Southwest Asia

End-Use Monitoring Report
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
October 2002



Resources provided to the Government of Sri Lanka were monitored by periodic on-site inspections by Embassy officers or Foreign Service Nationals this year.


Audio-visual and Office Equipment-Video and slide projectors, fax machine, and an answering machine were supplied to the Non-Governmental Organizations Against Drug Abuse (FONGOADA) in 1995 and 1997. The equipment is located at the FONGOADA office in Colombo. The equipment is used by FONGOADA member organizations to conduct narcotics prevention programs. They put special emphasis on assisting smaller NGO’s around the nation, which are not as well funded as those in and around the city of Colombo. FONGOADA maintains the equipment properly. FONGOADA advises that the videocassette recorder functions properly but lacks a monitor. It is used when FONGOADA is able to borrow a television form another organization.

Computer Equipment-Wang PC480 with printer and associated equipment were supplied to the Police Narcotics Bureau (PNB) in 1993-1994. The equipment is located at the PNB office in Colombo. The PNB retired the Wang printer in 2000 after the machine ceased to function properly.

Miscellaneous Equipment-The following equipment was supplied to the National Dangerous Drug Control Board (NDDCB) in 1993-1996: two fume hoods, calculators, typewriters; amplifiers; camcorder; printer; fax machine; microwave ovens; scanner; wireless microphone; copier; micro-cassette recorder; transcriber; overhead projector; speaker horn; microwave oven; IBM Notepad laptop computer; sharp electronic word processor; JVC video camera with accessories. Most items are in good condition and being used at the NDDCB offices in Colombo. A photocopier was provided to the Sri Lanka Anti-Narcotics Association (SLANA) in 1998. The equipment is in good repair at the SLANA office in Colombo. A Sony 14” color television was purchased for the Mithuru-Mithuro Drug Rehabilitation Center in 1999. The Mituru-Mithuro director gave a verbal report on the state of the equipment in January 2001.


The equipment provided to the NDDCB supports the analytical work of the National Narcotics Laboratory (NNL), which conducts analysis of narcotic drugs and other psychotropic substances. The NNL provides analytical records covering suspected narcotics samples forwarded by the Government and other sectors for examination. The audiovisual equipment has supported the NDDCB training division’s awareness building, preventive education and training programs at the agency auditorium and mobile unit conducting outdoor programs.

The photocopier enabled SLANA to enhance its current efforts. The television is used in education programs, such as showing recovering heroin addicts effective means of overcoming their addictions.



The Bangladesh Department of Narcotics Control (DNC) reports on equipment usage upon request of the Embassy. The narcotics coordinator periodically checks on DNC's laboratory operations and reports any significant changes.


In July 2000, post turned over to the DNC an analytical balance, top-loading balance, and polarizing microscope for use in their newly constructed narcotics testing laboratory. The laboratory was opened on July 3, 2001. The lab's results have been accepted by the Bangladesh courts as bona fide evidence in narcotics cases. All items are clean and in excellent working order and stored in a temperature controlled lab within a secure building and compound. The Chief Chemical Examiner (CCE) advised that he lacked the necessary administrative support from the Home Ministry of the DNC to adequately remunerate his staff and to buy the required chemicals to perform certain tests.


The DNC has limited resources and relies on assistance from UNDCP and other donors. These new laboratory resources, and the USG-donated equipment, will enhance the growing capability of DNC to combat drug trafficking in Bangladesh.



The NAS conducted End Use Monitoring on 80 percent of its inventory in 2001. Both formal countrywide on-site inventories using the EUM process and informal spot checks took place. The NAS satellite offices covering North West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Baluchistan submitted updated inventories and performance assessment reports to the NAS last December.

When travel to an area was neither feasible nor safe, the NAS management staff compared NAS-generated computerized inventory records of commodities against recipient agency written inventories. Cooperation with host country counterparts in the conduct of EUM was exemplary. Travel restrictions did not significantly impact the 2001 EUM.


With a few exceptions, commodities were in place and being used for the purposes for which they were provided. Overall, the condition of items varied from location to location. 


The INL-funded vehicles provided to the Government of Pakistan (GOP) are used for drug interdiction by the law enforcement agencies and to implement development programs funded by the NAS in Mohmand and Bajaur agencies. In the law enforcement area, they were used for poppy enforcement operations; law enforcement stake-outs; transporting officers to road checkpoints; chasing, apprehending and transporting criminals suspected of smuggling illicit narcotics; searching for drug laboratories; and transporting officers to central locations. In the development area, they were used to transport project managers and project implementation staff to monitor the progress of development projects, and to authenticate GOP reports of crop eradication. They were also used to purchase and transport NAS-provided agricultural commodities for farmers and security escorts required in tribal areas for NAS personnel.

The NAS procured more than fifty percent of the vehicles in the 1980’s. (Seventy-five percent of the vehicles are now more than seven years old.) The aging fleet is attributable to the GOP’s intricate auction procedures and the vehicle replacement funding shortfalls.

The fleet of vehicles was distributed to the following GOP agencies: ANF (197); Pakistan Customs (95); Pakistan Rangers (13); Frontier Corps (40); Baluchistan Police (7); Coast Guard (14); Bajaur Agency (23); Mohmand Agency (16); Dir (3); Malakand Agency (4); Khyber Agency (4); Frontier Constabulary (1); Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) (2); NCD (8); NAS office (12).

The NAS provides some vehicle maintenance support to the GOP. During the year, NAS vehicle maintenance support funded engine overhaul and/or major repair of five FCB, seven ANF and three Customs vehicles. As a rule, funds for vehicle maintenance come from the budget of the agency to which they were donated. However, in many cases these budgeted maintenance funds were rarely readily available to the agency on a timely basis.

The NAS encourages GOP agencies (especially Customs) to use sales proceeds from auctions to ameliorate the maintenance funding flow problem and to replace irreparable vehicles. Agency-wise breakdown of vehicles disposed of during 2001 included four from he NWFP Home Department and 14 from Crop Control. In 2001, the NAS distributed 26 new vehicles to ANF, eight to ANF SIC, three to CI, four to CG, five to Political Agents Bajaur and Mohand agencies, one to NWFP Home Department, four to NAS Peshawar and two to NCD. 

Communications Equipment

Communications equipment is used by law enforcement agencies to enable them to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics operations. Equipment includes VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF hand held transceivers, VHF mobile transceivers. Radio equipment plays an important role in the ability of the various law enforcement headquarters to communicate with their other stations nationwide. In some remote areas, the equipment is the sole means of communication between outposts. In the development area, communications equipment is used to communicate between the office of the political agent, the project manager and the construction/project site to relay requirements for equipment; provide site to relay requirements for equipment; and provide information on progress of problems. The radio equipment also enables political agents to coordinate and supervise enforcement destruction of opium poppy cultivation.

High turnover of qualified and experienced technicians has hampered the proper use and maintenance of NAS-provided communications equipment by ANF and Customs personnel. A lack of maintenance resources has plagued small agencies. The NAS has urged both ANF and Customs to address this problem through expeditious upgrading and filling of vacant positions. At the end of CY-2000, the GOP relaxed its ban on recruitment of new personnel and despite having filled 225 vacant positions, ANF still remains deficient by 1020 personnel form its authorized strength of 2558 personnel.

In the interim, a NAS engineer provides technical support for communications equipment on a regular basis to Customs, Coast Guards, FCB, and ANF.

Office Equipment

The office equipment used by ANF, Customs, Frontier Corps, and Police headquarters includes computers, fax machines, and photocopiers. The equipment was well maintained and in use.


A Boston Whaler, provided to Pakistan Customs in 1987, is located in Karachi. It was used for patrolling the harbor area and for the random monitoring of fishing trawlers and small cargo ships to determine whether narcotics are on board. Customs decommissioned the vessel in 1996 because it did not meet size requirements for high seas law enforcement activities and required costly maintenance because of its continuous operation in highly polluted waters. During a July 2000 technical inspection, a USG Coast Guard team recommended measures to put the boat back into operation. Pakistan Customs is implementing these measures to refurbish the boat. The NAS believes that the vessel, in its previously deplorable condition, was unlikely to attract a desirable price at auction. 

Agricultural and Area Development Projects

Agriculture and area development projects undertaken included the establishment of agriculture demonstration plots using improved varieties of seed and fertilizer and distribution of small agriculture tools for use in the demonstration plots. The procurement and distribution process was carried out by the GOP staff but checked and monitored by NAS agriculture staff from start to finish. The NAS agriculture staff observes the distribution of seeds and fertilizer and spot checks sites to ensure inputs are being used according to agreed work plans.

Area development projects were monitored in a number of different ways. The major road activities were managed by a civil engineering consulting firm, which provided construction supervision services. The NAS staff monitored and spot-checked the work of the consulting firm as well as the physical work of the road construction contractors. Other projects undertaken in the area development sector include farm-to-market roads to open new areas, drinking water supply, small hand-dug wells for irrigation of high-value crops, and village electrification. Mainly the GOP designs the area development activities with the assistance of NAS engineers.

Both the GOP and NAS staff engineers to ensure quality construction standards as specified by the contract monitored the activities during the construction phase. For farm-to-market projects, the NAS regularly monitored the construction activities as required. For smaller, less sophisticated schemes such as dug wells, the GOP engineers supervised the construction. The NAS visited each scheme at least once during the construction period. A final inspection was made by the NAS upon completion. Faults, if any, were corrected prior to final payment and certification of completion. Spot checks were made by the NAS staff engineers after the completion to ensure the projects continue to operate. No problems were encountered with regard to End Use Monitoring of the agriculture or area development schemes. A few non-expendable items located in Dir, Malakand, and Swat districts continue to be retrieved for auction, especially in cases where projects have closed down.


In 2001, the NAS program had a significant impact on the success of the anti-narcotics mission.

NAS commodity and operational support to Frontier Corps and Anti-Narcotics Force has enabled the GOP to prevent the re-emergence of heroin laboratories in Pakistan, as well as to enforce the GOP ban on poppy cultivation. The volume of heroin seizures by NAS-supported law enforcement agencies declined by 11 percent during 2001. Opium seizures showed about 42 percent decline in 2001 compared with seizures made in 2000. Seizures made by ANF, PCS, and Customs declined correspondingly, in line with the general trend mainly due to increased deterrence and reduced supply. The number of arrests made during 2001 declined by 10 percent mainly because of deterrence resulting from increased rate of convictions and death sentences.

The impact of NAS assistance on Pakistan Customs counternarcotics activities in 2001 showed positive results in terms of narcotics seizures. Yet, better results could have been achieved with a much desired improvement in the quality of management, more stability in the organizational structure, and a more focused approach towards interdiction efforts.

Forfeiture of assets registered almost 50 percent increase over the previous year much to the credit of speedy disposal of cases by the newly setup special narcotics courts.

In 2001, poppy crop dropped to the point where Pakistan no longer meets criterion for a producer country. NAS-provided equipment played a role in a wide range of development schemes and agricultural projects in remote, difficult to reach area of NWFP.

Vehicles and communications equipment provided to the tribal areas of Khyber, Mohmand, Bajaur, Malakand and Dir contributed directly to local drug enforcement efforts. Vehicles and communications equipment assigned to project management units and line departments in NWFP contributed to effective project management.


A perennial concern is the potential misuse of project vehicles. During EUM discussions with GOP officials, NAS representatives review responsible use of NAS-provided equipment. In 2001, the NAS urged the ANF to withdraw dedicated vehicles from officers below grade 19. ANF implementation of the NAS recommendation is spotty. In some cases, below grade personnel had operational or enforcement responsibilities which precluded withdrawing vehicles. Recipients of NAS assistance are well aware that the NAS is not loath to pulling the plug for malfeasance.



Post regularly reviews the status of all USG-supplied equipment to the Narcotics Drug Control Law Enforcement Unit (NDCLEU) and the Home Ministry’s Drug Abuse Demand Reduction Project (DADRP). Post physically inventories most equipment. In January 2002, post met with NDCLEU and toured the forensics laboratory. It also met with DADRP and looked at its equipment and training programs and with representatives of the Female Cells, a special unit of the Nepal Police formed to combat crimes against women and children. In the case of motorcycles, bicycles, and other equipment spread throughout the country, post can only spot-check when its personnel are in the area on other travel. Host country personnel cooperate fully with monitoring procedures.


The equipment donated to the NDCLEU, the DADRP, and the Female Cells are being correctly maintained and is in regular use. 


The bicycles (20), motorcycles (5), and scooters (2) were given to the NDCLEU in 1997 and 1998. All vehicles are still in good condition. The vehicles have greatly improved NDCLEU’s mobility. No repair or maintenance has been required so far. Eight motorcycles were presented to the Female Cells in September 1999. The Female Cells is using the motorcycles throughout the country.


Three thousand, four hundred (3,400) audiocassette tapes were produced with an anti-drug message. The demand reduction tapes are popular in Nepal and are regularly played on public media. The demand reduction training programs have been managed well and have proven to be an effective means of training teachers in the diagnosis of drug problems and in demand reduction techniques.

Miscellaneous Equipment

A mini-forensic laboratory for drug analysis was established in January 1999 at the Central Police laboratory. The lab has a gas chromatograph and two gas canisters, a Wiley grinder, a vertical autoclave, an automatic water still, a spectrophotometer, a vacuum pump, a refractometer, a melting point apparatus, and a computer and printer connected to the chromatograph. All items are working well.

The DADRP has been supplied a fax machine, camera, overhead projector, monitor and video camera. All units are in good condition. The DADRP uses them regularly in support of continuing training for Nepali teachers.


The support provided to the NDCLEU has expanded the organization’s ability to enforce laws. According to the NDCLEU, the Police used the mini-forensics lab for over 500 analyses in 2001. The lab has given them the capacity to process a suspected drug smuggler. The Police get results back to investigating officers the same day the sample is received. Testimony of lab analysis is recognized as expert testimony in court. Similarly, the support of the Female Cells has enabled them to expand their operations.



The FSN specialist conducted EUM of the fifty 125 CC Yamaha motorcycles given to the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN) and miscellaneous equipment provided to Mizoram State Excise Department (Assam).



The fifty motorcycles provided to the CBN in 1999 are located at the following CBN offices:

Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh 18
Kota, Rajasthan 18
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 10
Guwahati, Assam 2
Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh 1
New Dehli 1

All of the motorcycles have been accounted for. Given the poor state of Indian roads and the thousands of miles that CBN staff travel during the poppy growing season, the motorcycles are well maintained and repairs have been minimal. The motorcycles are being used for the purpose for which they were provided.


Four digital cameras, four Compaq computer with printers, and ten Motorola headsets were provided to the Mizoram State Excise Department for its counternarcotics work. Ten weed trimmers were provided to the CBD in Guwahata, Assam.


The CBN controls licit cultivation of opium poppy, and the processes associated with it, in the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Praddesh, an area of over 150,000 square kilometers. INL's assistance to CBN has greatly enhanced the mobility of CBN staff, and has helped CBN effectively monitor the harvest of the opium crop and its subsequent processing. The CBN has effectively used the INL assistance to patrol the licit opium growing areas for enforcement operations; to chase, and apprehend criminals; to search for drug laboratories; monitor field measurements; and test measurements during poppy growing season survey. The cycles have also been used for the detection and eradication of excess poppy, physical checks at weigh stations, and carrying out drug and chemical interdiction efforts.

The Motorola radios provided to the CBN have been a boom for the group in the remote areas devoid of any communication means or electricity, allowing daily contact with the base camp and the Guwahati office. The weed trimmers were used successfully to destroy cannibis fields in the plains of Assam.