving, post expects that it will be easier to implement border security and law enforcement assistance projects in Uzbekistan. The Government of Uzbekistan has indicated that it welcomes the resumption of cooperation on these areas of mutual interest. The Government of Uzbekistan is also keenly aware of the growing threat posed by record drug production in Afghanistan, which has been well documented by the United Nations Office on Drug and Crime (UNODC). Uzbekistan is a major transmit country for drugs heading north from Afghanistan (especially via Tajikistan) and counter-narcotics will be a major priority and an opportunity for collaboration.