Europe and the Middle East
Post monitors INL-financed commodities by on-site inspections, periodic spot checks, and comparison of records at post with Turkish Government reports. Post officials conducted several End Use Monitoring trips to TMO and Amatem in 2003. Officials conducted one trip to Istanbul as well as several to TNP headquarters. The Narcotics Coordinator and the Embassy Monitoring Officer, along with in-country drug enforcement agents, stay in close touch with Turkish Government law enforcement officials to monitor the programs supported by INL in Turkey. Embassy officers also remain in close contact with officials at the Ankara headquarters of the Turkish National Police (TNP), Jandarma, Customs, TMO, and with regional clinics.
Post used its own computer-based records on equipment provided to Turkish Government agencies together with the inventory records maintained by the Turkish Government as the basis for its on-site inspections. Post has complete access to records kept in inventory systems by Turkish Government agencies.
Turkish Agencies cooperate closely with the mission in End Use Monitoring. INL-funded equipment comprises up to 80 percent of all equipment coming from international sources. This is often the only technically sophisticated equipment available for smaller regions. The on-site EUM trips have been very useful in obtaining reporting information, building working level relationships between the two governments, and increasing the ability to combat drug smuggling in Turkey.
Post verified that equipment in use in provincial police stations matched both post's records and those of the TNP. Due to sustained USG efforts, almost all of the INL-funded equipment has been distributed to field offices where it most directly benefits interdiction efforts. The TNP and Customs guards place sufficient emphasis on proper storage, maintenance and use of equipment. All equipment inspected appears to be in good condition.
INL has not provided any assistance to Turkey beyond 1999, since the Government of Turkey (GOT) did not accept language regarding human rights in the 2000 Letter of Agreement.
Customs officials in Mersin use INL-funded actuators, a fiberscope, cameras, night vision goggles and tape recorders frequently. Customs guards in Samsun use the USG-funded fiberscope extensively. The fiberscope enables the guards to search inner compartments and fuel tanks of large TIR trucks, which increases their effectiveness dramatically. It was particularly helpful in making the recent acetic anhydrite seizures.
In 2003, four videoscopes were delivered to the TNP. The GPS tracking system provided in 2000 is very useful but not as useful as it might be. It is not truly mobile. It draws power from a car battery. The TNP constantly uses night vision equipment in investigations. INL-funded equipment accounted for the bulk of specialized equipment in both Customs and TNP's inventories in Mersin. The INL-funded equipment was well maintained and property used.
The TNP is effectively using the briefcase kit and night vision binoculars. Other items used extensively by the Alcohol and Addictive Treatment Center (AMATEM) include data projector, screen, slide projector, video recorder and player. They are used for the drug awareness program in schools.
The Turkish Customs was efficiently using the INL-funded ion scanners and fiberscopes along the most important smuggling routes. Customs receives monthly reports from the field as to the results obtained with this equipment. Customs also used digital cameras and night vision pocketscopes delivered in 2000-2002. No items were provided in 2003.
Post procured covert cameras and communications radios for the TNP; covert transmitters and micro surveillance recorders for the Jandarma; a pilot facility and a seed processing facility for the Turkish grain board; and test kits and night vision pocket scopes for Turkish Customs.
In 2003, post provided ATAMEM (a state-sponsored drug rehabilitation facility) computer equipment and software, communications equipment, and telephone switchboard. The equipment is being used for patient management and rehabilitation. It has proven very useful.
The Turkish Grain Board (TMO) continues to use the 45 vehicles INL funded between 1989-1993 to conduct monitoring and liaison with Turkey's licensed opium farmers. The TMO also uses these cars to monitor farmers to ensure that there is no illicit opium production. These vehicles included 27 Renaults, 12 Kartals, and six Jeep Cherokees. These cars are used in the following provinces: Afyon (14), Usak (3), Eskisehir (4), Bolvadin (3) Denizli (4), Ankara (2), Burdur (4), Kutahya (1), Konya (4), and Amasya (1), Istanbul (2), Nigde (1), Saamsun (1), and Karaman (1). All 45 vehicles remain operational.
Computer equipment purchased in 1995 for Customs is used to track suspicious cargo in the Marmara Sea region. For example, the computers were recently used to confirm that a ship bearing a container had previously been used to smuggle heroin. These computers are, however, nearing the end of their useful lives.
A high pressure liquid chromatographer and computer purchased in 1999 for the TMO measures the morphine content of the morphine base manufactured at the facility and is used for both research and quality control.
Five Motorola radio sets and chargers provided in 1999 are currently being used in the training of narcotics sniffer dogs and train-the-trainer programs begin held in Golbasi National Dog Training Center of the TNP.
The DX-2B telephone switchboard and related technical equipment together with 50 phone machines provided in 2003 are operational and used for the communication of the staff and patients within the AMATEM section of Bakirkoy hospital.
Jandarma reports that two transmitter cigarette packets, two transmitter calendar books, one hidden transmitter, 10Yaesu hand-radios, two AID-Unitel-3000 voice and image transmitter systems, one Panasonic digital closed circuit camera are all operational. The Department of Struggle with Smuggling and Organized Crime of Jandarma uses these items during operations on narcotics issues. A voice transmitter via GSM is malfunctioning.
TNP reports that 3% of communications equipment is repaired annually and that all remains operational.
The dog program assessment funded in September 2000 was very valuable. It provided for Turkish Customs an action plan for how it would develop its dog program. Prior to obtaining this action plan, Customs developed its dog program in a haphazard way, resulting in problems like dogs being trained in different languages. Customs had three dogs at the time of assessment; today it has twenty-five. Due to termination of the INL program after 1999, post has not provided additional funds for Customs' dog program.
Post provided ion scanners, digital cameras, and seed processing/cleaning machine to the TMO and video and digital cameras to the Turkish Jandarma. The telescopic cameras, GPS equipment, actuators, and fiberscope provided to the TNP in previous years are still in use. The bulletproof vests provided to the TNP in 1990 are no longer usable either because the shelf life has expired or it was no longer technically adequate.
INL-funded resources materially aided Turkish narcotics interdiction efforts. The direct narcotics interdiction impact of the INL-funded resources is difficult to calculate. However, in 2003, Turkish law enforcement agencies seized 4,705 kilos of heroin, 1,009 kilos of morphine base, 7,812 kilos of hashish, 10.129 kilos of acetic anhydrite, 2.8 kilograms of cocaine and 5,867,510 pills; destroyed 7 illicit labs; and made 10.223 drug-related arrests.
Throughout the year, Embassy DEA agents traveled to Alexandroupolis to observe the five-meter long, shallow-draft riverboat provided to the Greek National Police in 1996. The Greek police freely provide access.
The riverboat was used by the National Police Counternarcotics Unit in Alexandroupolis for use in patrolling the Evros River and the border between Greece and Turkey, a major crossing point for traffickers in narcotics and illegal immigrants. Embassy DEA agents report that the boat is well maintained.
Greece is an increasingly important crossroads for narcotics into Europe. Domestic usage and transnational trafficking have surged in recent years. Greek narcotics police are dedicated and professional; they work closely and well with DEA.
Hungarian Customs provides reports on resources to post.
The five Motorola radios and chargers donated to the Hungarian Customs Service in 2001 are not in service. Three are now inoperable and two are in need of batteries which cannot be procured in Hungary. The forty bulletproof vests, donated by the FBI, were delivered to the Hungarian National Police (HNP). The HNP determined that the vests were too outdated to be of use and returned them to ILEA. Because the vests are unused, out-of-date, and taking up storage space at ILEA, post plans to dispose of them.
Special agents from the Cairo country office visit the offices of the Egyptian Anti-narcotics General Administration (ANGA) on a regular basis. These meetings fulfill operational and liaison purposes and provide opportunities to monitor End Use of INL-supplied equipment.
Four Jeep Cherokees were donated to ANGA in 1998. With the exception of one vehicle, which was totaled in a major accident during recent enforcement operations, all are still running and being utilized.
The following equipment was provided to ANGA between 1998-2000: Pentium PC's (4); HP LaserJet printers (4); HP Scanjet scanner (1); JHP fax scanners (5); video recorder (1); video printer (1); Arabic/English typewriters (5); Racom 2516 digital recorders (4); Canon auto focus camera and kit (1); dial up slave systems with transmitters (5); photocopy machines (5); single tube night vision goggles (7); Phoenix IR beacons (4); Megellan GPS (2); military compasses (15); TX-923A transmitters (2); TX-0922 one watt body transmitters (2); repeater (1); power amplifier (1); Marantz PMD's (10); disguised brake light antennas (2); VHF disguised cellular telephone (1); antenna trunk lip mounts (2); foil dipole antenna (1); flat-pack antenna (1); air conditioners (8); rechargeable batteries for hand-held radios (25); lapel mike and ear pieces for handheld radios (5); rechargeable Halogen spotlights (10); projection screen (1); photocopy machines (5); Panasonic video camera; smoke detector audio recorder kit (1); pocket transmitter (2); tactical audio recovery kit (1); BXR-2215A repeater (2); fireflies (10); night vision maxabeam MBP-1207.
The equipment is located at ANGA headquarters and at ANGA's five regional offices throughout Egypt. It is maintained in good working order by ANGA personnel.
The equipment provided to ANGA is directed at enhancing rural border interdiction efforts as well as being used for opium poppy and cannabis eradication initiatives in the Sinai Peninsula.
Post conducted quarterly spot checks on the equipment in conjunction with separate programs such as training events, site visits, etc. Equipment was provided to the Moldovan Customs Service, the Police Academy of the Moldovan Ministry of Interior (MOI), and the Ministry of Justice (MOJ). The GOM cooperated fully in all requests for examination/verification.
In December 2003, post donated seven vehicles to the MOI for use in patrol and response by police personnel.
Post provided a X-ray van to the Moldovan Customs Service in 1999. It is based in Chisinau but regularly deploys to Moldovan Ports of Entry. Maintenance was performed earlier this year. The van is fully operational.
Only 50% of the computers at the Police Academy are fully functional. It appears that they are substandard desktop PC's. Chips on the hard drives overheated. Attempts to cannibalize them to support the remaining ten computers are underway. The multimedia classroom is well-maintained.
During 2003, post continued its efforts to advance Moldovan law enforcement capabilities by donating three pieces of INL-funded forensic equipment. Two were donated to the MOI and one to the MOJ. All three are in excellent condition and being used for their intended purpose.
The Customs stamps, although used since 2001, only became effective in 2003. It took two years for Ukrainian Customs to recognize their legitimacy.
The X-ray van has provided a strong deterrent to smugglers, forcing criminals to look for alternate means of transportation. The Customs stamps are already proving beneficial by stifling illicit trade through the Transnistria region of Moldova and adding economic pressure to the Transnistrians to engage in reunification talks.
The MOI lab has made extensive use of the two pieces of forensic equipment since their donation in late September. Document and/or chemical analysis that used to take fifteen days now takes only one. The lab performs tests for other Moldovan ministries and departments as well.
The MOJ, since enactment of the new criminal code in June 2003, performs similar document analysis and has conducted about 100 analyses for use in court since mid-October. The forensic equipment at both the MOI and MOJ labs has had a significant impact on the quality and quantity of forensic work performed by and for Moldovan law enforcement.
Post conducted periodic spot checks on the equipment.
Two PC units, two monitors, two printers and one laptop computer were provided to the Russian Federal on Law Enforcement Cooperation and Narcotics Control.
One LCD projector, one scanner, one fax machine, one television, two VCR's, two cell phones, and one first aid medical were provided to the Russian Federal on Law Enforcement Cooperation and Narcotics Control.
All commodities are in good condition and used for the purposes intended.
Office equipment is critically important to the work of two working groups in the drafting of legislation to strengthen Russia's law enforcement capabilities. The equipment is used for the Code of Criminal Procedures Legislative Project and the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Legislative Project.
The RSO conducted spot checks on the equipment and met with police officials. Latvia also provided periodic reports on the status of equipment.
Computer equipment has been used to upgrade the headquarters information bureau and other headquarters offices. One computer was sent to the Organized Crime Section in Valka, Daugavpils Region.
The Latvian police are using the following equipment for the intended purposes: night vision equipment; fiber scopes; contraband detectors; pinhole cameras; video cameras; analytical software; gas chromatograph; and genetic analyzer.
All equipment has been coordinated into operational activities, is being regularly used, and is considered effective by the Latvian police.
The equipment donated to the Ministry of Interior, the National Service for Combating Organized Crime (NSBOP), and the National Forensics Laboratory was checked through on-site inspections. Post verified the use of additional equipment distributed to the General Customs Directorate.
The thirty (30) Motorola radios provided to the General Customs Directorate have been distributed to the local offices (e.g., 5 to Svilengrad, 3 to ruse, etc.). The fiberscope is being used by Customs "Counter-Narcotics Intelligence and Investigations Unit" in Svilengrad.
The Director of the Institute for Forensic Science advised that the six PC's remain in the lab's possession. Five of the six computers provided to the Minister of Interior are in good working order, except for some technical problems. Post has promised to locate a missing sixth computer. The computers and printers provided to the NSBOP are in good shape with the exception of a surge protector which NSBOP has been unable to locate.
All equipment (video camera, video cassette player and monitor, 16 telephones, 4 answering machines) donated in 1993 is located in the offices of the Counternarcotics Division of the Central Service. The video camera plays but can no longer record. The Ministry of Interior has requested a digital camera.
The video camera, video cassette player, telephone (16), answering machine (4) donated to the NSBOP are in use. Customs reports that all drug testing kits have been used.
Bulgarian officials appreciate the equipment provided; make use of it; and appear to want more, newer and better items. The Government of Bulgaria has formed mobile teams to stop and search vehicles for drugs around the country and seeks cooperation with the United States and its neighbors. Continued support will be needed before the Bulgarian criminal justice system is able to undertake successful prosecutions of organized crime, including major drug traffickers.
ICITAP advisors who are assigned to the Ministry of Public Order (MOPO), Mother Teresa airport, and the Adriatic Sea ports of Duress and Viora perform on-site inspections and daily interactions. This procedure has been effective. The Albanian State Police (ASP) counterparts agencies have been cooperative in this effort.
The Center for Supplies and Technical Materials is a special unit within MOPO responsible for every asset ASP possesses. The Unit is composed of police officers rather than civilians. The Unit inventories and monitors all donated equipment.
INL provided the MOPO with cameras, computes, fax machines, police equipment, printers, surveillance equipment, and vehicles. The MOPO's ability to combat crime has risen as a direct result of the equipment. The donated computers will connect police and prosecutors with ICITAP's total Information Management System (TIMS), linking police commissariats, prosecutors' offices, and border posts with MOPO. Once fully installed and operational, TIMS will enable 100 percent passenger and vehicle checks at all border crossings; guarantee efficient case management, facilitate the analysis of criminal intelligence; and enhance police accountability and transparency.
The impact of the INL program donations can be seen throughout the ASP, from improved police professionalism to increased interdictions and arrests. ICITAP qualitative analysis indicates an increase in drug seizures and related arrests in Albania since the ASP received the donated equipment. Donations to the ASP's anti-narcotics Canine Breeding and Training Institute impact the success of the Three Port Strategy, the goal of which is to tighten security at Mother Teresa Airport and the Adriatic Sea ports of Durres and Viora. Thanks to the U.S. trained dogs and their handlers, traffickers are finding it more difficult to smuggle narcotics into or out of Albania. Overall, the ASP remains sorely under-equipped and in need of continued international assistance in the form of equipment donations.
Post works closely with the Government of Malta (GOM) police and the Armed Forces (AFM) to ensure proper cooperation and coordination on narcotics control issues. The RSO closely monitors the narcotics trafficking situation in the country. The RSO also advances initiatives to expand law enforcement cooperation. Post is generally satisfied with the cooperation of local authorities in thwarting and reporting on illegal drug activity in Malta. The DEA country Attach�' based in Rome has coverage responsibility for Malta. DEA Rome maintains a close relationship with the Malta Police.
U.S. Customs has provided suspicious container identification and monitoring training that will enhance Malta's ability to detect illicit transshipments of illegal drugs through Malta's seaports.
Malta's Maritime Squadron has been operating with three old (circa 1969) German-built patrol boats to patrol Malta's territorial waters against traffickers for the last ten years. The GOM has attempted to keep these patrol craft operational, but due to their age, and lack of spare parts, the boats are nearing the end of their useful lives. Post's Defense Attach� works very closely with the AFM on issues related to the boats' operational effectiveness and monitors patrolling activity for quantitative results.
An eighty-seven foot "protector" class patrol boat was provided to the AFM through military sales in November of 2002. It has been in service for one year. Post's Defense Attach� (DAO) works very closely with the Armed Forces on issues related to crew training and the boat's operational effectiveness. DOA monitors the patrolling activity for quantitative results. To date, the patrol boats have been involved in one drug interdiction.
Drug seizures, while not comparable to those in major transit countries, have continued at a pace indicative of a serious program of interdiction and supply reduction. Local drug enforcement authorities have been very grateful for previous USG law enforcement training.
Post made several spot checks of the classroom equipment at the training facilities. Metal detectors were observed in use during routine visits to the Government of Armenia (GOAM) offices.
In August 1999, INL installed an X-ray van for the Customs Department and provided relevant operation, maintenance and service training. The X-ray van was not inspected this year. It will be inspected in 2004.
In October 1999, INL provided, sixteen big metal detectors, fourteen hand-held and six walk-through metal detectors to the Office of the President of the Republic of Armenia. The equipment was not properly inventoried by post upon receipt. Post is making an effort to identify the equipment with serial numbers in order to make a thorough inventory. Staff members have observed the metal detectors in use.
Equipment has been installed in two classrooms in the National Police Academy and one classroom in the Police NCO Training Center, under the auspices of a law enforcement academy development project. Equipment includes LCD projector, multi-purpose video camera, digital camera, amplifier, slide projector, podium, video projection screen, audio video control system, flip charts, film projector, Xeroxpro 320, simultaneous translation equipment. The equipment is in excellent condition. However, three laptop computers have not been received. Post is looking into the status of the shipment of these computers.
While this is the first phase of the INL-funded comprehensive Law Enforcement Agency Development program, post believes that this equipment, combined with relevant training, has already been beneficial to the Police Academy. It provides opportunities for the training of law enforcement personnel, academy faculty and cadets on the use of computers and the Internet. It will enhance lesson planning and curricula development.
The impact of security assistance in Armenia has evolved over time. In a society that does not readily accept the right of security officers to inspect one's person or belongings, there was initially a negative public reaction. With time, the general public view of security measures has been improving and people are becoming use to the metal detectors and familiar with normal operating procedures. Use of metal detectors remains inconsistent from one GOAM building to the next; however, security at key GOAM buildings has decidedly improved both as a result of equipment donations and heightened awareness of security issues following the events of 9/11. Based on informal spot checks at various government buildings, post is satisfied with the progress that security officers have made in this area.