2006 End-Use Monitoring Report: Southwest Asia
In 2006, post provided equipment to numerous host government institutions located throughout Kazakhstan. These institutions include the Statistics Division of the Procurator General’s Office, the Ministry of the Interior’s Committee on Combating Narcotics, the Border Guard Service of the Committee for National Security, the Military Institute of the Committee for National Security, and the Financial Police Academy. Over the course of the year, post conducted periodic spot checks on the equipment in conjunction with separate programs such as training events, site visits, etc.
The Government of Kazakhstan cooperated in all requests for verification concerning the use of equipment donated by post. While the size of Kazakhstan prevents post from inspecting every piece of equipment donated to the Government of Kazakhstan on a regular basis, the results of spot checks have shown that the equipment is being used properly and is helping the country’s efforts at combating the trafficking of narcotics and the laundering of money.
In 2004, post purchased 62 computers, 62 printers, two color printers, and four notebook computers for the Statistics Division of the Procurator General’s Office. The computer equipment was distributed throughout Kazakhstan to 17 different branches within the Criminal Statistics Division. EUM revealed that a few subdivisions did not have the computers and printers. In addition, post representatives suspected that one set had only recently arrived in time for the inspection visit. The Statistics Division advised representatives that a computer set was not delivered to one of the regions because of lack of program specialists to operate the new equipment. Personnel have not received necessary training. Post will follow up to confirm the installation and use of the computers and that operators have received the necessary training.
Twenty-five desktop computers, two projectors, two projector screens, office furniture, two printers, two scanners, and two servers were donated to the Financial Police Academy in Astana in 2005. Post works closely with the Director of the Financial Police Academy to insure proper usage of the computer equipment. Post conducted three spot checks throughout 2006. None of the checks found any irregularities in the use of the equipment.
Sixteen desktop computers, two laser printers, six office chairs and desks, one electronic scale, one laboratory scale, and one technical scale were installed at the National Laboratory of Forensics Control. Post maintains a close relationship with the Head of the National Laboratory of Forensics Control to confirm proper use of the equipment. Post conducted several spot checks of the newly-equipped classroom in conjunction with drug identification seminars held at the Laboratory. The checks found that the equipment is being properly used and maintained.
In December 2006, post purchased a Digital Language Laboratory for the Financial Police Academy. It will be used by the students to learn English in order to attend law enforcement institutions abroad where they can learn international practices of combating economic and financial crimes. Post also purchased one video projector, three computers, one notebook, one screen, one copier, one scanner, two printers, six bookcases, four writing tables, three wardrobes, one TV set, one VCR, thirty six chairs, two rostrums, and five air-conditioners for the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Study Center in Karaganda.
In February 2005, post transferred UAZ vehicles to the Border Guard Service of the Committee for National Security for use on the Kazakhstan Russian border. Post conducted an End Use Monitoring trip to the checkpoints in April. Post verified that the vehicles are used by Border Guards. Checkpoint commanders and other personnel use the vehicles to patrol between the checkpoints and respond to border incidents.
Post transferred technical equipment to be used at the Ulken checkpoint. The equipment included drug test kits, fiber optics bore scopes, and CT30-480 kits. Post inspected the equipment in conjunction with the inspection of the hanger. All donated equipment is located at the checkpoint. The equipment is not yet in use due to the need for additional electrical work at the checkpoint. The head of the Ulken checkpoint asked post to translate the drug test kits instructions from English into Russian.
Post also transferred technical equipment, including drug tests, fiber optic inspection system, and other tools to “Aul” and “Zhezkent” checkpoints located on the Kazakhstan-Russian border. Post verified that all equipment was in place and in use. Equipment used most often were fiber optic inspection devices.
In June 2006, post transferred a fiber optic horoscope, a set of metric tools and other equipment to the Ministry Institute of the Committee for National Security.
In July 2005, post provided an inspection hanger to the Ministry of Interior Committee on Combating Narcotics for use at the Ulken counternarcotics checkpoint that was completed in October 2005. Post has an excellent relationship with the Vice-Minister of the Interior who is also the Head the Committee on Combating Narcotics. The hanger was installed in 2006.
The renovation of two offices and two auditoriums of the Law Institute in Karaganda was completed in 2006. They will be used as the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Study Center.
The host government cooperated with post on matters related to equipment monitoring. Due to the fact that Kazakhstan’s territory is about four times the size of Texas and the fact that post’s counter-narcotics and anti-money laundering programs are implemented throughout the country, post is not always able to perform on-site inspection of equipment. Furthermore, the host government’s requirement stipulating that all diplomatic notes are due at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs six weeks prior to a proposed event, meeting, or monitoring visit created additional difficulties for post in its monitoring efforts.
The equipment donated to the Statistics Division of the Procurator General’s office was part of a larger project aimed at improving the collection of criminal statistics in Kazakhstan. The Division is post’s main source for data and trends concerning counternarcotics and anti-money laundering activities. Since the commodities handover, post has witnessed better quality reporting concerning these trends and statistics which are annually included in the INCSR.
The impact of the resources provided to the Ministry of the Interior for the internal checkpoint project cannot yet be determined given that the inspection hanger and the equipment provided for the checkpoint only became operational in February 2006. In one year of checkpoint operation, nine seizures of contraband material were recorded by the Ministry of Internal Affairs including a total of almost nine kilograms of drugs and almost 100 rounds of ammunition. The drug seizures included over five kilos of heroin, almost three kilos of hashish, and lesser quantities of marijuana.
Post monitored the use of equipment purchased for Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s), Sri Lanka Anti-Narcotics Association (SLANA). Post received verbal updates on the status of equipment from each organization.
StatusA photocopier was provided to the SLANA in 1998. SLANA has reported that the photocopier is not functioning. It has reached the end of its useful life.
The photocopier, when operable, helped the post provide comprehensive anti-narcotics support.
Post visited the Department of Narcotics Control (DNC) lab and examined the INL-funded equipment and questioned laboratory personnel on its maintenance and use. Lab staff members were cooperative in showing the equipment and answering questions.
INL has funded the purchase of several pieces of laboratory equipment for the DNC. An analytical balance, a top-loading balance, and a polarizing microscope were donated to the DNC in July 2000. High-powered microscopes were also donated in 2005. The equipment was in use and working properly with the exception of the analytical balance which has an intermittent fault due to electrical power fluctuations. The polarizing microscope from 2002 and other high powered microscopes from 2005 are in storage in the lab. The one high-powered microscope not in storage is used to visually identify cannabis, using distinctive microscopic physical qualities. The most common substances tested at the lab are alcohol, both locally made country liquor (moonshine) and smuggled commercial brands of hard liquor, followed by heroin.
ProblemsThere are many staffing and budget problems within the laboratory. Over one-third of the laboratory‘s positions (nine of 23 positions) are vacant and only a third of the trained position are filled. At the same time, its workload of samples for testing has increased substantially.
Along with the staffing problems, there is need for improvement in the laboratory itself. The laboratory‘s chief and deputy have commented on the health risks of using some of the chemicals needed in the testing without adequate ventilation. An exhaust fan or exhaust hood system is needed to alleviate the strong odor in the lab.
The number of samples referred to the DNC lab has increased substantially. The lab is on track to test samples in over 20,000 cases in 2007 up from 8,991 in 2004 and 2,336 in 2001. Bangladesh courts accept their results as evidence in narcotics cases. The impact of USG program is clear, but is not fully realized because of apathy and lack of staffing within the DNC and BDG.
Post continues to improve its good working relationships with the Government of Tajikistan (GOTI) law enforcement agencies, largely due to the active INL/ILEA programs in Tajikistan. Post’s procedures for equipment transfer require the GOTI end-user to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for all INL-provided equipment. This MOU specifies the item donated, quantity, description, serial number, intended use and location. GOTI agencies are generally very cooperative and responsive to all our requirements including EUM requirements.
Post continues to improve its procedures to monitor NAS-financed/provided equipment. The LES program management assistants personally accept and inventory all equipment upon arrival to post. Program management assistants also maintain an internal record of donated goods and periodically request detailed inventories from the receiving agencies. During November-December 2006, INL Dushanbe conducted an inspection visit to each Tajik law enforcement agency and verified the presence and condition of all equipment. All equipment and vehicles were in place and used for proper purposes.
In November 2005, NAS Dushanbe donated two Toyota Prado trucks to the Minister of Interior and the Deputy Minister of Interior. The vehicles are stored at the Minister of Interior when not in use. Both trucks are in good condition and are properly maintained.
In February 2005, the Trafficking in Persons Department (TIP) received thirteen vehicles from NAS Dushanbe: two Chevrolet Nivas, one Gazelle mini-van, and ten sedans. During a recent inspection, post verified that all donated vehicles were in good working condition and used in Trafficking-in-Persons (TIP) operations.
In September 2005, the Counternarcotics Department received fourteen vehicles: four Gazelle mini-vans, six sedans, one Russian Niva jeep, two Niva Chevrolets, and one Toyota Camry. The vehicles are located in different regions of Tajikistan and used in counternarcotics operations around the country. During the end-of-year inspection, post determined that one of the vehicles was damaged from a traffic accident. The rest of the donated vehicles are in good working condition and properly maintained.
In 2005, the Drug Control Agency (DCA) received sixteen vehicles from NAS Dushanbe: three Gazelles, four Niva Chevrolets, six Vaz sedans, two Russian Nivas, and one Toyota trucks. All are well maintained and used daily in counternarcotics operation across Tajikistan.
During 2006, the State Committee for the Protection of State Borders (TBG) received twenty-six vehicles, five KAMAZ trucks, five Russian UAZ-Hunter jeeps, eight ambulances, two Toyota Prados, and one Toyota Camry. They have not yet been transferred to the field.
In February 2006, NAS Dushanbe donated ten Dell Pentium computers, one server, two printers, one scanner, one Xerox machine, furniture (desks, chairs, rolling chairs, bookcases, file cabinets, safes) and software to the new Minister of Interior Criminal Investigation Analytical Center. During its inspection, NAS found a minor problem with one computer; the rest of the computers are in good condition.
In 2005, the MOI Police Academy received thirty-nine Dell Pentium 4 computer desktops, two printers, furniture (desks, chairs, bookcases, whiteboards) for a computer classroom, a language laboratory, civil law classroom and a forensic classroom.
In July 2006, the Counternarcotics Department received two Sony digital cameras, three Sony digital photo cameras, and three CT-30 kits. This equipment is used principally for conducting counternarcotics law enforcement operations. It is stored at the Counternarcotics Department.
The DCA received three Sony digital video cameras and the CT-30kits, five generation 2 binoculars, seven night vision binoculars, four portable handheld GPS units, eleven Motorola two-way radios, three Bearcat scanners, two Steiner binoculars, and five tape recorders. All equipment is stored in the DCA warehouse in Dushanbe for distribution to DCA mobile teams and officers working in the field.
INL provided twelve CT-30 kits to the TBG warehouse in Dushanbe. They will be released to the committee in 2007 after appropriate specialized training is completed.
INL funded ten thousand uniforms for Border Guard troops serving on the Tajik-Afghan border sector, including one thousand sets designed specifically for the severe winter conditions of the Murgab area.
ProblemsPost encountered some problems obtaining information about donated equipment mostly due to inaccessibility of remote locations where a majority of the Border Guard’s equipment is used. Post is unable to regularly monitor the equipment, especially during the winter months due to bad weather conditions, lack of air support and impassable roads through mountain passes.
The Government of Tajikistan uses all resources provided in an effective manner. Constant arrests of drug traffickers and the seizure of kilos of drugs over several months are excellent examples of how the GOTI law enforcement agencies are making real progress in their fight against drug trafficking and related crime within their borders. Total drug seizures for all law enforcement in 2006 was 3,747.705 kg (4.1 tons) as opposed to 3.416.335kg (3.7 tons) in 2005. Overall, law enforcement and security ministries contributing to management of border smuggling and organized crime have demonstrated greater capacity and willingness to be proactive in comparison to previous years. Their efforts exceed those of the Russian Border Guards before their withdrawal in early 2005. Tajikistan still seizes roughly 80%of all drug captured in central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heron and raw opium).
The NAS performs End Use Monitoring in the course of day-to-day program management, on-site inspections, procurement of new equipment and commodities, and contact with GOP counterparts. The NAS Director and Deputy Director, and Management Officer routinely reinforce EUM objectives with counterparts in recipient agencies. As needed, NAS management raises issues of commodity abuse with appropriate officials; recommends areas of improvement; and follows up to ensure timely compliance. GOP agencies are generally cooperative and responsive to EUM requirements. Recipients of NAS assistance are well aware that the NAS will not tolerate malfeasance.
NAS procurement staff inspects all commodities upon receipt from the supplier/manufacturer. The NAS inventory officer enters them into a computerized inventory. The handover of the commodities to the end user is documented on a Memorandum of Receipt, including serial numbers and description of commodities, signed by the appropriate GOP official. Items reported lost or destroyed by the end-user are written off on Form OF-132 and deleted from inventory. Auctioned items are written off in the same manner. Concurrently, a subsidiary report is generated to retain a record of items deleted from inventory.
After a schedule of EUM visits for the year is finalized and end user agencies are notified, the NAS inventory officer distributes inventory lists to EUM teams that conduct on-site inspections of commodities in their designated areas. EUM teams use inventory lists to conduct inspections and cross check against agency inventory records.
In 2006, all GOP agencies receiving NAS assistance provided quarterly reporting on a NAS-provided template, including inventory, status, location and impact of NAS-provided items.
In 2006, the NAS EUM team organized a schedule of 56 visits to recipient agencies throughout Pakistan, including Islamabad, Quetta, Karachi, Makran Coast, Rawalpindi, Peshwar, and FATA agencies. Of these, 46 visits were made, with the remaining ten cancelled due to adverse security conditions in certain areas of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Balochistan. During field trips throughout the year, NAS staff also conducted over 80 spot-checks of various recipient agencies in different locations throughout the country. NAS and counterpart agencies jointly verified and updated inventories.
In cases when travel to an area was neither feasible (due to remoteness) nor safe, agencies transported commodities to main locations for inspection by NAS staff. When taking vehicles or equipment away from their main area of deployment would have harmed operational effectiveness, NAS staff compared NAS-generated computerized inventory records of commodities against recipient agency written inventories provided in quarterly reports. NAS communication experts also verified the condition of equipment when agencies brought back items for repair.
During 2006, NAS teams physically inspected about 60 percent of the 1,780 INL-funded vehicles and motorcycles, verifying their condition and location of deployment. The NAS physically inspected 79 percent of the 24 FLIRs, 50 percent of the 247 Night Vision Binoculars (NVBs), 49 percent of the 100 Night Vision Goggles (NVGs), and about 30 percent of 3,911 pieces of communications equipment. Most of the vehicles, communications equipment, NVBs and NVG that are not seen were deployed in authorized counterterrorism operations in North and South Waziristan and in remote dangerous border areas, particularly in Balochistan.
Aircraft fuel is monitored through flight logs that are maintained and reviewed by State Department contractor personnel. When deployed away from Quetta, fuel/invoices are given to flight crews for aircraft fuel provided. These invoices are verified by the MOI personnel and periodically submitted to NAS staff, who verifies them against quantities billed by the supplier.
For construction activities, roads, and small water schemes, the NAS engineering section is involved from the planning and costing stage to implementation and final certification and payment. NAS voucher examiners monitor the bills and expenses submitted and make occasional field visits to verify expenditures as necessary. Engineers monitor independently and with counterparts to assure host contract compliance and assure quality of construction. The counternarcotics roads are monitored frequently to assure quality. For both road construction and small water schemes, the NAS staff, and the electrical department, oversee the construction and carry out a final inspection and certification at completion. Completion reports are jointly signed by the executing technical agency, the NAS, and the political agent in the agencies to assure accountability. Similar procedures are in place for the new BSP roads which have been jointly planned and costed-out to assure reasonable costs.
With a few exceptions, commodities were in place and being used for the purposes for which they were provided. Overall, post has found that the law enforcement agencies impose tight internal controls and strict administrative practices. GOP agencies generally have a good track record on maintaining current inventories of NAS-provided equipment. The condition of items varied from location to location.
Law enforcement agencies reported appropriate use of INL-funded vehicles for counternarcotics and counterterrorism operations. Vehicles helped law enforcement staff move to check points for stakeouts; patrol border areas; pursue, apprehend and transport suspected border smugglers; conduct background investigations; and search for drug storage areas and laboratories. For example, Frontier Corps NWFP reported using vehicles to establish daily and nightly mobile check points to check the movement of traffickers and other criminals. Vehicles also transported GOP managers to carry out feasibility studies for development projects; monitor the implementation of various development schemes and road construction; and verify GOP reports of crop eradication.
The vehicles provided to Home Department/FATA were found to be in assigned locations. The logbooks are being maintained which will help with maintenance of vehicles.
The Frontier Corps (FC) reported proper use of BSP vehicles during the year. In 2006, FC-NWFP reported that 13 vehicles were destroyed during counternarcotics operations. These vehicles include 8 troop carrier trucks, 2 water bowzers and 3 pickups. To date, a total of 26 FC-NWFP vehicles have been destroyed during counterterrorism operations. Two single cabin pickups of FC-Balochistan were also destroyed by landmines in the Dera Bugti area.
The Excise and Taxation Office in Karachi failed to produce two vehicles for inspection or provide any information about their location. Excise and Taxation officials initiated an inquiry into the whereabouts of the two missing vehicles but NAS has not received a report of their findings to date.
In a handful of cases, the NAS has been notified of vehicles provided for operational purposes being used by GOP agency administrative staff. The NAS has also received one or two reports of NAS-provided vehicles and equipment (e.g. generators) being used for personal purposes by the principals of the end-user agencies or their relatives. In all cases, the NAS is following up with the concerned GOP agencies to ensure that all commodities are being used for the intended purpose in accordance with the Letter of Agreement (LOA) with the GOP.
End-user agencies have reported a number of vehicles as stolen. The NWFP Home Department informed the NAS that one Toyota Corolla went missing in Peshwar. An investigation into the matter is ongoing. Additionally, the Intelligence Bureau also reported that a motorcycle Honda CG-125 has been stolen. In these cases, the NAS requires the responsible agency to provide a written statement detailing the steps to be taken to locate the stolen item, including any police investigation before removing it from inventory.
The NAS identified several cases in which vehicles had been transferred among different law enforcement agencies. In 2006, one vehicle that was transferred to Pakistani Rangers, Lahore, was returned to FC-NWFP. A vehicle transferred to the National Police Academy Islamabad, was returned to Balochistan Police. Quetta. During an EUM inspection in 2006, the NAS identified a Toyota Land Cruiser assigned to Pakistani Coast Guards Gwadar that had been transferred to the Pakistani Mission in Kosovo. The NAS is working with PAG headquarters Karachi to return the vehicle. The NAS staff continues to impress upon all agencies the need for close coordination in transferring items to ensure proper tracking and accountability.
The NAS staff found proper use of all-inspected computers, printers and other office equipment given to recipient GOP agencies within Pakistan. One missing printer at the Ministry of Narcotics Control was produced for inspection this year.
Agencies reported proper use of INL-funded bullet-proof jackets and other field gear in law enforcement operations. In 2006, 1,824 units of bullet-proof jackets and 2,850 units of bullet-proof helmets were provided to various agencies.
Communications equipment is used by law enforcement agencies to enable them to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics operations. Equipment includes VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF hand held transceivers, VHF mobile transceivers. Radio equipment plays an important role in the ability of the various law enforcement headquarters to communicate with their other stations nationwide. In some remote areas, the equipment is the sole means of communication between outposts. In the development area, communications equipment is used to communicate between the office of the political agent, the project manager and the construction/project site to relay requirements for equipment; provide site requirements for equipment; and provide information on progress of problems. The radio equipment also enables political agents to coordinate and supervise enforced destruction of opium poppy cultivation.
Recipient GOP agencies reported using surveillance (FLIRs,. NVGs, and NVBs) and communications equipment to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics and counterterrorism operations. Equipment includes VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF handheld repeaters, and VHF mobile transceivers. Radio equipment plays an important role in the ability of various law enforcement headquarters to communicate with their stations nationwide. The Coast Guard noted that communications equipment has ensured a 24-hour link among all its posts and timely passage of information related to smugglers activities. In some remote areas, radio equipment is crucial to operational outposts. The NAS has provided solar panels and power generators to various agencies to provide uninterrupted service to non-electrified areas. Much of the communications equipment is deployed in extremely rugged, remote and dangerous terrain, making physical monitoring difficult.
The high turnover of qualified and experienced technicians has hampered the proper use and maintenance of NAS-provided communications equipment by the ANF, Customs, and agencies in the FATA who rely on NAS communications engineers to provide maintenance and repair service. In 2006, 228 pieces of equipment were reported defective, and of those, 222 were repaired jointly by NAS and the respective agency technical staff. About 54 radio technicians and technical staff of various GOP agencies were trained to carry out programming, installation and maintenance of NAS-provided radio equipment.
The Customs Drug Enforcement Cell reported that it is using the INL-funded 27-foot Challenger Boston Whaler, provided in 1987, for surveillance of any illegal movement outside Karachi Port.
Area Development/Agricultural Projects-Seventeen (17) different road projects were under construction in Mohmand, Bajaur and Khyber during the year with a total length of 65 Km. Counternarcotics project activities also commenced in the newly opened areas of Kala Dhaka (Mansehra District) and Kohistan District, where 7 roads projects with a total length of 49 km are underway.
During 2006, 18 small projects were completed against the total of 36 planned schemes in Khyber Agency. A total of 901 acres of demonstration plots were established in Khyber Agency, 160 acres in Kala Dhaka, and 345 in Kohistan.
Border Security Roads-In 2006, 18.6 kms of roads were blacktopped against the remaining 151 planned. Due to snow and adverse security situations, road projects were held up in Khyber, North and South Waziristan Agencies. During the year 34 small projects were underway, of which 17 projects were completed.
Outposts-In 2006, the remaining two of 29 Phase I border outposts were completed in Baluchistan. As confirmed by FC Baluchistan, work on 25 newly-approved border outposts in 2006 has also commenced. In NWFP, the remaining six out of 26 border outposts are in the process of revision, due to the security problems in North Waziristan Agency. As confirmed by FC NWFP, the 25 newly approved border outposts in 2006 are in the process of contract tendering. The numbers of Levies outposts were reduced to 66 from 79 due to an increase in construction rates. A total of 34 Levies outposts were completed out of 66.
Nine UH-1H II helicopters flew a total of 2110.6 hours from January to May 2006. The operational readiness rate for the year was 67.5 percent. Three fixed-wing Cessna Caravan 208 aircraft were flown 1,065.3 hours and were maintained at a fully mission capable rate of 79.6 percent. The tenth Huey II arrived back in Pakistan on December 10 after depot-level maintenance in the United States.
The Air Wing’s ten Huey IIs executed 83 operational missions involving 213 aircraft sorties. These included an air assault on a suspected drug compound and drug processing facilities, poppy surveys, medevacs for personnel injured during FC and ANF operations, support poppy surveys, medevacs for personnel injured during FC operations, support for Operation Mountain Thrush along the Afghan border and border reconnaissance. The three fixed-wing Cessna Caravans, equipped with FLIR surveillance equipment, executed 87 missions, including border surveillance, medavacs, and command and control support for large operations.
Pakistan made progress toward sealing its porous border with Afghanistan against infiltration by drug traffickers, terrorists, and other criminals, using INL-supplied helicopters, vehicles, and other equipment. In general, law enforcement agencies have stressed that the commodity assistance has provided them with greater mobility and a more rapid response capability for operations in the remote region, especially on the Pak-Afghan border. The GOP also approved 1,166 new posts for the Anti-Narcotics Force and 10,264 positions in the Frontier Corps Balochistan, which will significantly enhance efforts in border security and counternarcotics. Five hundred personnel have already reported to their ANF postings and 600 are expected to be hired and trained in 2007.
The Frontier Corps NWFP reported using NAS-provided vehicles, communications and surveillance equipment in search operations for al-Quaida suspects, which resulted in the arrest of 219 al-Qaida members and 656 other suspected terrorists. FC-NWFP deweaponized tribal areas by purchasing and destroying arms worth $500,000. The agency also reports having opened up 4,150 square km. of previously inaccessible areas, mostly bordering Afghanistan.
From January to December 2006, GOP security forces reported seizing 35.3 metric tons (MT) of heroin (including morphine base), a 45 percent increase from 24.3 MT in 2005, and 8.6 MT of opium. In addition, 110.5 MT of hashish seized by all GOP law enforcement agencies. Other drugs seized by ANF in 2006 included over 1,530 kgs of opium poppy straw, 50 kgs. of chemical powder, 1.7 kgs of cocaine, 301,895 of morphine injections, Ecstasy tablets, buprenorphine injections, and other synthetic drugs.
From January to November 10, 2006, the GOP authorized reported arresting 34,170 individuals on drug-related charges. As of October 1, 2006, the ANF had registered 549 narcotics cases in the GOP’s court system, 265 of which were decided with an 84.5 percent conviction rate.
Opium Poppy Control
With USG assistance, the GOP conducted extensive ground and aerial monitoring this past year in NWFP and Balochistan that confirmed a 39 percent decrease in Pakistan’s poppy cultivation to 1,907 hectares in 2006. This is largely contributed to a significant drop in cultivation in Mohmand, Bajaur Agencies and in Kohistan District of NWFP as well as significantly less cultivation in Baluchistan from 278 hectares to 46 hectares in 2006. USG-provide aircraft, vehicles and communications equipment were used to investigate and monitor the 2005-2006 opium poppy crop; to help forces eradiate it and verify its destruction. After destruction, the poppy harvest resulted in a yield of 1,545 hectares, very close to poppy-free status.
Vehicles, Night Vision goggles and Commo Equipment
In a single operation on May 15, 2006, the Coast Guard used INL-provided vehicles, Night Vision Goggles, GPS and communications equipment to seize 900 kgs of hashish. In a joint operation on August 29, 2006, the Frontier Corps NWFP seized 400 kgs of hashish.
On July 21, 2006, the Balochistan Levies Force was tipped off about an armed group setting up a roadblock to extort illegal fees from local transporters. Using NAS vehicles, Levies rushed to the scene, and removed the roadblock after exchanging fire with the militants.
On August 5, 2006, Khassadar Force (police) used NAS-provided vehicles and radios to conduct a raid near the Torkham Border Crossing (on the Pak-Afghan border), recovering 171 containers of diesel and patrol fuel stolen from a tanker truck traveling to Afghanistan.
The MOI Air Wing was the first Night Vision Goggle (NVG) capable helicopter squadron in Pakistan. The MOI Air Wing has both fixed wing night surveillance assets and an NVG-trained night interdiction Heliborne Assault Force (HAF). Surveillance of the border improved significantly with the fixed wing aircraft, providing useful background information, as well as mission-specific information to the border security agencies.
Air Wing Assets
Air Wing assets directly contributed to the seizure of 88 kgs. of morphine, 889 kgs. of opium, and 312 kgs of hashish, as well as the weapons and vehicles used by the smugglers. The NAS has made clear to senior GOP interlocutors that the Frontier Corps and the ANF, in particular, need to make greater tactical use of the assets in counternarcotics operations.
The MOI Air Wing was the first Night Vision Goggle (NVG)-capable helicopter squadron in Pakistan. The MOI Air Wing has both fixed wing night surveillance assets and a NVG-trained night interdiction Heliborne Assault Force (HAF). Surveillance of the border improved significantly with the fixed wing aircraft, providing useful information to the border security agencies.
ProblemsLimited Maintenance Resources
GOP resources to operate, maintain, and support NAS-provided vehicles and other commodities remain limited. Maintenance of communications equipment in particular, continues to be a problem, because law enforcement agencies lack resources and technicians with the advanced knowledge needed to do repairs.
The NAS provided maintenance support for the radios of all agencies in 2006, but worked with the Pakistani technicians to enhance their capabilities in maintaining equipment. NAS radio engineers conducted two advanced training courses for law enforcement agencies in Peshwar and Karachi in 2006. The NAS also helped agencies set up proper repair shops, equip them with tools and text equipment, and provide parts and accessories needed to repair the radio equipment.
In 2006, the NAS had difficulty monitoring assets and construction projects due to ongoing counterterrorism operations, particularly in North and South Waziristan. Given that these are some of the highest impact areas for INL assistance, the NAS worked with agencies to come up with procedures that meet End Use Monitoring needs but allow work and operations to continue.
Air Wing Missions
The Embassy still does not always receive timely prenotification from the Air Wing of all missions. The ability of the NAS to monitor use of the aircraft once deployed is also limited; the Letter of Agreement that governs the program specifically states that U.S. personnel are permitted to ride only on training flights, not operational missions.
A number of agencies, particularly the Frontier Corps, reported a problem with NAS-provided Isuzu pickups, which do not possess sufficient clearance to be useful on rough terrain. Another problem reported by FCB is that during use on rough terrain, vibration damaged oil-filter tops of Isuzu vehicles. Agencies recommended purchasing Toyota pickups instead.
Analysis of the pattern of requests for repair/replacement suggests that some sensitive equipment, particularly communications and surveillance equipment delivered to the GOP has a short useful life. This can be partially attributed to the lack of expertise and training in the maintenance of this type of equipment by GOP technicians. The NAS proposes to streamline its approach to providing maintenance training and maintenance supplies and equipment to end-user agencies. Through Congressional supplemental aid, the NAS has provided thousands of vehicles and thousands of pieces of communications equipment to Pakistani end-user agencies since 2002.
The INL office in Kabul has confirmed the location and proper use of all items. The Global Positioning Systems (GPS) units are used by the Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) teams and are seen in pictures showing various projects, as well as on site visits during the last three months. The photocopier purchased for the Counternarcotics Justice Center is seen every day by the prosecutors. The photocopier is seen every week by the DEA agents.
INL Kabul purchased 10 GPS’ to support the monitoring and verification of Governor-led eradication under the PEP. The GPS’ are being used on a regular basis and are reported to be in good condition.
ProblemsThere are limitations imposed by the Regional Security Office on extended trips to some of the sites where the items are being used. In these cases, reports received by the International advisers under contract with PEP are used for verification.
The equipment provided to the Afghan government is assisting the work covered by them. The GPS units allows for verification of poppy eradicated. The photocopier facilitates office work for the prosecutors and the Afghan counterparts in the Counternarcotics Task Force. The work undertaken by DEA with their counterparts is facilitated by use of the equipment.
INL has several projects that will begin or reach fruition over the coming year. Post will have a larger report due to the extensive support for various ministries in the Afghan Government in the Justice, Information, and Counternarctics sectors.
Embassy officers visited the Drugs Control Program (DCP), the Nepal Police Women’s Cell, the Narcotics Drug Control and Law Enforcement Unit (NDCLEU) and the Supreme Court. These organizations fully cooperated with post inquiries about the status of the USG-funded equipment.
Some equipment is used outside Katmandu Valley. Due to security restrictions on travel because of the Maoist insurgency, monitoring of this equipment has been problematic. As a result, post has relied on status reports from Police Headquarters and information provided to post by the individual offices that have received USG-provided equipment.
The bicycles (20), motorcycles (5), and scooters (2) were given to the NDCLEU in 1997 and 1998. All of the equipment except for two motorcycles and two motor scooters are used infrequently because of their age. The motorcycles and scooters require frequent repair. The Government has banned new importation of two-stroke engines. Thus, finding equipment to repair the motorcycles and scooters is become increasingly challenging.
Eight motorcycles were presented to the Nepal Police Women’s Cell in September 1999. The Cells are special units of the police, formed to combat crimes against women and children. Five of the motorcycles are in Kathmandu and three are in other districts. The cell reported that all were operational, but that the motorcycles require constant repair and the Women’s Cell has insufficient funds for the required maintenance.
A mini-forensic laboratory for drug analysis was established in January 1999 at the Central Police laboratory. The lab has a gas chromatograph and two gas canisters, a Willey grinder, a vertical autoclave, an automatic water still, a spectrophotometer, a vacuum pump, a refractometer, a melting point apparatus, and a computer and printer connected to the chromatograph. All equipment remains in good condition.
A laptop computer, desktop computer, scanner and digital camera were presented to NDCLEU in January 2002 for the creation of a database of convicted traffickers. A computer and printer were provided to the mini- forensic laboratory in 1999. A digital scanner was provided to the NDCLEU in 2002. Dell computer monitors (65), Dell COU computers (61), Uninterrupted Power Supply units (65), and Dell printers (20), were presented to the Supreme Court in 2005. The computers and printers are in good condition; however, the Uninterrupted Power Supply units provided to the Supreme Court are not operational in Nepal because they are configured for the wrong current.
In 1998, the DADRP (now the DCP) was supplied a fax machine, camera, overhead projector, and video camera. All units are in good condition. The DCP uses them regularly for training.
ProblemsTravel to some areas of Nepal has been limited due to time restraints, thus affecting the Embassy’s monitoring ability.
The Supreme Court is not able to use the Uninterrrupted Power Supply units because they are configured for U.S. current (110). The Supreme Court has stored the units and is willing to return them if appropriate arrangements can be made for shipment. The Supreme Court, also noted that it needs a back-up server. Currently, external devices are used to backup all of the data. The addition of a backup server would help to ensure the integrity of its data.
The support provided to the NDCLEU and the Women’s Cell of the police has had a direct and positive impact on the effectiveness of the units by increasing mobility and investigative capabilities. The NDCLEU’s computers have enabled the unit to maintain regular email contact with DEA and FBI contacts in New Delhi, Bangkok and elsewhere, facilitating the investigation of organized crime syndicates.
The Supreme Court has used the donation to leverage funding from the Government of Nepal to purchase additional computers. The Supreme Court now has a computer in each office, and has provided computers to District Courts. This has enabled the Supreme Court to improve filing and archive systems, and to publish hearing schedules and decisions electronically.
Equipment in the Police Laboratory has given the Police the capacity to accurately analyze samples, usually within two days. Analysis by the lab is recognized as expert testimony in court.
Due to the size of the country, the locations where the majority of the items are dispersed and post’s lack of travel budget, it is not possible or feasible to conduct a physical inventory of all INL-donated commodities and vehicles. Post requires host government officials who received INL-funded commodities to sign a receipt and agree to maintain the commodities in accordance with LOA standard provisions.
StatusIn the past, INL-funded commodities were donated primary to recipients in Northeast India (in the states of Assam, Mizoran and West Bengal) and in North Central India in states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. However, over the last three years, vehicles and commodities were delivered to other parts of India: Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedadad, Varanasi, Tribandrum, Jodphur, and Chandighar, making the physical inventory of INP-donated items difficult. Post found that most of the commodities were well maintained and in excellent condition.
One Maruta Van was donated in 2000 to the NCB headquarters in Imphal. The Eastern Zonal Unit in Calcutta has (1) Maruti Esteem and (1) Toyota Qualis. The Mizoran State Excise received (6) Maruti Gypay 4-wheel drive utility vehicles in 2001; three are at the Excise headquarters in Aizawl; and one each are in the office of the Superintendent of Excise at Champai, Koasib and Saiha. Of the six Yamaha RX 135 motorcycles delivered in 2001, four are located in Aizwal headquarters and are used by the Anti-Narcotics Squad; one bike each is located at the district offices of Aizwal and Champai. All vehicles donated to the NCB in the Northeast and the Mizorem State Excise remain in good condition with maintenance necessary repairs done at the authorized workshops. The Units’ officers use the vehicles for preventive duty and easy, unidentifiable movement. CBN’s Preventive and Intelligence Cell, Guwahati, Assam has two Yamaha motorcycles that are in good condition and receive regular servicing and maintenance. These bikes are used primarily for intelligence gathering and for special operations. Two Ford Endeavour (SUV) vehicles were donated to the Office of the Commissioner of Customs (Preventive), North Eastern Region in July 2006. One Tavera (SUV) was donated to the Indian Customs office in Kolkata in 2006. All vehicles are in good condition and are being used for special operations and surveillance.
Over 50 motorcycles were provided to the CBN and distributed to the following CBN offices throughout Uttar Pradesh, Mahya, Pradesh, and Rajasthan: 6 to Chittorgarh in Rajastban; 2 to Neemcuh in Rajastan; 1 to Gwallor; 2 in Delhi; and 2 in Guwahati, Assam; 5 in Mandsaur; 4 in Jaora; 3 in Garoth; 1 in Ratlam, 1 in Indore; 1 in Singoli; 1 in Ujjain; 5 in Kota; 1 in Jahlawar; 3 in Bhilwara; 3 in Pratapgarh; 3 in Barabnaki; 2 in Bareilly; 2 in TiThar; and 2 in Faizabad. All are in excellent working order. The motorcycles are used to patrol the licit opium growing fields for enforcement operations; chase and apprehend criminals; search for drug laboratories; monitor field measurements; and test measurements for poppy harvest. The motorcycles have also been used for the detection and eradication of excess poppy crop, physical checks at weighment centers, and the carrying out of out drug and chemical interdiction efforts.
The three vehicles that were donated to the NCB South Zone in Chennai remain in good condition and are used primarily for enforcement and surveillance work.
The NCB Zonal Unit in Mumbai received two Qualis SUV’s and the one Hero Honda motorcycle in March 2003. These vehicles are routinely used for surveillance and operations. Two Taverqas (SUV) were donated to the Indian Customs in Munbai in 2006.
NCB New Delhi received 1 Toyota Quali, 2 Hero Honda motorcycles, 1 Mahindra Bolero, and 2 Maruti Esteems. The area that the New Delhi Zonal unit is responsible for includes four states as well as the national capital district of Delhi. The Qualis is the New Delhi Zonal Unit’s main operational vehicle used primarily for preventive work, searches, and seizures of illicit narcotics. The Maruti Esteems are used for surveillance as these vehicles blend into the urban traffic pattern of New Delhi. The Hero Hondas’ primary functions are to perform reconnaissance, issue subpoenas, and make deliveries. All of these vehicles are in good condition. Two Tavera (SUV) were donated to the Indian Customs Office in Delhi in 2006. One Taera (SUV) was donated to the Indian Customs Patna office in 2006. All vehicles are in good condition and are being used for surveillance and intelligence gathering work.
The Hero Honda motorcycle, the Maruti Esteem, and the Toyota Qualis donated to the NCB South Zone in February 2003 remain in good condition and receive routine maintenance. All three vehicles are all used for surveillance, search, seizures and arrests.
Three Sony Digital cameras were donated to three Central Detective Training Schools (CDTS) in Chandigarh, Hyderabed, and Calcutta. These cameras were donated to each of the schools by the ICITAP training team when they conducted a training program in each of the cities in August 2004. All three cameras are in excellent condition and are used to enhance the CDTS’s ability to train police in crime scene photography.
One camera each was delivered to the Superintendent of Excise in Saiha and, the Anti-Narcotics Squad in Champhai and two to the Excise Headquarters in Aizawl in 2001. All four cameras are reported to be inoperable and are unserviceable. Post will explore the option of replacing the cameras.
NCB Headquarters New Delhi received a Hitachi camcorder that is used by the Investigative and Intelligence Branch in Delhi for surveillance and to record seizures. The camcorder is in excellent condition.
Eight digital cameras were purchased for the Central Bureau of Narcotics for use in their Joint Licit Opium Poppy Survey (JLOPS) in 2003. The cameras are used mainly to photograph and catalog the different stages of poppy growth in each field office and by inspectors visiting the various fields. The cameras remain in good condition.
Eighteen Cannon Powershot A400 digital cameras and (4) Canon Powershot A520 digital cameras were donated to the CNB in September 2005. They are in excellent condition. They are used for recording various stages of poppy cultivation as well as documenting seizures and arrests of diverted poppy/opium.
Two Sony camcorders, two Panasonic multimedia projectors and five Motorola two-way radios were donated to the NCB Kolkata in February 2006.
Two Cannon Canoscan scanners were donated to he NCB, Kolkata in February 2006.
Two Panasonic DVD players and two Sony Wega television sets were donated to the NCB, New Delhi in May 2006.
One Accord EPABX machine, two backup batteries for the EPABX and 12 Beetel phones were donated to thee NCB, New Delhi in May 2006.
Two Steiner binoculars, four Night Vision binoculars, and two Braun photo Technik projectors were donated to the NCB, New Delhi in May 2006. All of the equipment provided to the NCB is in good condition and is being used to enhance intelligence gathering and training.
Twenty-two Garmin Etrex Personal Navigator GPS receivers were donated to the Department of Revenue Intelligence of the Indian Customs Service in July 2006. The equipment is in good condition and used for communications.
One Gas Chromatograph was donated to the Central Revenue Control Laboratory of the Central Board of Excise and Customs in October 2006.
The following laboratory equipment was donated to the Government Opium and Alkaloid Works (GOAW) in May 2006: moisture meter-one Ohaus moisture analyzer; AAS-one Perkin Elmer analyzer 200/400 Spectrophotometer; one flow injection analysis system for atomic Spectroscopy; one air compressor; GC- one Perkin Elmer Clarus 500 GC, one capillary injector starter kit with one syringe and one HP business inkjet 1000 printer. All equipment is in good condition and has been recently installed at the GOAW.
The following equipment was purchased for the CNB for use in the JLOPS survey in 2003. The majority of commodities remain in good condition.
Mitutoyo digimatic calipers (11)–They are used for measuring the poppy capsules to determine the optimum yield at harvest time.
Hot air ovens (11) –They are used to dry the poppy crop
Hygrothermeter (60) –They are used to record temperature and humidity, necessary statistics required for the JLOPS survey
Mid-range weighing balances (10) –They are used in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh for weighing poppy samples. Three damaged scales were repaired in 2005.
Sharp LCD projector (1)–It was donated to the Competent Authority, Northern Region in May 2005. The CA uses the projector with the laptop to give presentations and workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers. The projector is in excellent condition.
Thales Mobile Mappers (GPS) (2)-They were donated to the CNB in September 2005. They are used to plot coordinates of all the licit poppy fields to pinpoint their exact locations. The CBN used the GPS units to determine the plot sizes to better estimate opium crop yields. They are in excellent condition.
Forty Sensor Technology Radiation Pagers were donated to Indian Customs this year, and are in excellent condition. They have been distributed to various Indian Customs Offices for their use in determining whether shipments contain radioactive material. Often, drug traffickers will mark containers radioactive, concealing contraband, hoping that no one will verify the contents.
Two GE Ion Track Itemizers were donated to Indian Customs for use in the airports in Mumbai and New Delhi. They will be used to scan suspicious luggage where they suspect contraband is being smuggled. They are in excellent condition.
Sixteen Steiner 7 x 50 binoculars that will be used in various Indian Customs operations for surveillance are in excellent condition.
Six Nikon Tundra 10 x 50 binoculars were donated to the CBN in July 2005: 4 are in Gwalior, 1 in Kota, and 1 in Neemuch. They are used for surveillance and undercover operations. They are in excellent condition.
In 2004, post purchased (18) IBM desk top computers and monitors, (18) HP desk jet printers, (18) webcams, (18) back up UPS’s and (16) copies of Analyst Notebook Software for donation to the NCB nationwide. The following NCB Zonal offices throughout the country received one set of computer equipment: Varanasi, Calcutta, Jammu, Chandigarh, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Delhi Jodhpur Ahmedabad, Chenai and Imphal. The NCB New Delhi headquarters received (7) sets of computer equipment. With the exception of one back-up UPS in the Calcutta Zonal offices, all remaining computer equipment is in good condition. Post will replace the defective UPS this year. In April of 2005, post donated a HP ML570 Server with keyboard and monitor to the NCB headquarters in New Delhi. The server is in excellent condition.
Four Compaq computers and printers were donated to the Excise Department in the Northeast. The computers can be found in the following locations: (2) Excise Headquarters anti-Narcotics Squad; (1) Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Champai, and (1) Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Saiha. Last year, INL replaced two defective printers. All items are in good condition and used for intelligence gathering, record keeping and data exchange.
Nine HP laptop computers were donated to the CBN in July 2005. The computers were distributed to the following CBN offices: (4) CBN HQ Gwalier, (2) New Delhi, (1) Kota (1) Neemuch, and (1) in Lucknow. The computers are in excellent condition and are used primarily for storage of opium poppy cultivation data (JLOPS) and data related to the poppy crop. Four HP Laserjet printers and one HP Deskjet printer were donated to CBN in May and July 2006. respectively. All items are in good condition and are being used for intelligence gathering, record keeping, and data exchange.
One IBM laptop was donated to the Competent Authority (CA) in New Delhi in May 2005. The laptop is in excellent condition and is used to prepare materials and presentations for workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers.
The following computer equipment was donated to the CBN in March 2006: 4 Dell cabinet assembly; 4 Dell short tacks; 4 servers; 4 analog switches; 40 CPU’s; 40 Dell 17” monitors; 4 15” LCD monitors; 40 speakers; computer cables. All equipment has been accounted for and is in good condition.
In May 2006, the CBN received four APC 1000 VA backups and 40 APC 650 backups. In April 2006, 30 Dell laser printers and four IBM Power vault 110T LTO-2 external driver for servers along with 4 Norton anti-virus and 40 copies of Microsoft Office Pro 2003 were donated to CBN. All of the equipment is in good condition and a service contract for all the equipment will be awarded as soon as CBN forwards the request to the INL office in Delhi.
Two Dell computers and one HP Laser jet printer were donated to the Alkaloid Works in June 2006. One Compaq HP laptop and one Panasonic LCD projector were donated in November 2006. The equipment is being used for documentation. record keeping and data exchange.
One HP Compaq laptop, two Aceer Veritron desk top computers and two HP Laserjet printers were donated to the NCB Kolkaa office in February 2006. The equipment is being use for data and intelligence exchange.
Three Motorola headsets are in the headquarters at Aizawl, and two each are with the Aizawl district office and the Anti-Narcotics Squad at Champhai. One each is at Saiha, Office of the Superintendent in Kolasib, and at Vairengte. All handsets, which were delivered in 2001, remain in good condition and are very useful for communication in this remote region.
The NCB’s Northeast Unit in Manipur used the digital recorder for taping statements and telephone conversations. It remains in good condition.
The following equipment was provided to CBN for use in field locations in JLOPS survey in 2003: 8 digital cameras, 11 digital calipers, 60 hygrothermometers, 6 electric weighing scales, and 11 heavy-duty drying ovens. The cameras have been used to photograph and catalog the different stages of poppy growth in each field office. The 11 calipers were used for measuring the poppy capsules to determine the optimum yield at harvest time. The 11 hot air ovens were used for drying out the poppy crop. The hygrothermometers were used to record temperature and humidity.
Mid-range weighing balances were procured for use in Madhya Pradesh, Rajashan and Uttar Pradesh for weighing poppy samples. Three damaged scales were repaired last year.
A Sharp LCD Projector was donated to the Competent Authority (CA), Northern Region in May 2005. The CA uses the projector with the laptop to give presentations and workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers. The projector is in excellent condition.
Two Thales Mobile Mappers (GPS) were donated to the CBN in September 2005. They are used to plot coordinates of all the licit poppy fields to pinpoint their exact locations. The CBN uses the GPS’ to determine the plot sizes to better estimate opium crop yields. They are in excellent condition.
Forty sensor technology radiation pagers were donated to Indian Customs this year. They are in excellent condition. They have been distributed to various Indian Customs offices for their use in determining whether shipments contain radioactive material. Often, traffickers will mark containers radioactive, concealing contraband, hoping that no one will verity its contents.
Two Ion Track itemizers were donated to Indian Customs for use in the airports in Mumbai and New Delhi. They will be used to scan suspicious luggage where they suspect contraband is being smuggled. They are in excellent condition.
Sixteen Steiner binoculars were used in various Indian Customs operations and surveillance. They are in excellent condition.
Six Nikon Tundra binoculars were donated to CNB in July 2005. Four are in Gwalior; 1 in Kota; and 1 is in Neemuch. They are used for surveillance and undercover operations to apprehend diversion of the licit opium crop. They are in excellent condition.
Ten weed trimmers are located at Guwahati for use during operations to destroy illegal cultivation. Eight belong to the Guwahati Office and the other two are borrowed from CBN headquarters in Gwalior. The weed trimmers have not been used for the last two years since there has not been a program to eradicate poppy in Acunachal Pradesh. The weed trimmers are reported to be very cumbersome and difficult to carry over the 5-10 kilometers in hilly areas where illicit poppy growth has been discovered in the past.
Two Buster contraband detector kits, one contraband team inspection kit, and two generation1 Night Vision binoculars were donated to the Office of the commissioner of Customs Preventive, North Eastern Region, Shillong in August and November 2006 respectively and remain in good condition.
Uniforms and Field Gear
Galis Lite Extended Coverage Level II body armor (bullet proof vests) was donated to the Office of the Commissioner of Customs Preventive, North Eastern Region, Shillong in June 2006; and remains in good condition.
INL’s assistance to the Indian law enforcement agencies, namely the NCB, CBN, Indian Customs, North East Customs and North East Excise, through donated computers, software, communications and other miscellaneous has greatly enhanced the operational efficiency in conducting complex drug trafficking investigations. This had led to an increase in the targeting of high level drug trafficking organizations rather than couriers and low level drug traffickers. .
The INL-funded vehicles donated to these Indian law enforcement agencies have enhanced their abilities to apprehend traffickers and make seizures, especially in outlying areas.
The CBN controls licit cultivation of opium poppy and the processes associated with it in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh-an area of over 150,000 square kilometers. INL’s assistance to the CBN in the form of vehicles and equipment has greatly enhanced the mobility of CBN’s staff and helped CBN effectively monitor the harvest of the opium crop and subsequent processing.
Since 2002, post has provided assistance to a wide variety of Government of Uzbekistan law enforcement agencies, including the Ministry of Internal Affairs, State Customs Committee, and the Committee for State Border Protection. Post requires that the Uzbekistan and end-user agency sign an End Use certificate for every lot of INL-provided equipment to document provision of items. Whenever possible, post conducts End Use Monitoring using on-site inspections by INL or other Embassy personnel. During these trips, post attempts to meet with appropriate officials and inspect donated equipment to verity storage, maintenance, and usage of INL-provided equipment.
Equipment provided to the Sensitive Investigative Unit has been controlled and monitored using short or no notice inspections by post’s Drug Enforcement Agency Country Representative. However, the Drug Enforcement Agency has decided to discontinue its support for the Sensitive Investigative Unit. Therefore, future End Use Monitoring of this equipment will fall to post’s INL program. When on-site inspections are not possible, Uzbekistan end-user agencies are asked to provide post with information regarding the location and status of donated equipment. Uzbekistan end-use agencies generally have been cooperative facilitating access to donated equipment or in providing the requested information, although not in a timely manner.
In August 2000, Uzbek Customs Committee received nine 4-wheel drive Jeep Cherokees and spare parts. All vehicles were equipped by Customs with a HF radio. They are currently divided into five mobile units patrolling rural border areas. Six of the vehicles are in satisfactory condition. A seventh vehicle is inoperable because of difficulties in finding spare parts on the local market. Two of the vehicles are being used by the National Security Service and General Prosecutor’s Office to conduct joint tactical operations.
Twenty-eight vehicles were obtained for use by the Special Investigative Unit (SIU). All vehicles were accounted for and are in operating condition.
In December 2002, post delivered 27 INL-funded laptop computers for use at 12 remote border railroad ports of entry/exit on the borders with Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. All of the laptops are accounted for and 24 remain in operating condition.
Document Examination Equipment
In October 2001, INL provided the Committee for State Border Protection document examination equipment to improve passport control activities at border checkpoints. Donated equipment included: 100 Universal Desktop Magnifiers and spare lamps, 200 hand-held UV-spot detectors and spare UV lamps, 8 multifunctional passport readers, and one set of passport computer software. All equipment was accounted for and remains operational.
In 2004, post furnished laboratory equipment to enhance the GOU’s capabilities to perform forensic analysis of explosives and narcotics substances. The equipment included a portable explosive detector, five digital scales, and an Agilent Electrophoresis system. The Ministry of Internal Affairs Central Laboratory received an Agilent Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer System. All donated laboratory equipment was accounted for. All equipment is operational except for the Agilent Gas chromatograph.
Basic investigative equipment was distributed to the Counterdrug Department of the Uzbek Ministry of Internal Affairs. The equipment included 21 digital video cameras, 68 portable digital audio recorders, 36 digital cameras, and 19 TV sets and VCRs. All of the equipment is in working condition except for one digital camera.
In December 2002, inspection mirrors (300), “Mag-Lite” flashlights (300), and Narcotics Identification Kits (140) were provided to the State Customs Committee to ensure that every Customs post on the border had a least basic inspection testing equipment. The equipment was distributed to 60 stationary and mobile Customs border posts, as well as to Customs training facilities. According to the State Customs Committee, 90 percent of the donated equipment remains in service.
In 2001, post provided jungle boots, camel backs, compasses, diving fins, first- aid kits, flashlights, GPS systems, vests, protractors and watches to the Committee for State Border Protection for use by the maritime operations unit in patrolling the islands in the Amu Darya River that serves as the border between Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.
The following equipment was donated in support of the SIU for use in targeting and dismantling high-level transnational drug trafficking organizations operating in the area: office safes, binoculars, handcuffs, scanners, digital scales, digital camcorders, SLR cameras, folding chairs, Polaroid cameras, computer software, GPS units, Motorola radios, voice recorders and supplies, TV sets, cellular telephones, typewriter, office furniture, printers, digital CD cameras, laptop computers, desktop computers, VCR’s, televisions, high power telephoto lens, technical investigative equipment, and mobile printers, USP units. DEA and INL personnel conducted an unscheduled inventory of equipment during 2006 and fully accounted for all equipment.
Post is unable to monitor the majority of donated equipment on a regular basis, as it is in remote, difficult-to-access locations. In addition, with the exception of the Sensitive Investigative Unit, post is required to request access to donated equipment ahead of time. Although the Government of Uzbekistan has eventually agreed to each access request, there is often a significant delay between the time when a request is made and access is granted. On one occasion in 2006, Embassy personnel were denied access to donated equipment, because access to the rail depot on which it was located was not specifically requested via diplomatic note. Post also continues to experience delays in receiving requested information from Uzbekistan end-user agencies. These difficulties increased in 2006, as the U.S. Uzbekistan bilateral relationship continued to deteriorate.
Post’s INL program has played a significant role in providing basic equipment to Uzbekistan’s law enforcement agencies. Without such assistance, many border posts and counternarcotics units, particularly in the more remote areas of the country would be without required tools. For example, prior to the 2002 donation of laptop computers to the Committee for State Border Protection, officers used paper notepads to record traveler’s passport data and submitted this information only on a monthly basis. Using INL-donated laptops, immigration officials are now able to register train passengers much more efficiently and are also able to immediately identify persons or interest. Equipment donated by INL to the Ministry of Internal Affairs Explosives Laboratory played a key role in identifying the explosive substances used by the suicide bomber who attached Embassy Tashkent in 2004. The Ministry of Internal Affairs Sensitive Investigative Unit, which has operated with INL support since its inception, has been successful in conducting domestic and international investigations and is responsible for a significant portion of Uzbekistan’s annual narcotics seizures. The program has been less successful in promoting systematic changes within law enforcement agencies, such as greater attention to official corruption.