Southeast Asia and the Pacific
The NAS conducted End Use Monitoring site visits and physically inspected the USG-funded commodities in major locations with the Judicial Technical Police (RTG) representatives from the relevant agencies, i.e., the Department of Technical and Economic Cooperation (DTEC), the Office of the National Control Board (ONCB), and the Police Narcotics Suppression Bureau (PNSB). During the EUM campaign from March through May, joint USG/RTG EUM teams traveled to all four regions of the country on ten trips to physically inspect commodities. In all instances, counterpart agencies were entirely cooperative and responsive in accounting for resources.
To facilitate the End Use Monitoring process, units located in small and remote locations forwarded inventory forms to their regional command unit. This process was limited to only a few units. EUM reporting responsibilities for commodities located at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) and the DEA sensitive units reside with ILEA and DEA, and are included in the report.
NAS Bangkok/RTG procedures for CY-2001 resulted in a verification rate of 87 percent. A total of 176 end-user sites were visited by NAS staff. Survey teams physically inspected 3,570 of 4,447 non-expendable commodity items accounted for in this report. Based on these inspections, inventory verifications and other information available to post, the NAS knows of no instance in which monitorable INC-funded commodities were not dedicated to support of the RTG activities against the abuse, trafficking and production of illicit drugs.
At most units, the commodities provided are under the responsibility of the end-user unit chief as governed by RTG property regulations, with an officer assigned to maintain records.
Communications equipment consisted of repeater systems, base station transceivers (104), UHF DVP mobile transceivers (45), UHF/FM hand-held transceivers (223), and VHF/UHF dualband handheld transceivers (259). The equipment was provided to RTG enforcement agencies, i.e., the ONCB and the PNSB enforcement elements and to other support agencies, e.g., Attorney General's Office, Narcotics Coordination Office, etc. Spare parts for repair and maintenance facilities were funded by the NAS and located at the ONCB center in Bangkok. ONCB provided direct-hire technicians. The NAS also funded a limited on-call contract with the local Motorola representative for repairs that could not be performed by ONCB. The communications equipment was dedicated for use in the anti-narcotics programs.
Five PC’s, seven computer printers, and computer software were provided to the Crop Control Project. Eighteen PC’s, 164 computer printers/plotters and computer software was provided to the RTG agencies. Thirty-two PC’s and 61 printers/plotters were provided to the Demand Reduction Project. Eleven PC's and 16 printers/plotters were provided the ILEA. Ten PC's and five printers/plotters were provided to the DEA Special Unit.
Cameras, photocopiers, video cameras, fax machines, televisions, power generator night vision devices, typewriters, tape recorders, overhead projectors, paper shredders, slide projectors, and other electronic equipment were provided by the NAS to support narcotics Crop Control, Demand Reduction, and Law Enforcement Projects. Most of the equipment is in good condition, except for the power generator, electric typewriter, mobile phones and audio tape recorders that are in fair to poor condition.
The following equipment is located at the temporary ILEA site at the RTG Civil Service Training Institute in Bangkok: computers, fax machines, flashlights, office furniture, micro-computer equipment, computer printer/plotters, telephone equipment, computer software, night vision devices, Polaroid cameras, etc.
During the period 1974-1979, the USG supplied seven Bell UH-1H (Bell 205A-1) and two Bell 206L helicopters to the RTG. These helicopters have been used by ONCB in support of the RTG opium crop surveillance and crop eradication program in northern Thailand. Most rotary airlift capability for support of the eradication program is now provided by the Royal Thai Army Third Region Command. Of the aircraft on the inventory below, aircraft 1713 has been grounded since October 1998; 1716 since October 1997; 1717 since July 1999; 1718 and 2401 since CY-2000; and 2402 since October 1999.
On duty in Chiang Mai
Repair in Bangkok
Repair in Bangkok
Repair in Bangkok
Destroyed in 1981 crash
On duty in Chiang Mai
Repair in Bangkok
Repair in Bangkok
NAS-funded vehicles provided to the RTG agencies were all right-hand drive vehicles, imported from Japan or locally assembled. The RTG recipients are responsible for costs of repair and maintenance and fuel/oil for the vehicles, except for some units (such as RTA) which, by law, cannot obtain funds from their regular budget. Vehicles and motorcycles are assigned to RTG locations countrywide to support bilateral projects.
Vehicles were provided to the ONCB, PNSB, provincial police and border patrol police for narcotics interdiction. Vehicles were provided to ONCB, RTA, Chiang Mai University and Royal Project to implement highland development, crop substitution, and opium eradication programs. Vehicles were also provided for use by the staff from ONCB, Rajabaht Institute, Bangkok Metropolitan health centers for use in drug prevention and treatment activities.
The following vehicles have been assigned to the DEA Special Investigative Units: 16 sedans in Bangkok; 6 sedans in Chiang Mai; 4 vans in Bangkok; 1 in Chiang Mai; 4 SUV's in Bangkok; 1 SUV in Chiang Mai; 11 pickups in Bangkok. Responsibility for monitoring the condition and use of these vehicles is exercised by officials of DEA Bangkok and other resident offices in Thailand, in coordination with the NAS. All of the equipment is in very good condition. One sedan, which was seriously damaged in an accident during 2001, has since been repaired.
The NAS and counterparts inspected 386 motorcycles, 101 pickup trucks, 95 sedans and 16 vans. Eight RTA pickup trucks, two pickups at ONCB Chiang Mai, 14 motorcycles at Provincial Police Region, and five in Chiang Mai, were found to be in fair condition. All other vehicles were judged to be in poor but serviceable condition. Responsibility for vehicle maintenance rests with the recipient or using Thai Government agency. No significant problems were noted in the EUM of motor vehicles.
The overall impact of the Thai Government programs has been considerable and positive in all respects. The Thai opium poppy reduction program is one of the most effective in the world. Effective RTG drug law enforcement efforts have resulted in significant identified diversion of illicit international movements. Illicit drug production, trafficking and abuse remain a substantial problem in Thailand. Long-term development of effective RTG institutional capabilities to control, reduce and prevent these activities would be substantially retarded without the impact of assistance that has been provided by the USG.
The end use of the items was verified through on-site inspections and host government reports.
Three Toyota automobiles and six Honda motorcycles were provided to the Indonesian National Police (INP) Narcotics and Drugs Criminal Investigation Unit in June 2001. To date, there have been no problems with the vehicles.
Thirty (30) Motorola GP338 radio units were provided to the INP Narcotics and Drugs Criminal Investigation Unit in June 2001.
The equipment has enhanced the effectiveness of the unit's counternarcotics program.
The end use of the items was verified through a memorandum from the National Narcotics Agency (NNA).
Four of the six surveillance sedans and one of the two surveillance vans are no longer in use by the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) for counternarcotics activities. The remaining van and the two sedans are used on a very limited basis due to age. The vehicles are 15 years old and suffer from frequent breakdowns. The Royal Malaysia Customs and Excise Department (RMCE) use four Yamaha motorcycles.
One NEC Powermate computer and printer are in use by the RMCE; one computer is in use by the Department of Prisons.
The RMCE uses six portable radios. The RMCE 's Motorola repeater station has been modified and is now in use. A Powermate computer and printer are in use by the RMCE.
The chainsaw and generator were in use at a public drug treatment center until last year. Other equipment provided to the RCME including the 105 portable probes, portables telephones, intensifier night vision device, fax machine, projection panel, and cameras has reached the end of its useful life..
Office equipment and cameras granted to the NNA continue to be used for coordination and demand reduction activities. Three color TV's, one video camera, one overhead projector, one tripod screen, three VCR's, and five tape recorders are used by the Prisons Department.
The Anti-Smuggling Unit has reported that the portable spotlights are not bright enough to be fully effective. Two of the six spotlights are no longer in use because the batteries and chargers are inoperable. The Motorola repeating station is in use at Kuala Lumpur International Airport.
The RCME staff has not received adequate training and, consequently, cannot use the vapor detector analyzer. The device is also very delicate, has proven to be difficult to calibrate, move, and use in air-conditioned space and has never been effectively used.
The Government of Malaysia recipients agree that items have had a positive effort on their counternarcotics effort. The equipment has been useful in various counternarcotics activities. Although hampered by mechanical problems, the RMP reports that the vehicles have been very useful over their lifespans.
The embassy officer performed on-site inspections of the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary (RPNGC) technical services workshop and interviewed the technical services workshop personnel.
Twenty-six Bendix/King UHF-FM hand-held radios, chargers, and other accessories were provided to the RPNGC in 1993 for use by their Drug Squads in the daily course of their law enforcement duties. Eleven of the twenty-six radios are in storage at the technical services workshop. Only four are in service. Many are missing antennas and batteries; most have missing or broken press-to-talk (PTT) switches. The RPNGC lacks parts and equipment to repair radios when they become damaged. The radios have reached the end of their useful life and will no longer be monitored.
The latest evidence strongly suggests that the equipment provided makes a minimum contribution to the anti-narcotics mission.
Inspections of INL-provided equipment and INL-funded construction projects were conducted during field trips to projects throughout the year. The NAS used these visits to discuss maintenance problems and to insure that INL-funded commodities are being used properly and are contributing to the overall success of the projects. Lao counterparts have made all INL-provided equipment available for inspection.
Two motorcycles are in good condition and used in Muang Hiem. Two trucks are used in the Bountai District Office of Phongsaly; one is in the Vientiane headquarters office, which is now co-located with the Lao Commission for Drug Control and Supervision. One motorcycle is in Vientiane and ten are in Bountai. Vehicles assigned to the Lao-American Project (LAP) are used in direct support of project activities by hauling supplies and providing transportation for project staff to the various project activities. Four motorcycles are used by the Oudomxai Province for the road upgrade project. Two are kept at the provincial Department of Transportation; two are kept at the road site. These vehicles take engineers to regular visits to the road site, some three hours from the provincial capital. Seventy motorcycles, eleven Toyota double cab pickup trucks, one Toyota singlecab pickup truck, and two Toyota Land Cruisers were used by Law Enforcement Project for investigative and enforcement activities.
Two Toyota Land Cruisers, one Toyota double cab pickup truck, one Toyota single cab pickup, and 15 motorcycles are assigned to the Counternarcotics Department, Ministry of Interior (formerly Vientiane Counternarcotics Office). Two Toyota pickup trucks and four motorcycles are assigned to the Savannakhet Couner-narcotics Unit. One Toyota pickup truck and two motorcycles are assigned to the Bokeo Counternarcotics Unit. One pickup truck and five motorcycles are assigned to the Customs Narcotics Office. Six motorcycles and one double cab pickup truck are assigned to the Oudomxay Counternaroctics Office. Six motorcycles and one pickup truck are assigned to the Houaphanh Counternarcotics Office. One pickup truck and three motorcycles are assigned to the Champasack Counternarcotics Office. Four motorcycles are assigned to the Department of Customs/Narcotics Unit, Ministry of Finance. Six motorcycles and one pickup truck are assigned to the Champasack counternarcotics Office (CNO). Six motorcycles, one pickup truck and four double cabs are assigned to the Xayaboury Counternarcotics Office. Five motorcycles and one pickup truck are assigned to the Luang Prabangcounter Narcotics Office.
All are in good condition and well maintained. A full-time mechanic controls the project motor pool operation and maintenance. Vehicles are used strictly for project activities.
In the Lao-American project, the Motorola base stations provide communications between Vientiane and the project offices in Phongsaly Province. The mobile radios allow for communication between the project area staff and the district offices. All equipment is dedicated to the anti-narcotics Crop Control Project and there is little opportunity for diversion. Two Motorola radios SSB were installed in Bountai district office and one in the Vientiane office. The other three SSB's were mounted in the vehicles.
Two HF-SSB radio, four VHF-FM mobile radios, seven VHF ICOM hand-held transceivers, and eight VHF/FM visar hand-held transceivers are used by the Savannakhet counternarcotics Office. Two HF-SSB radios and one VHF FM radios are used by the Oudomxay Counternarcotics Office. Thirteen hand-held radios are used by the Xayaboury Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB radio and one VHF FM radio are used by the Champasack Counternarcotics Office. The Phongsaly Counternarcotics Office uses ten hand-held radios. The Houaphan Counternarcotics Office uses one HF SSB radio, one VHF FM radio, and twelve handheld radios. Two HF SSB radios, one VHF FM radio, and twelve handheld radios are used by the Vientiane Municipality Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB radio and two VHF FM radio, and ten handheld radios are used by the Luang Prabang Counternarcotics Office.
Radio maintenance and repairs were performed either by the U.S. owned distributor of Motorola equipment or by the Ministry of Interior technical staff sent to the CNO’s.
All construction projects undertaken in 2001 were monitored by NAS personnel during regular site visits. The primary construction project in 2001 was the continuation Phase I of the Bountai-Samphan road in Phongsaly Province, and the initiation Phase II of the same road. The field adviser to the Lao-American project was based at the Bountai site throughout the year and monitored the ongoing construction. The adviser proved invaluable in sorting out numerous disputes between the engineering consultant and the construction company and in advising the Embassy on all matters pertaining to the road construction. Road construction in remote northern Laos is difficult. Most Lao construction companies have little experience in dealing wit the mountainous conditions.
Other construction projects in 2001 included the renovation of a building for the Vientiane CNO and upkeep of roads and weirs in the former Lao-American project area of Houaphan Province. There were ongoing problems with the hydroelectric plant/Nam Sad at Muang Hiem. This dam is operated with turbines procured in Germany. No spare parts or service/maintenance agreement had been provided by the NAS when the dam was originally constructed in 1999-2000. Also, the Lao Government has been unable to keep trained personnel at the site. NAS and the Lao government have now agreed that the NAS will continue to maintain this facility for another five years.
Computer and office equipment are used full time for project management purposes. Two monitors Ranger P54-75CM, two CPU's are located at the Counternarcotics Department, Department of Interior. Four CPU's and monitor are located at the Lao National committee for Drug Control and Supervision. A computer, Gateway 2000 and Laserjet printer are located at each of the following offices: Savannmakhet, Department of Customs/narcotics Unit, Ministry of Finance, Champasack Counternarcotics Office, Phongsaly Counternarcoitcs Office, Houaphan Counternarcotics Office, Luang Prabangcounter Counternarcotics Office, and Oudomxay Offices Counternarcotics Office.
The NAS has three Gateway computers purchased in 1993 and three Dell computers and one laptop computer purchased in 1997. They are kept in the NAS office. Two of the three Gateway computers are broken and will be disposed of. The others are in good condition.
Computers need constant maintenance and repair. Since computer service in the provinces is irregular at best, computers must be brought into Vientiane for service. Moreover, the supply of electricity in some areas is unreliable and the projects rely on generators.
Fax machines, VCR's, binoculars, cameras, television monitors, and copy machines are used throughout the projects. They are all in good condition.
Maintenance of equipment, particularly computers, requires constant monitoring. The NAS urges counterparts to immediately report problems with equipment and installation both during and between inspection visits.
In 2002, the NAS will contract with a private company to provide regular service and maintenance to computers and other electrical equipment.
USG funding and commodities remain the keys to project success in Laos. As one of the world’s poorest countries, Laos has limited funding available for counter-narcotics activities and would be unable to actively pursue counter-narcotics goals without foreign donor support. The Lao government continues to seek such support. The USG is the largest donor in the counternarcotics area, both via the bilateral projects and through UNDCP projects.
The Lao Government has made a commitment to eradicate opium by 2005. Only with USG assistance in crop control, will it be able to meet this ambitious goal. On the law enforcement side, USG training and equipment have been instrumental in the successes the Lao have achieved to date.