Southwest Asia

End-Use Monitoring Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
December 2003



Post monitors resources through periodic communications and on-site inspections by mission officers. Through the relationship developed with the National Dangerous Drugs Control Board (NDDCB) , the Federation of Non-governmental Organization Against Drug Abuse (FONGOADA), the Sri Lanka Anti-Narcotics Association (SLANA) and the Mithuru-Mithuro rehabilitation Center personnel, this procedures has proven effective. Mission personnel have continued to receive verbal updates on the status of equipment from each organization.


Audio-visual and Office Equipment-Video and slide projectors, fax machine, and an answering machine were supplied to the Non-Governmental Organizations Against Drug Abuse (FONGOADA) in 1995 and 1997. The equipment is located at the FONGOADA office in Colombo. The equipment is used by FONGOADA member organizations to conduct narcotics prevention programs. They put special emphasis on assisting smaller NGO’s around the nation, which are not as well funded as those in and around the city of Colombo. FONGOADA maintains the equipment properly. FONGOADA advises that the videocassette recorder is used when the organization is able to borrow a television. It is used when FONGOADA is able to borrow a television from another organization. The slide projector is no longer functional.

Miscellaneous Equipment-The following equipment was supplied to the National Dangerous Drug Control Board (NDDCB) in 1993-1996: two fume hoods, calculators, typewriters; amplifiers; camcorder; printer; fax machine; microwave ovens; scanner; wireless microphone; copier; microcassette recorder; transcriber; overhead projector; speaker horn; amplifier, color scanner, word processor, Olympus transcriber; IBM Notepad laptop computer; JVC video camera with accessories. Most items are in good condition and being used at the NDDCB offices in Colombo. A photocopier was provided to the Sri Lanka Anti-Narcotics Association (SLANA) in 1998. The equipment is in good working order at the SLANA office in Colombo. A Sony 14” color television was purchased for the Mithuru-Mithuro Drug Rehabilitation Center in 1999. It is used with recovering drug addicts in an educational setting. It is in good working order.


The equipment provided to the NDDCB supports the analytical work of the National Narcotics Laboratory (NNL), which conducts analysis of narcotic drugs and other psychotropic substances. The NNL provides analytical records covering suspected narcotics samples forwarded by the Government and other sectors for examination. The audiovisual equipment has supported the NDDCB training division’s awareness building, preventive education and training programs at the agency auditorium and mobile unit conducting outdoor programs. The photocopier enabled SLANA to enhance its current outreach efforts.

The equipment provided to FONGOADA has generated favorable comments from companion organizations.



The narcotics coordinator visited the testing laboratory at the Department of Narcotics Control (DNC), examined the equipment, and observed the use of each piece of equipment by laboratory personnel. The DNC personnel were cooperative and helpful.


In July 2000, post turned over to the DNC an analytical balance, top-loading balance, and polarizing microscope for use in their newly constructed narcotics testing laboratory. The lab's results have been accepted by the Bangladesh courts as bona fide evidence in narcotics cases. All items are clean and in excellent working order and stored in a temperature controlled lab within a secure building and compound. Items are being used for their intended purpose.


The DG DNC is energetic and proactive, but this department and the laboratory in particular, suffer from severe budgetary constraints. Aside from the equipment provided in 2000, there is little more that the chemists and technicians have to work with. Basic items such as voltage stabilizers and Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS) do not exist. The absence of these items places equipment at undue risk of damage or failure. Field communications, field testing, and sophisticated narcotics analysis tools are also seriously lacking. To address these challenges, a Letter of Agreement (LOA) was established on September 25, 2002, to provide an additional $140,000 in equipment and $338,992 in training. The LOA is focused on improving criminal investigative and prosecutorial capacity in relation to narcotics.

Program Changes

The narcotics coordinator will periodically check on the operations of the laboratory and report any significant changes, as well as progress in implementation of the September 2002 LOA.


Narcotics testing cases pending have been reduced from over 3,500 to less than 150. Results that previously took up to one month to obtain are now reported within three days, supporting swifter disposition of narcotics cases.



The NAS checked approximately eighty (80) percent of NAS-provided non-expendable commodities in 2002, through formal countrywide onsite inventories using the EUM process and via informal spot checks.

The NAS staff arranged appointments in advance with all agency heads for the 2002 EUM. The NAS EUM team carried out a series of visits to all recipient agencies within the country in accordance with jointly agreed schedule in Quetta, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Lahore and Peshwar. During field trips throughout the year, the NAS staff spot-checked agencies in Lahore, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Peshawar and Karachi. The NAS staff checked all non-expendable items inventories. As part of the assessment, the NAS staff determined whether an item was serviceable, repairable, or suitable for auction.

When travel to an area was not feasible, the NAS staff compared NAS-generated computerized inventory records against recipient agency written inventories. GOP agencies have a good track record of maintaining current inventories of NAS-provided equipment.


With a few exceptions, commodities were in place and being used for the purposes for which they were provided. Overall, the condition of items varied from location to location.


The INL-funded vehicles provided to the Government of Pakistan (GOP) are used for drug interdiction by the law enforcement agencies and to implement development programs funded by the NAS in Mohmand and Bajaur agencies. In the law enforcement area, they were used for poppy enforcement operations; law enforcement stake-outs; transporting officers to road checkpoints; chasing, apprehending and transporting criminals suspected of smuggling illicit narcotics; searching for drug laboratories; and transporting officers to central locations. In the development area, they were used to transport project managers and project implementation staff to monitor the progress of development projects, and to authenticate GOP reports of crop eradication. They were also used to purchase and transport NAS-provided agricultural commodities for farmers and security escorts required in tribal areas for NAS personnel.

In 2002, the NAS provided to various GOP law enforcement and security agencies 1146 vehicles and 115 motorcycles. The NAS procured more than fifty percent of the vehicles in the 1980’s. (Seventy-five percent of the vehicles are now more than seven years old.). The fleet of vehicles was distributed to the following GOP agencies: ANF (197); Pakistan Customs (95); Pakistan Rangers (13); Frontier Corps (440); Baluchistan Police (36); Coast Guard (55); Bajaur Agency (23); Mohmand Agency (16); Dir (3); Malakand Agency (14); Khyber Agency (4); Frontier Constabulary (1); Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) (270); NCD (8); NAS office (12); Intelligence Bureau (84); SIC (26).

The NAS provides some vehicle maintenance support to the GOP. During the year, NAS vehicle maintenance support funded engine overhaul and/or major repair of five FCB, seven ANF and three Customs vehicles. As a rule, funds for vehicle maintenance come from the budget of the agency to which they were donated. However, in many cases these budgeted maintenance funds were rarely readily available to the agency on a timely basis.

The NAS encourages GOP agencies (especially Customs) to use sales proceeds from auctions to ameliorate the maintenance funding flow problem and to replace irreparable vehicles. Agency-wise breakdown of vehicles disposed of during 2001 included four from the NWFP Home Department and 14 from Crop Control. In 2001, the NAS distributed 26 new vehicles to ANF, eight to ANF SIC, three to CI, four to CG, five to Political Agents Bajaur and Mohand agencies, one to NWFP Home Department, four to NAS Peshawar and two to NCD.

A motorcycle provided to the ANF was stolen in December of 2002. Police have failed to recover the vehicle.

Communications Equipment

In 2002, the NAS provided to various law enforcement and security agencies over $4.5 million of communications equipment under the border Security Program.

Communications equipment is used by law enforcement agencies to enable them to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics operations. Equipment includes VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF hand held transceivers, VHF mobile transceivers. Radio equipment plays an important role in the ability of the various law enforcement headquarters to communicate with their other stations nationwide. In some remote areas, the equipment is the sole means of communication between outposts. In the development area, communications equipment is used to communicate between the office of the political agent, the project manager and the construction/project site to relay requirements for equipment; provide site to relay requirements for equipment; and provide information on progress of problems. The radio equipment also enables political agents to coordinate and supervise enforcement destruction of opium poppy cultivation.

High turnover of qualified and experienced technicians has hampered the proper use and maintenance of NAS-provided communications equipment by ANF and Customs personnel. A lack of maintenance resources has plagued small agencies. The NAS has urged both ANF and Customs to address this problem through expeditious upgrading and filling of vacant positions. At the end of CY-2000, the GOP relaxed its ban on recruitment of new personnel and despite having filled 225 vacant positions, ANF still remains deficient by 1020 personnel form its authorized strength of 2558 personnel.

In the interim, a NAS engineer provides technical support for communications equipment on a regular basis to Customs, Coast Guards, FCB, and ANF.

Office Equipment

The office equipment used by ANF, Customs, Frontier Corps, and Police headquarters includes computers, fax machines, and photocopiers. The equipment was well maintained and in use.


A Boston Whaler, provided to Pakistan Customs in 1987, is located in Karachi. It was used for patrolling the harbor area and for the random monitoring of fishing trawlers and small cargo ships to determine whether narcotics are on board. Customs decommissioned the vessel in 1996 because it did not meet size requirements for high seas law enforcement activities and required costly maintenance for continuous operation in highly polluted waters. During a July 2000 technical inspection, a USG Coast Guard team recommended measures to put the boat back into operation. During 2001, Pakistan Customs took the initiative to get a budgetary allocation out of GOP's resources. The boat will become fully operational in 2003.

Agricultural and Area Development Projects

Agriculture and area development projects are concentrated in the NWFP, especially in the Khyber, Mohmand and Bajaur agencies. Agricultural extension projects consist of agricultural plots to demonstrate improved varieties of seed and the provision of fertilizer and small tools. Area development projects also included 30.3 kilometers of farm-to-market roads in Bajaur Agency and 14.5 kilometers of farm-to-market roads in Mohmand agency to open up new areas; small hand-dug wells to irrigate high-value crops; eight projects to provide irrigation channels to irrigate lands with spring water; drinking water supply projects; and electrification for wells and derivative water projects.

Area development projects were monitored in a number of different ways. The major road activities were managed by a civil engineering consulting firm, which provided construction supervision services. The NAS staff monitored and spot-checked the work of the consulting firm as well as the physical work of the road construction contractors. Other projects undertaken in the area development sector include farm-to-market roads to open new areas, drinking water supply, small hand-dug wells for irrigation of high-value crops, and village electrification. The area development activities are designed mainly by the GOP with the assistance of NAS engineers.


The five Huey II aircraft were flown a total of 650 hours during the course of 2002. Aircraft were maintained in fully capable status for 70 percent of the time. Almost all of the flight hours were for training purposes, with several exceptions. Exceptions were responses to official GOP requests for emergency humanitarian assistance. There were no recorded or suspected accidents, damages, or cases of misuse of helicopter assets during 2002.

Aircraft fuel was monitored through flight logs that are maintained and reviewed by State Department contractor personnel


GOP interdiction remained at high levels in 2002 even though there is some evidence that the volume of drugs transiting Pakistan decreased as an in direct outcome of the war on terrorism in Afghanistan. Heroin seizures by NAS-supported law enforcement agencies increased by 2 percent from 2001 to 2002. FCB heroin seizures during 2002 were a record 3,706 kilos and were accompanied by 26 arrests. Heroin seizures by the ANF increased 42 percent from 2001 and set new records. Opium seizures show about 50 percent decline in 2002 compared with seizures make in 2001.

Program Changes

While the NAS ordinarily verifies about 80 percent of INL-donated equipment each year during the EUM process, this will become more of a challenge in the future because of the initiated Border Security Program (BSP). The NAS is taking several steps to ameliorate the problem. Post plans to fill the INL aviation position in 2003. This will increase the NAS' ability to oversee the INL Aviation contract and Air wing progress. The NAS has already filled an administrative assistant position in Quetta. The NAS recently hired a procurement assistant in Peshawar to beep up the existing procurement staff in support of the Border Security Program. Finally, the NAS is considering the hiring of an inventory clerk who would work full time in Islamabad overseeing the range of items procured by the NAS.


Limited Vehicle Repair and Maintenance

Given the large number of vehicles and communications equipment being provided to the law enforcement and security agencies under the BSP, it is difficult for the agencies to support and maintain their equipment because of limited capacity that they have at hand. There is a need to expand or construct and equip new larger repair and maintenance facilities at Headquarters as well as forward bases of respective agencies. This would require substantial increase in their GOP budget allocation. The NAS will address this issue with appropriate GOP authorities and seek increased budgetary support to these agencies to expand their existing repair and maintenance facilities.

Staff Shortages

High turnover of qualified and experienced technicians has hampered the proper use and maintenance of NAS-provided communications equipment by ANF and Customs personnel. A lack of maintenance resources has made proper upkeep difficult. The NAS has urged both ANF and Customs to address this problem through expeditious upgrading and filling of vacant positions. ANF has taken strides to fill vacancies, yet still remains deficient by 358 personnel from its authorized strength of 2558.

Misuse of Resources

With one exception, there were no reported or suspected cases of fraudulent or misused vehicles or other USG-provided equipment during 2002. The one case of misuse was a NAS-donated computer that was stolen by an ANF officer. The responsible official were forced to reimburse the ANF for the full cost of the computer. NAS personnel review responsible use of NAS-provided commodities. In 2002, the NAS urged the ANF to withdraw dedicated vehicles from officers below grade 19. ANF implementation of the NAS recommendation is spotty. In some cases, below grade personnel had operational or enforcement responsibilities that precluded withdrawing vehicles.



Post regularly spot checks equipment provided to the Drug Control Law Enforcement Unit (NDCLEU). The NDCLEU fully cooperates with post inquiries about the status of USG-funded equipment.

Equipment that is used by the Female Cells of the Nepal Police, is used outside Kathmandu Valley. Female cells are special units of the police, formed to combat crime against woman and children. Post can only conduct spot checks when in those areas on other travel, and direct monitoring during the Maoist insurgency has been problematic. As a result, post has relied on status reports from police Headquarters for updates on the status of equipment.


The equipment donated to the NDCLEU, the Home Ministry’s Drug Abuse Demand Reduction Project (DADRP), and the Female Cells is in good condition and is being used for the intended purpose.


The bicycles (20), motorcycles (5), and scooters (2) were given to the NDCLEU in 1997 and 1998. All vehicles are still in good condition. The vehicles have greatly improved NDCLEU’s mobility. No repair or maintenance has been required so far. Eight motorcycles were presented to the Female Cells in September 1999. The Female Cells are using the motorcycles throughout the country.

Computer Equipment

A laptop computer, desktop computer, scanner and digital camera were presented to NDCLEU in January 2002 for the creation of a database of convicted traffickers. One digital scanner was also provided. A computer and printer were provided to the mini-forensic laboratory.

Miscellaneous Equipment

A mini-forensic laboratory for drug analysis was established in January 1999 at the Central Police laboratory. The lab has a gas chromatograph and two gas canisters, a Wiley grinder, a vertical autoclave, an automatic water still, a spectrophotometer, a vacuum pump, a refractometer, a melting point apparatus, and a computer and printer connected to the chromatograph. The lab continues to use the provided equipment. All items are working well.

The DADRP has been supplied a fax machine, camera, overhead projector, monitor and video camera. All units are in good condition. The DADRP uses them regularly in support of continuing training for Nepali teachers.


Travel to some areas of Nepal has been limited due to security concerns. However, most monitoring activities may be carried out effectively.


The support provided to the NDCLEU and the Female Cells of the police has had a direct and positive impact on the effectiveness of the units by increasing mobility and investigative capabilities. Equipment in the Central Laboratory has given the police the capacity to analyze a drug sample quickly and accurately. The lab analyzed more than 1,200 samples in 2002. Analysis by the lab is recognized as expert testimony in court.



Post conducted End Use Monitoring in Northeast India and in North Central India, in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Calcutta's FSN conducted follow-up in Northeast India telephonically.

Post requires officials who receive INL-funded commodities to sign acknowledging receipt and agree to maintain the commodities in accordance with LOA standard provisions. The Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN) was particularly helpful in ensuring that the donated motorcycles were available for inspection, since they are widely scattered throughout CBN's field offices.



Three 4-wheel drive utility vehicles are located at the Anti-Narcotics Division at Aizawl headquarters, and one each is at Champhai, Saiha and Vairengte for mobile duty and counternarcotics undercover operations. The vehicles were used for a preliminary survey of reported illegal poppy cultivation and to develop informants in Mizoram's southernmost tip on the Indo-Burma border.

The Eastern Zonal Unit of India's Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) and the Inmphal Regional Unit each has one vehicle (van). They are used for preventive operations within the city environs.

Over 50 motorcycles were provided to the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN). Four Yamaha motorbikes are at headquarters in Aizawl; one is in the district office in Aizawl; one is in Champhai for intelligence gathering; two are in Guwahati; 18 are in Chittorgarh; 18 are in Neemuch; 10 are in Uttar Pradesh; and one is in Gwallior, Madhya Pradesh.

All of the motorcycles have been accounted for. Given the poor state of Indian roads and the thousands of miles that CBN staff travel during the poppy growing season, the motorcycles are well maintained and repairs have been minimal. The motorcycles are being used for the purpose for which they were provided.


Two digital cameras are assigned to the Anti-Narcotics Squad at Excuse Headquarters in Aizawl, and one each to the Anti-Narcotics Squad in Champhai, and the Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Saiba, both on the Indo-Burma border. They are being used to collect evidence and to photograph arrested and suspected traffickers.


Two computers are at headquarters and one is at Champhai and Saiha, with units having anti-drug responsibilities. The computers are used for data collection, documentation and record keeping for easy and expeditious compilation and access. The Department has provided training for designated officers and hopes to train all other personnel. Customized software for the Department's anti-drug operations is being developed by the GOI's Center for Electronic Designing and Training Institute.


Three Motorola headsets are in the headquarters at Aizawl, and two each are with the Aizawl district office and the anti-Narcotics Squad at Champhai. One each is at Saiha, Office of the Superintendent in Kolasib, and at Vairengte.


The two offices of the NCB each received a digital recorder. The recorders are being used during interrogation for taping statements (and telephone conversations). Ten weed trimmers were provided to the CBD in Guwahata, Assam. About 218 hectares of illicit poppy plants were uprooted and destroyed in Arunachal Pradesh in February 2002. The trimmers were also used successfully in December 2002 to destroy 800 kgs. of illicit cannabis plants in Assam's Dhubri district bordering Bangladesh.

Ten weed trimmers are located at Guwahati for use during operations to destroy illegal cultivation. About 218 hectares of illicit poppy plants were uprooted and destroyed. The trimmers were also used successfully in December 2002 to destroy 800 kgs. of illicit cannabis plants in Assam's Dhubri district bordering Bangladesh.


The CBN controls licit cultivation of opium poppy, and the processes associated with it, in the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, an area of over 150,000 square kilometers. INL's assistance to CBN has greatly enhanced the mobility of CBN staff, and has helped CBN effectively monitor the harvest of the opium crop and its subsequent processing. The CBN has effectively used the INL assistance to patrol the licit opium growing areas for enforcement operations; to chase, and apprehend criminals; to search for drug laboratories; monitor field measurements; and test measurements during poppy growing season survey. The cycles have also been used for the detection and eradication of excess poppy, physical checks at weightment centers, and carrying out drug and chemical interdiction efforts.

The Motorola radios provided to the CBN have been a boom for the group in the remote areas devoid of any communication means or electricity, allowing daily contact with the base camp and the Guwahati office. The weed trimmers were used successfully to destroy cannabis fields in the plains of Assam.