Asia and the Middle East

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2006 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2005

Iraq Criminal Justice Program

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Supplemental

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The overall program objective of the Iraq Criminal Justice Program is to support the development of police, judicial and correctional institutions in order to facilitate establishment of Iraq as a sovereign, democratic country. A total of $1,081.364 million in Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Funds (IRRF) has been made available to INL in the FY 2004 supplemental to fund police, justice, and prison programs, including deployment and field support for 878 U.S. trainers and advisors in Iraq. IRRF funds were also used to construct and operate a police training facility in Jordan staffed by 325 U.S. and international police trainers. Effective in May 2004, all U.S. support to train and equip Iraqi police was assigned to the operational control of the Department of Defense, Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq (MNSTC-I), LTGEN David Petraeus commanding.

The FY 2006 program contemplates continued support to the police program from IRRF resources. Funds made available to INL will continue to support U.S. efforts to recruit, select, train, equip, deploy and support trainers and advisors to support further development of Iraq's justice (prosecutors and courts) and correctional institutions.

In terms of the justice sector, the program will:

  • Support up to 12 justice experts who advise the MOI and MOJ on codes and procedures, case management, and coordination with supporting programs such as court administration and witness protection;

  • Provide classroom and seminar training sessions for judges and prosecutors and follow on advanced training for judges who have completed basic training; and Provide judicial mentoring and mentoring within the 16 Baghdad courts to reinforce and apply concepts raised in formal training sessions, supervise Iraqi court monitors in each court, and facilitate cooperation with other components of the justice system.

The corrections program will:

  • Maintain support for up to 80 corrections experts;

  • Continue to train all members of the ICS through a two- phased approach: pre-service academy training and on the job field training; and

  • Increase number of prison advisors deployed to penal facilities outside Baghdad, as security permits.

Indicators of successful performance of the foregoing tasks include:

  • All required justice and correctional advisors are deployed in a timely manner; receive required support; and perform assigned duties and responsibilities in a manner which contributes to the effective operation of the new, independent Iraqi courts system and the Iraq Correctional Service;

  • The Ministry of Justice, Iraqi Special Tribunal, Commission on Public Integrity, Council of Judges, and Central Criminal Court of Iraq function in a demonstrably more effective manner at the conclusion of the period of assistance than at the commencement of such efforts;

  • Quality training is delivered to more than 12,000 correctional personnel in appropriate subjects including human rights, inmate classification staff supervision and development, post-incarceration programs for inmates, and reduction of recidivism; and

  • A qualified staff of employees populates the Iraq Corrections Service and operates that Organization and its component facilities in accordance with the laws of Iraq and established policies.

Program Justification

The development of an effective, democratically oriented criminal justice system, including civilian police, prosecutorial, judicial and correctional functions, is essential to establishment of a free society in Iraq. Continued U.S. participation in the reform and development of the Iraq Criminal Justice System is required through FY 2006 to consolidate and expand the work performed in that country to date.

Program Accomplishments

As of January 2005, the corrections portion of the Program has conducted 23 iterations of the Basic Correctional Skills Training Course in which 3,184 cadets have been trained. Field training has also been conducted in five correctional facilities in Baghdad to enhance basic skills of corrections officers. Corrections Advisors deployed to various correctional facilities in the Baghdad area have also provided on the job mentoring for facility managers, supervisors and operational personnel to assist them in properly discharging newly structured and assigned duties.

Also as of January 2005, 258 of 866 judicial practitioners have participated in a six-week judicial training course. The Program's judicial advisors provided extensive assistance in the structuring, opening and operation of the Central Criminal Court of Iraq and are continuing to assist the CCCI with case processing.

FY 2006 Program

Building on IRRF resources provided to support the Criminal Justice program, the FY 2006 budget sustains the current staffing of judicial and corrections advisors. The FY 2006 program will continue to support the Corrections and Judicial program through further training and mentoring of the Iraqi Correctional Service, Ministry of Justice, judges and judicial investigators and prosecutors. FY 2006 funds will also allow for the expansion of these programs into areas beyond Baghdad to ensure all members of the ICS and judicial sector receive training.

INL Budget

FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005 FY 2005
FY 2006
Civilian Police Program* - 933,000 - - -
Democracy Building - 40,000 - - -
Witness Protection - 35,000 - - -
Corrections Services - 41,964 - - -
Crimes Against Humanity - 24,400 - - -
Judicial Security - 7,000 - - -
Criminal Justice Development - - - - -
     Justice - - - - 5,474
     Corrections - - - - 21,000
             Sub Total - 1,081,364  - - 26,474
Total - 1,081,364 - - 26,474
* Includes 4th Quarter FY 2004 reallocation of $210 million for civilian police         


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2004 Supplemental

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2005 Supplemental Request

FY 2006 Request







[1] $50.0 million of Emergency Response Funds reallocated and transferred from the Department of Defense pursuant to P.L. 108-38.

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe overall INL program objective is to work with the Government of Afghanistan (GOA) and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities, reduce poppy cultivation, and reform the Afghan judicial system in order to enhance public security, strengthen the rule of law, and attack illegal drug production and trafficking. INL program objectives in Afghanistan are consistent with the USG longer-term goal to create stability so as to prevent Afghanistan from again becoming a haven for terrorists and criminal activities. The following programs are based upon an integrated approach. All of these objectives must be pursued simultaneously on a holistic basis to achieve success.

Civilian Law Enforcement: Under German leadership, Afghan police (including border police and specialist units such as a highway patrol) will continue to be reformed and upgraded through training, technical assistance, and institutional capacity building in order to directly enhance security throughout Afghanistan.

Build institutional capacity, ensuring that police have sufficient basic supplies and equipment necessary to support a democratic police force.

Support maintenance and operation costs for our eight (8) INL Regional Training Centers and police advisors to continue basic training program for low-level officers as needed, provide field training for police officers and specialized courses that build on basic training programs previously provided for the police.

Provide critical infrastructure support including rehabilitation of police and border police facilities.

Complete Ministry of Interior reform efforts which focus on organizational development including defining the mission and functions of the various elements of the police, the organizational and rank structure, position and unit descriptions, duties and responsibilities, policies and procedures including administrative and management duties, further development of community policing initiatives, revenue-generation initiatives, establishment and enforcement of standard operating procedures, reform of the salary and personnel systems.

Support payment of police salaries through a contribution to the United Nations Development Program Law and Order Trust FUND for Afghanistan to ensure that corruption cannot gain a foothold in the new professional Afghan Police organization.

Administration of Justice: INL rule of law programs in Afghanistan will continue to support the Italian leadership and work with the Government of Afghanistan to strengthen rule of law throughout the country as well as provide support for the development of the corrections system.

Support development of infrastructure including expansion of court construction to district levels.

Provide advisory support to the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) Attorney General and Supreme Court.

Support specialized training for judges and prosecutors on issues such as corruption, trafficking, counternarcotics, and prosecutorial investigations.

Support development of legal professional organizations and institutions including the bar association (and licensing regime) as well as legal aid centers. Reintegrating women into the legal sector will remain a focus through FY 2006.

Contribute to the establishment of detention facilities near U.S. funded police Regional Training Centers and courts in provincial locations and in major poppy growing and drug trafficking regions.

Provide correctional personnel advising and training emphasizing human rights.

Build institutional capacity within the MOJ addressing issues of salary support, training programs and a prisoner tracking system and database.

Counternarcotics Support: Working with the United Kingdom, which has the international lead on counternarcotics activities in Afghanistan, INL programs will seek to reduce poppy cultivation through eradication, strengthening counternarcotics law enforcement efforts, and continue public information and demand reduction programs.

Six Central Poppy Eradication Force teams will conduct manual eradication in areas approved by the Government of Afghanistan to reduce the amount of opiates produced and to deter planting.

An aerial support component will increase the effectiveness of the ground eradication program and allow its extension into areas currently inaccessible for security or logistical reasons.

An additional reduction in the growing of poppy crops will occur as a result of an aggressive counternarcotics public information campaign and voluntary non-planting and eradication by Afghan farmers.

Drug intelligence, investigation and law enforcement and interdiction units of the Counter Narcotics Police - Afghanistan (CNPA) will operate nationwide to disrupt processing operations and trafficking networks.

The GOA will conduct a nation-wide, comprehensive, anti-drug public affairs campaign aimed at reinforcing underlying public disapproval of the drug trade (measured against a 2005 baseline public opinion survey).

Working with the Ministries of Public Health, Information and Culture, Education, and Telecommunications, the Ministry for Counter Narcotics will coordinate a national drug abuse prevention and treatment program.

Program Justification

The breadth of INL programs in Afghanistan reflects the country's importance in the U.S 's Global War on Terrorism. INL programs in Afghanistan support U.S. counterterrorism, counterdrug and anticrime goals. The FY 2006 INL program will continue to enhance the three main components began with FY 2002 supplemental funding and continued with FY 2004 and FY 2005 foreign assistance and supplemental appropriations: police training and reform, justice sector (including corrections) reform, and counternarcotics activities. INL programs are coordinated closely with U.S. coalition partners to complement the respective leading roles played by the United Kingdom on counternarcotics, Germany on police, and Italy on judicial reform.

FY 2006 funding will enable INL to continue to work with the Government of Afghanistan and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities by strengthening the rule of law and enhancing public security throughout the country. As the military begins to phase out its support to the security sector, the burden on the Afghan police will increase, requiring the international community to redouble its efforts to ensure that the police are fully prepared to take on the job of ensuring security in Afghanistan.

Restoration of the rule of law (including criminal accountability and commercial predictability) is vital to increasing security, ensuring stability, promoting economic growth, and protecting human rights. A transparent and fair justice system is critical to ensuring that the people of Afghanistan respect the authority and decision-making of the central government. In particular, a criminal defense system that affords due process and respects international human rights standards is a cornerstone of a society functioning under the rule of law. U.S. law enforcement must have the ability to work with Afghanistan in the future on crucial law enforcement issues. Despite Afghan progress on a Constitution and the development of governmental mechanisms and agencies that support justice reform, much work is needed. Critical tasks include establishment of a functioning judiciary, a competent bar, reintegration of women legal professionals, and a reliable penal system.

The narcotics situation in Afghanistan has become so serious that it threatens to undermine all we are attempting to achieve there. After a one-year "ban" imposed by the Taliban regime in 2001, Afghanistan resumed its place as the world's largest producer of opium in 2002, maintained this lead with an even larger crop in 2003, and produced a world record-setting crop in 2004. Poppy cultivation in 2003 was 61,000 hectares, up from 30,750 in 2002; in 2004 this figure jumped to 206,700 hectares, a 239% increase and the largest crop recorded in any country since the U.S. starting tracking such data. The International Monetary Fund estimates that revenue generated from poppy cultivation and heroin production amounted to as much as 60% of Afghanistan's Gross Domestic Product in 2004. Although President Karzai has issued decrees outlawing the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs, the central government's ability to enforce the decrees is minimal. Illegal proceeds from the narcotics trade fund terrorist and other groups interested in ensuring that Afghanistan's governing institutions remain weak.

Program Accomplishments

Civilian Law Enforcement: Since the inception of the program over two years ago, INL has established police training centers in Kabul, Kandahar, Konduz, Jalalabad, Gardez and Mazar-i-Sharif and trained over 36,000 police officers. Permanent construction of the Kabul site is complete and construction is underway at Kandahar, Konduz, Jalalabad, Gardez, Mazar-i-Sharif and Herat. A specialized curriculum for highway patrol and border police officers has been added and implementation of a Field Training Program to further enhance the training that police recruits receive has begun.

A nationwide communications network connecting provincial police headquarters to the Ministry of Interior (MOI) in Kabul has been installed. INL has also provided uniforms and personal equipment packages to police and $20 million worth of salary assistance and an ID card system/database to help better identify police for distribution of salary payments. Most recently INL began implementation of a comprehensive MOI reform program that includes the provision of 30 senior police advisors, infrastructure support (rebuilding and supplying police stations) work on revenue generation, community policing and organizational reform initiatives.

Administration of Justice: The Afghan government adopted a Constitution that respects human rights, the rights of women, and adheres to due process standards and with the assistance of lead nation Italy, the Ministry of Justice and the Judicial Reform Commission, completed drafting of the Interim Criminal Procedure Code. Afghanistan has also articulated a national development justice strategy agreed to by the Supreme Court, the Attorney General's Office, and the Ministry of Justice. INL has assisted Italy with developing the concept for a National Legal Training Center, a National Bar Association and Legal Aid institutions and support for a program training Afghan women judges in the United States.

INL developed a grant for a U.S./Afghan LLM and Certificate Program for Afghan Legal Educators. The grant offers Afghan lawyers the opportunity to participate in an intensive year-long LLM program, provides them with exposure to modern law school teaching techniques, modern university life, emerging legal trends and doctrine, the U.S. judicial system and basic governing structures. The experience will help hone the legal skills of the participants as well as make available opportunities to supplement legal education with practical training. The grant also supports establishing a strong partnership between the Kabul University Law School and the University of Washington Asia Law Center in the U.S.

INL has also developed a program that will provide expert advisors in criminal justice, legal education and training, mentoring and corrections. Advisors will also be embedded in the Supreme Court, the Ministry of Justice, the Attorney General's office and a liaison to the Ministry of Interior (to focus on police-prosecutor coordination).

Counternarcotics: In the last year, the GOA and the international community became increasingly committed to dealing with the growing narcotics threat in Afghanistan.

After being sworn in as the first democratically elected President of Afghanistan in 2004, President Karzai vowed to make the fight against narcotics his first priority. In 2004, the GOA created a Deputy Minister within the Ministry of Interior and a Ministry of Counter Narcotics to better address the threat; the U.S. will provide advisors to these new offices. The GOA also promulgated and requested international assistance for a comprehensive counternarcotics effort that includes counternarcotics institution building; law enforcement and criminal justice system development; alternative livelihood, public information, demand reduction programs; eradication of illicit crops; and cooperation with regional partners.

FY 2004 supplemental funds were used to establish four manual eradication teams (the "Central Poppy Eradication Force-CPEF") comprised of police, civilian laborers and international support staff. The CPEF conducts forced manual eradication of poppy crops within areas approved by the GOA. With the mild winter and early spring in 2004, most of the crop had been harvested before the eradication teams could reach them and total 2004 eradication was negligible. However, the 495 Afghan police officers of the CPEF continued training and planning during the off season in preparation for the 2005 manual eradication season. Construction of a headquarters/training facility for the CPEF was completed. The CPEF commander visited many key poppy growing districts during the off-season in an effort to discourage planting of the 2005 crop. Early indications are that the increased perception of risk (along with reported unsold stockpiles of 2004 opiates) may have discouraged some planting of the 2005 crop.

A comprehensive public affairs strategy was created and put into action in 2004. INL funded BBC and VOA radio anti-drug messages broadcast in both Pashto and Dari weekly.

An Assistant U.S. Attorney (AUSA) has been assigned to provide technical advisory assistance to the GOA on counternarcotics matters, including support to a counternarcotics task force composed of specially selected and trained judges, prosecutors, and criminal investigators. A second AUSA will be assigned shortly to increase support to the counternarcotics task force.

The INL section at Embassy Kabul had a single American Director's position in 2004. As the program expanded, INL assigned TDY support personnel from Washington and Personal Services contractors with counternarcotics program experience to the field. INL established three additional Foreign Service positions including a Deputy Director, Administrative officer and an Office Management Specialist to manage this growing program. In addition, INL created five Personal Service Contract positions for program managers with counternarcotics, police and justice experience to implement our programs in the field.

FY 2006 Program

Continued insecurity in Afghanistan, as well as the significant growth in the poppy cultivation in 2004, has placed increasing demands on the INL programs, requiring the acceleration and substantial expansion of the three main programs: law enforcement, counternarcotics and judicial reform. FY 2005 supplemental funding, when received, will increase support of programs to improve national law enforcement capabilities, strengthen the rule of law, and enhance public security including disruption of drug trafficking and associated criminal activity throughout the country, as well as a significant eradication program. INL programs in FY 2006 will continue these enhanced programs.

Civilian Law Enforcement

Assistance to train police in FY 2006 will continue to complement the German-led efforts to re-establish law enforcement functions. Funds will be used to:

  • support maintenance and operation costs for eight (8) INL Regional Training Centers and police trainer-advisors to continue basic training program for low-level officers as needed
  • provide specialized courses that build on basic training programs previously provided for the police
  • complete Ministry of Interior reform efforts which focus on organizational development including
    • defining
      • the mission and functions of the various elements of the police
      • the organizational and rank structure
      • position and unit descriptions
      • duties and responsibilities
      • policies and procedures including administrative and management duties
  • further development of community policing initiatives
  • revenue-generation initiatives
  • establishment and enforcement of standard operating procedures
  • reform of the salary and personnel systems

Administration of Justice

Assistance in the justice sector will continue to support Afghan and Italian-led efforts to rebuild and reform the justice sector. FY 2006 resources will enable INL to continue to work with the GOA and the international community to strengthen the rule of law throughout the country as well as provide support for the development of the corrections system. Three strategic objectives form the foundation of INL's justice sector activities in Afghanistan: development of institutional capacity of the permanent justice institutions; development of the operational capacity of criminal justice sector actors (including law enforcement) to fairly and transparently investigate crimes and prosecute/punish offenders; and 3) professionalization of justice sector personnel. Funds will be used to support development of infrastructure including expansion of court construction to district levels; provide advisory support to the Ministry of Justice, Attorney General and Supreme Court; support specialized training for judges and prosecutors on issues such as corruption, trafficking, counternarcotics, and prosecutorial investigations; support institutional development of legal institutions; provide coordinated training for law enforcement and justice personnel; continue to support the bar association and licensing development; support legal aid centers and general professionalization of the legal sector. The reintegration of women into the legal sector will remain a focus throughout FY 2006.

Funds will also be used to support the development of the correctional system in Afghanistan, to contribute to the establishment of detention facilities near U.S. funded police Regional Training Centers and courts in provincial locations and in major poppy growing and drug trafficking regions; to provide correctional personnel advising and training emphasizing human rights; and to build institutional capacity within the MOJ addressing issues of salary support, training programs, and a prisoner tracking system and database.


INL funding for counternarcotics in FY 2006 will continue to support the international efforts on counternarcotics activities in Afghanistan lead by the UK. INL programs will consist of crop control through public information and eradication, and drug control institution building that includes public affairs, support for interdiction, and demand reduction.

Crop Control/Eradication:This program is aimed at reducing large-scale poppy cultivation through a central government directed national manual eradication program begun in FY 2004 and expanded to six eradication teams in 2005. FY 2006 funds will be used to continue the ground eradication program in FY 2006, which will be augmented with increased air support (with rotary wing aircraft acquired pending FY 2005 supplemental funding). Support to the program will be provided through INL's Civilian Police contract. Funds will be provided to pay for salaries for civilian eradicators and Afghan police protection teams, fuel and supplies, vehicles and equipment, transportation, training, and evaluation and monitoring of the program, and contractor overhead and costs. Support to a small fleet of U.S.-owned rotary wing aircraft for security, reconnaissance, resupply, medevac and search and rescue will be provided through INL's aviation support contract. Funds will be used for shipping, support infrastructure, fuel and ammunition, personnel, flying hour operational costs, repair and maintenance, and contractor overhead and costs.

Drug Enforcement: This program is aimed at disrupting drug trafficking and associated criminal activity within Afghanistan, to improve enforcement of drug laws and increase prosecutions of drug offenders. Funds will continue U.S. support to the Counter Narcotics Police - Afghanistan (CNPA), including specialized training and equipping of drug enforcement units operating at the provincial level against drug processing labs and bazaars, drug caches and shipments, and drug traffickers and drug trafficking organizations. Part of the FY 2006 program will include a program to reform the penal code to better enable law enforcement to investigate and pursue drug offenders.

Demand Reduction: Funds will be used to fund community-based demand reduction programs aimed at rehabilitation, and anti-drug education programs for youth and rural communities through school curriculum and other community activities.

Public Diplomacy: The FY 2006 funding for a national anti-drug campaign will publicize eradication and enforcement activities; make clear the connections between the drug trade and conflict, crime, and corruption; work through radio, television, print media, community leaders, and elected officials; and support and strengthen the strides the Afghan government has made in its national drug control program in the past two years.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY2004 FY2004
Supp (A)
FY2005 FY2005
Supp Request
Counternarcotics Support
Crop Control/Eradication - 40,000 18,347 161,500 173,000
Sustainable Alternative Development - 5,000 - -
Interdiction 64,500
Public Diplomacy 5,000 3,000
Drug Enforcement - 3,500 23,000 5,000
Drug Control Capacity Building - 1,500 1,488 -
Demand Reduction - 3,000
Sub Total - 50,000 19,835 254,000 184,000
Civilian Law Enforcement
Training of Afghan Police - 74,675 64,462 280,000 49,000
Equipment and Infrastructure 75,000
MOI Reform - 85,325 - 40,000 9,500
Sub Total - 160,000 64,462 395,000 58,500
Administration of Justice
Justice Sector Training Program - 2,500 1,983 - 3,000
Corrections Reform and Support - 7,500 - - 8,500
Sub Total - 10,000 1,983 - 11,500
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - 1,500 5,500 3,000
Non-U.S. Personnel - - 300 1,100 600
ICASS Costs - - 450 1,650 900
Program Support - - 750 2,750 1,500
Sub-Total - - 3,000 11,000 6,000
Total - 220,000 89,280 660,000 260,000
A - $50 million of ERF funds transferred to the INCLE account from the Department of Defense pursuant to PL 107-38.  


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Indonesian National Police (POLRI) will be transformed into a civilian-led, police force predicated on respect for the rule of law, human rights and professionalism.

Performance indicators include the establishment of an internal disciplinary system; the institutionalization of anti-corruption practices and the development and implementation of contemporary police policies and standards of operations for the Criminal Investigations Division (CID) of the POLRI, including the Major Crimes Unit and the Economic and Special Crimes Unit and the completion of the Police Instructor Project. Progress will also be indicated by increased public confidence in POLRI's ability to uphold the law as measured by governmental and/or NGO indices.

The POLRI's Environmental Crimes Task Force will be strengthened and its focus broadened.

Performance indicators include the establishment of a police-prosecutors task force to address environmental crimes such as illegal logging and fishing; the development and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for environmental crime scene investigations and evidence preservation; and the issuances of indictments against criminals involved in environmental crimes.

The Maritime Police's ability to patrol ports, harbors and waterways will be improved.

Performance indicators will include the development of a revised curricula at the Marine Police Training Center and the implementation of recommendations from the Operational Unit Training Needs survey.

Indonesia will improve its legal framework to counter organized crimes and terrorism; will develop the competencies of investigators, prosecutors and judges to handle complex counter terrorism and other organized crimes cases; and establish a culture of institutional integrity within the law enforcement and criminal justice sectors.

Performance Indicators include successful court witness protection programs as demonstrated by the number of people participating; the introduction of legislation to identify terrorist organizations and fund-raising as demonstrated by a draft bill; an increase in the number of people that come forward with information about pending criminal cases as a reflection of increased confidence, and the introduction in the Attorney General's office of recruitment, retention and operational policies to address corruption.

Indonesia's drug intelligence analysis and interdiction capacities will be strengthened.

Performance indicators will include an increase over 2004 in seizures by the Indonesian National Police Drug Enforcement Unit and the National Narcotics Board of drugs and other contraband; the development of advanced investigative skills to interdict narcotics shipments, the dismantlement of clandestine drug labs, and the disruption of narcotics trafficking networks.

Program Justification

Indonesia is a key strategic partner in terms of fighting transnational criminal organizations and promoting regional stability. It is the largest Muslim country in the world. It is an emerging democracy making Indonesia an important nation in providing leadership to the Islamic world. Indonesia is a center of criminal activity, such as cyber-crime, illegal migration and piracy, and home to terrorist groups, including Jemaah Islamiyah (JI). In its transition to democracy and facing an increasingly sophisticated criminal threat, the Government of Indonesia has recognized the need for institutional reform of its police organizations and within its criminal justice system.

For thirty-three years during the reign of authoritarian President Suharto and for two years under the leadership of President Habibie, the Indonesian National Police was a part of the armed forces of Indonesia. During those thirty-five years, the police definition of domestic security was, "Protection for the State (elite) from its citizens." Until the democratic election of President Abdurahman Wahid in 2000, all but the most routine domestic security/public safety tasks were conducted by the Indonesian military (TNI) or the police paramilitary Mobile Brigade (BRIMOB), which is trained to use military tactics to preserve law and order.

In 2000, President Wahid sought assistance from several international donors, among them the United States, Australia, Britain, Japan, and the Netherlands, to support Justice Sector reform, including police reform. The USG was willing to participate and provide substantial resources, but not until the police were formally separated from the Indonesian Armed Forces. On July 1, 2000, President Wahid signed Presidential Decree 02/00, formally separating the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) from the TNI. USG assistance to support the decree commenced in August 2000.

Indonesia is a center of cyber-crime, and its social development is hindered by the prevalence of gang-related violence. Low confidence in police responsiveness and skill level has spurred citizens to take the law in their own hands, creating a major problem with vigilantism. International narcotics' trafficking is a serious and growing problem in Indonesia. Syndicated drug traffickers from countries in and beyond the region have targeted operations in Indonesia. Domestic availability and use of illicit narcotics are escalating. In addition, Indonesia is home to terrorist groups and has been the target of several deadly terrorist bombings. The skill level of POLRI must be enhanced to address effectively both criminal and terrorist activities and demonstrate its abilities to the public. Corruption is endemic in Indonesia, including within POLRI. The Police Assistance Program seeks to establish mechanisms to root out corruption by developing a code of conduct and internal disciplinary system.

Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands, are largely unprotected and undefended, leaving the country vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics smuggling to terrorist infiltration. The strategic importance of the Malacca Straits to global economic security makes it imperative that Indonesia has the capacity to monitor and police criminal activity along the maritime borders, which are largely unprotected. A comprehensive assessment of Maritime Police capabilities and needs was conducted in January 2004. This assessment will be used as a basis of implementing a program to address Indonesia's multi-jurisdictional maritime policies, responsibilities and complexities. Training, technical assistance, and equipment programs developed from the assessment will be enhanced using funding and continue until the Marine Police Directorate has the capacity to effectively fulfill its mission. Since POLRI was separated from the TNI in mid-2000, the Maritime Police Directorate has lacked the training, equipment, and leadership to perform enforcement duties efficiently. The Maritime Police will need to be modernized over the next several years. The Maritime Police need a new strategic plan and modernization of current operational units. Maritime Police personnel will require training as well as equipment and technical assistance to patrol ports and waterways effectively and to combat numerous forms of local and transnational crimes.

In addition, criminal justice sector reform is crucial to effective democratic reform and goes hand-in-hand with police reform. Creating an effective, well-trained police force based on democratic principles, community policing, and respect for rule of law and individual rights must be complemented by prosecutorial and judicial reform. Effective law enforcement efforts must culminate in bringing criminals to justice. When cases are developed, prosecutors must be skilled in using evidence to try cases successfully, defense attorneys must know how to protect the rights of the accused, and judges must be personally above reproach and ensure a fair trial. Corruption must be rooted out at all levels of the system. If the judicial system is not reformed, police soon become demoralized, and the public loses confidence in the system.

To ensure that Indonesia's transition to democracy is meaningful and takes root within its institutions, the democratization and professionalization of all levels and units of POLRI as well as the prosecutorial and judicial sectors must be realized. The Police Assistance Program, Maritime Police development program, Drug Law Enforcement assistance, and Criminal Justice Sector Reform programs are designed to achieve those goals and objectives.

In the past, the Indonesia project has been funded through Economic Support Funds (ESF).

Program Accomplishments

The separation of the police and military into two separate institutions and POLRI's transition to a civilian-controlled, democratic police force is a work-in-progress; yet, since the implementation of the Police Assistance Program in mid-2000, significant successes have been realized. POLRI reform and training have enhanced police investigative skills and police counternarcotics training and technical assistance have resulted in seizures of illicit narcotics and the closing of synthetic-drug production labs within Indonesia.

Reorganizing and reorienting POLRI is a substantial undertaking, requiring a change in the structure, culture, management style, and training of the entire 250,000 member national police force. In August 2000, the Police Assistance Program began by implementing programs to address management issues at the highest level. Simultaneously, a combination of technical assistance, training, and equipment donations were provided to assist the police in handling civil disorder in a manner that maintained order while respecting human rights and the rule of law. As a result of this initiative, the POLRI made significant changes in their handling of demonstrations and were the recipients of laudatory comments from various members of the NGO community. Importantly, since this training took place there have been no reported deaths related to the POLRI's handling of civil disturbances. In 2003 and 2004, INL worked with the POLRI Chief and officials at national and regional levels to develop and implement management plans that incorporate principles of leadership and management into the operation and administration of POLRI throughout the country. Further, the program is developing managerial skills for mid-level officers. The program includes a media outreach project to share information with the public and build confidence in the police within the populace.

In conjunction with the State Department Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Anti-terrorism Training Assistance Program, INL's Police Assistance Program includes training and technical assistance projects to give POLRI officers and units enhanced technical and investigative capabilities needed to address specialized crimes and terrorist activities. We have already seen success from our training activities, as Indonesia has arrested over 130 terrorist suspects and successfully prosecuted over 100 terrorists. Our training also provides forensics training and equipment, enabling both enhanced investigations and successful prosecutions. Drug enforcement training and drug forensic training and equipment are also contained within the program to ensure counternarcotics units can recognize illicit narcotics and discover and dismantle illicit drug labs.

There have been several areas of accomplishments of the Indonesia Police Assistance Program, including:

Transition to Democratic Policing

In order to better maximize the delivery and implementation the program concepts, as well as accentuate the POLRI ownership aspect, the project was modified to become a total train-the-trainer initiative. The POLRI's decision to integrate these concepts into the organization's curricula had helped ensure the principles of the democratic policing are being taught throughout the police organization. This project has received consistent support from the heads of both the GOI's National Center for Training and Education and the Human Resources Office. By having POLRI members provide the training exclusively there is a much greater likelihood individual members will accept and embrace these ideas and a much greater likelihood that the lessons and instruction will be sustainable after our project is completed. However, successes within this project have to be measured incrementally in light of the fact that total organizational transition and transformation will need to continue.

Civil Disturbance Management Project

The measurements of success for the Civil Disturbance Management project include: (1) an increase in the level of public confidence regarding INP performance during civil disturbances; (2) a reduction in the number of civilians and police injured in disorderly or riotous demonstrations; and (3) a reduction in the amount of property loss during demonstrations. As a result of the training, INP personnel have effectively controlled large demonstrations and defused emotional situations to resolve conflicts peacefully. The Indonesian government, the general public, and the NGO community have recognized the success of the program. The program has made a major impact on INP leaders and police in improving their relations with the public. Prior to the training, POLRI had limited understanding of the concept of conflict avoidance or the continuum of force options.

Instructor Development Workshops

This project was designed to strengthen the skills for Indonesian police instructors. Measurements of success for this project include: (1) increase the number of instructors who are able to demonstrate their knowledge of and ability to impart adult learning methodologies to students, and (2) to have the graduates of INP Training Schools demonstrate they are routinely performing the tenets of community policing learned in training. Over 120 INP instructors have successfully completed the IDW and have been observed successfully using their new training techniques. However, this encouraging statistic must be tempered by the fact that many instructors within the INP cadre have not yet received training in adult learning methodologies.

Cybercrime Projects

Indonesia's law enforcement has been provided with computer forensic capacities through specialized training and equipment donation. This highly successful initiative was developed to prevent, interdict and investigate cyber-crime. Now that the unit is operational, the cyber-crime unit has begun supporting regional requests for computer forensic analysis from other criminal investigatory units, including law enforcement units concentrating on bank fraud, anti-money laundering, and anti-terrorism units.

Maritime Police Project

During this period we developed a two-year assistance plan to address and evaluate: Maritime Police Headquarters; Maritime Police Operational Commands and Units; Maritime Police Training Center; and Ports and Waterways Security Stakeholders. A working group consisting of the Department of Justice's International Criminal Justice Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and Maritime Police representatives was formed to plan an Operational Units Training Needs Survey.

An Operational Unit Training Needs Survey was conducted recently at ten Maritime Police units in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. The survey results will assist in identifying and prioritizing maritime security training and infrastructure development support efforts on behalf of Maritime Police units throughout Indonesia.

Further, the program worked to coordinate with the Indonesian Maritime Committee Senior Technical Advisor for the National Planning Board for Security and Social Welfare (BAPPENAS). The BAPPENAS is responsible for debating and making recommendations to the national government on issues related to security and social welfare. The Planning Board has worked for over a year on a proposal to reinvent the Coordinating Agency for Maritime Security, BAKORKAMLA, which was created in 1971. The American Embassy has been asked by BAPPENAS to participate in the design of the new BAKORKAMLA and in the development of Maritime Security in general.

Additionally, the director of the Maritime Police Training Center invited the USG to establish a permanent office at the school, which was done shortly thereafter. Maritime Police Training Center instructors consult ICITAP Technical Advisors (TAs) on lesson plan development and instructional techniques. ICITAP TAs are assisting with a review of the entire basic curriculum for Maritime Police recruits, and new curriculum will be infused as needed. Commencing in early 2005, all instruction at the Maritime Police Training Center will be delivered using lesson plans developed with skills taught by ICITAP. Five classrooms at the Maritime Police Training Center were refurbished and outfitted, which significantly improved the teaching and learning and environment for staff and students.

FY 2006 Program

The FY 2006 Police Assistance Program for Indonesia has four central components--(1) capacity building to support the INP Maritime Police and Major Criminal Investigations Unit; (2) increase select task forces to impact environmental crimes and preserve evidence to be used in future prosecutions; (3) increasing illicit drug and contraband interdictions; and (4) the close-out phase of the Police Instructor Institute. These are ongoing programs designed to create effective, democratic, civilian-led and skilled law enforcement institutions in Indonesia. A new Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program will be implemented in FY 2006 to address the prosecutorial and judicial side of law enforcement democratization and reform. Drug Law Enforcement program will be implemented to prevent the manufacture and shipment of synthetic drugs.

Police Assistance Program: Funds will be used for POLRI technical assistance and training, including POLRI's Criminal Investigation Division's (CID) Major Crimes Unit and the Economic/Special Crimes Unit; equipment donation of evidence collection kits; technical assistance to the POLRI's environmental crimes working group or task force (police and prosecutors); training and technical assistance to judges to advance investigations and prosecutions of crimes, and enforcement of environmental laws; technical advisor to finalize the Police Instructor Project in preparation for continued POLRI sustainability and final turnover; classroom and training equipment such as computers and education materials.

Maritime Police Development Program: Funds will be used to continue to provide academy and in-service training to commanders, first-line officers, and Maritime Police trainers, and investigative equipment; the assignment of one permanent assistant project manager and intermittent technical advisors to implement training program addressing the capacity to patrol ports, harbors, and adjacent waterways.

Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program: Funds will be provided to support a Resident Legal Advisor to: draft provisions on criminal procedure procedures and evidentiary requirements to improve investigations and prosecutions; mentor prosecutors on advocacy and litigation skills; work with the Indonesian Attorney General's Office (AGO) to develop written standards for recruitment and retention of ethical prosecutors; create incentives for performance that do not compromise institutional integrity; communicate its anti-corruption efforts to the public and prospective employees.

Counternarcotics Assistance Program: Funds will be used to provide counternarcotics and forensics training, leadership and management training, and instructor training, aimed at halting the flow of illegal drugs; prevent the manufacture and shipment of synthetic drug through technical assistance on planning and operations, intelligence analysis, tactical instruction, interdiction skills training; equipment donation such as computers, and software to assist Jakarta narcotics units dismantle narcotics organizations; a Tactical Instructor Program that will train 45 police instructors to teach the principles of tactical operations; train-the-trainer support to the Interdiction Task Force to address major ports of entry (air and seaport).

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005 FY 2005
FY 2006
Police Assistance Programs - - - - 2,000
Maritime Police Project - - - - 1,375
Criminal Justice Reform Program - - - - 525
Drug Law Enforcement - - - - 500
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - 450
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - 40
ICASS Costs - - - - 80
Program Support - - - - 30
Sub-Total - - - - 600
Total - - - - 5,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005

FY 2006 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Opium poppy cultivation in Laos is reduced and the ability of the Government of Laos to deter opium poppy cultivation is maintained.

Alternative development efforts including infrastructure development projects in Phongsali, Luang Prabang and other poppy-growing provinces will provide access to markets, government services, food production and alternative income activities. Using a combination of new and pipeline funds, the Lao-American Project (LAP)/Luang Prabang will construct about 60 kilometers of basic penetration road in Viengkham district; add 15 new target villages; and construct 10 new gravity fed clean water systems. Similarly, LAP/Phongsali will implement repairs to 34 kilometers of road from Bountay to Samphanxai; expand activities to 12 new target villages; and construct nine clean water systems.

Drug addiction treatment will continue.

The LAPs will detoxify approximately 800 opium addicts. Bilateral funds will also support UNODC efforts to detoxify 2,500 opium addicts in other parts of northern Laos. Through support to public media, public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse will be increased. Lao National TV, Savannakhet TV, and Champassak TV will produce at least six drug awareness programs each, using equipment provided by the bilateral program.

Concerning amphetamine type stimulants (ATS treatment), support offered in terms of training and equipment to the ATS treatment center under construction in Savannakhet will help keep the center operable. Demand reduction education and treatment programs at national- and municipal-level drug counseling centers will continue to operate. Drug use rates will decline by about 20 percent and the number of drug users using the facilities will increase by about 15 percent. The 90-bed Savannakhet Center scheduled to open in October 2005, will treat approximately 300 ATS addicts per year, depending on the severity of the addiction.

The ability of Lao officials to detect and investigate and drug-related criminal activity will improve. Effective interaction between Lao law enforcement agencies will improve.

Training and equipment donations will augment the skills and capacity of Lao counter narcotics police. Coordination with US drug enforcement personnel improves as measured by increased information exchange between US and Lao counternarcotics authorities. Communication and coordination of investigations between Lao counter narcotics authorities and other Lao law enforcement entities increases. Lao authorities will make at least four major arrests and seizures and provide 18 seized drug samples to DEA.

Program Justification

According to U.S. estimates, in 2004 the total area under poppy cultivation in Laos decreased 53 percent to 10,000 hectares. Yields also declined significantly in 2004 - from 10.7 kilograms per hectare in 2003 to 4.9 kilograms per hectare in 2004. In addition, potential opium production decreased from about 200 metric tons to only 49 metric tons in 2004.

Opium poppy is generally grown in remote, mountainous areas largely populated by ethnic minority groups that have traditionally resisted the imposition of central authority. Laos is one of the world's least developed countries, with an almost total lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence. The few government services available in market centers are rudimentary by any standard. Human resource capacity is severely limited in all fields, including law enforcement.

In recent years, the Government of Laos (GOL) has demonstrated a newfound seriousness toward the threat of illegal drugs. Increased seizures along with greater regional cooperation, particularly with the Royal Thai Government, demonstrate a GOL willingness to address its drug problem, but GOL officials regularly readily express a need for assistance.

In terms of demand reduction, Laos has the second highest opium addiction rate in the world; UNODC estimates that over 50% of the opium poppy grown is consumed locally, with most of the remainder exported to neighboring districts and provinces in Laos. In recent years, the GOL has become increasingly sensitive to the stigma of being a global leader in opium production, and officials are alarmed by the increase availability of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). The GOL has instituted tough measures for eliminating opium production, imposing the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes, and organizing a national campaign to address the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse among Lao youth.

Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia, among other places. Laos is increasingly coming under siege by drug traffickers who can easily exploit the countries' vulnerabilities. Law enforcement capabilities in Laos are both sub-standard and under-funded: more training and better coordination - as well as increased GOL support and international cooperation - are required to be effective against the major trafficking organizations active in Laos.

INL integrated rural development projects in Luang Prabang and Phongsali provinces, major opium-producing areas, are aimed at stemming production and trafficking of illicit opium, providing market-based income alternatives for opium poppy farmers, and raising awareness of and treatment for drug addiction.

The alternative development and crop substitution project will support a range of activities aimed at providing former poppy farmers with alternative crops and access to markets to replace income from opium cultivation. The crop substitution areas funded by the U.S. Government consistently show lower levels of opium cultivation.

The Lao police remain severely ill trained, resource poor and have proven generally reluctant to share information. The law enforcement project supports specialized counternarcotics units with training and equipment. It will also support Lao Customs and the Lao National Commission for Drug Control and Supervision. The project has suspended plans to expand to all 18 provinces in Laos because of budget constraints and the need to focus on strengthening the effectiveness of those already in place.

The demand reduction project supports Lao demand reduction and drug abuse education efforts through the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and several NGOs in cooperation with the GOL. In addition, demand reduction funds are supporting the construction of an ATS treatment center in Savannakhet province.

Program Accomplishments

The U.S. conducted its own opium yield survey in 2004 and supported UNODC's field and imagery-based opium survey, which covered 388 villages and interviewed village headmen and household heads in the surveyed villages. Based on a combination of ground survey and satellite imagery, the UNODC estimated 6,600 hectares of poppy, down 75% since 1998. The U.S. estimate was 10,500 hectares. In 2004, the GOL estimated about 3,700 hectares (as of October 2004), noting that neither the USG nor the UNODC surveys take into account eradication during 2004. Also, during 2004, the GOL claimed five provinces as "opium-free." Although the scale of eradication could not be confirmed, the GOL engaged in a comprehensive, sustained eradication campaign. And while exact figures are in dispute, all parties agree that there is a sharp downward trend in poppy cultivation

Funds used in the Lao-American (LAP) integrated rural development activities in the Phongsali and Luang Prabang provinces, two of the highest poppy cultivation areas in Laos, are showing results. While still in the early stages of implementation in the relatively new LAP in Luang Prabang, results from the first light infrastructure projects (such as gravity-fed clean water systems) are positive and providing additional incentives not to cultivate opium poppy.

Despite a limited budget, in 2004, the Lao-American Project/Phongsali focused on both infrastructure, alternative development, and opium detoxification. A new 33-kilometer road has opened up new target villages. Gravity-fed water systems were constructed in seven villages; the LAP constructed two new schools, a project sub office, two town meeting sites, and a new clinic benefiting hundreds of villagers in this poppy-growing area. New crops, such as tea and galanga were harvested and village-based handicrafts established. The project purchased over 200 cattle to establish village cattle banks. With respect to opium detoxification, the LAP has successfully detoxed approximately 250 addicts, about 150 per year, and now has social programs to prevent relapse.

The Lao American Project/Luang Prabang is in its early implementation phase. Due to budget constraints, road construction was reduced, but the project still managed to construct nearly 100 kilometers of penetration road, opening up target villages to alternative development and detoxification. A community-based detoxification facility was established in 2004 and successfully detoxed over 100 opium addicts in three phases. Pilot crop substitution projects are ongoing and plans for cattle banks established. The LAP constructed (with villagers' assistance) 11 clean water systems and plans are in place for eight more.

In the first 10 months of 2004, the counternarcotics units (CNUs), which have received U.S. support, reported 221 cases, with 514 arrests. Heroin seizures jumped from three kilograms to 53; ATS seizures from 866,000 to 1.7 million. In a noteworthy case in FY 04, the Lao police seized, in cooperation with Thai counterparts, 17.7 kg of heroin and nearly one million tablets of ATS, providing encouragement that GOL law enforcement authorities are moving more aggressively on this front.

U.S. law enforcement remains hampered by restricted access and cumbersome regulations on contacts and training, though there has been some progress. In FY 2004, DEA reports improved cooperation with Lao Customs, which made several significant seizures in 2004, including 14-kilogram seizure of heroin in Bokeo province. In addition, Customs officials promptly shared information with DEA. NAS currently supports seven CNUs who have shown good or improving performance. Based on performance and strategic factors, NAS suspended assistance to three such units. Almost 400 officials from the CNUs, Customs, and other agencies have received basic officer training and specialized training at ILEA Bangkok.

FY 2006 Program

The FY 2006 program has three major components:

Alternative Development/Crop Control: USG assistance in FY 2006 will provide limited support for rural development projects in Phongsali and Luang Prabang provinces, both major poppy-growing provinces. Funding permitting, projects will continue to construct roads to maintain access to markets and government services; improve food production through provision of agricultural inputs and training; deliver medical and educational programs that target villages in poppy-growing provinces; and maintain advisors in the field to manage and oversee the project.

In LAP/Luang Prabang, FY 2006 funds will allow us to move ahead with road maintenance, implementation of gravity-fed clean water systems in our target villages, and alternative development activities such as livestock procurement and training. In LAP/Phongsaly, Phase II activities will include alternative cash crops, livestock purchases, agricultural training, rice banks, (all keys to sustainable conversion to a legitimate economy) as well as a modest amount of construction including a district school, a sub-office, and town halls for four target villages. Modest funding also will support the UNODC/GOL community-based detoxification efforts in northern Laos and GOL public awareness campaigns to prevent villages returning to poppy cultivation.

FY 2006 funds will assist the GOL to reach its target of making/maintaining Laos as essentially opium free by providing villages in the poorest areas with a licit crop and alternative to poppy cultivation. The GOL implemented an aggressive eradication campaign in pursuit of its poppy elimination goal: USG assistance is intended to build on this momentum in support of discouraging illicit crop cultivation.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: FY 2006 funds will be used to provide limited support for drug awareness programs as well as some maintenance and training at the completed ATS treatment center in Savannakhet.

Narcotics Law Enforcement: FY 2006 funds will be used to provide modest support to maintain GOL counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities and promote effective interaction with law enforcement agencies in the international community. NAS will expend funds to support equipment maintenance. Funding permitting, NAS will provide modest supplies to provincial CNU's that demonstrate good performance.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005 FY 2005
FY 2006
Narcotics Law Enforcement 100 - 100 - 50
Crop Control/Alternative Development 1,040 - 1,259 - 450
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 200 - 150 - 25
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel          388 - 315 - 315
Non-U.S. Personnel 44 - 15 - 15
ICASS Costs  113 - 120 - 120
Program Support  115 - 25 - 25
Sub-Total   660 - 475 - 475
Total 2,000 - 1,984 - 1,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improved border control at land and sea ports of entry.

A strategic plan for border control is developed and implemented. Improved detection techniques and training lead to a reduction in illegal migrants and contraband leaving Morocco; increased seizures of drugs and other contraband; increased customs revenue collection; and reduced processing time for international travelers and commercial shipments.

Enhance security and reduce crime through improved police-community relations.

Improved relations will be demonstrated by a reduction in citizen complaints of police abuse, timely response by police to citizen complaints.

Program Justification

As a moderate Muslim state, Morocco is both a victim of terrorism and a strong and committed partner of the United States in the global war on terrorism. Nevertheless Morocco has relatively weak border control systems that could be exploited by international terrorists to carry out their activities. Morocco has substantial problems with illegal migration and human smuggling, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, drug production and trafficking, and commercial smuggling owing to its long and poorly controlled border with Algeria, Mauritania, and the Spanish enclaves, its extensive coastline, and its proximity to Europe. Smuggling of commercial products and trafficking in persons could ultimately provide revenue sources to terrorists. These criminal activities serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, could lead to corruption of public officials, and weaken the Moroccan institutions that assist the U.S. on the war against terrorism.

Hundreds of thousands of illegal migrants from the Near East and Sub-Saharan Africa transit Morocco on their way to Europe. Most are simply seeking a better life, but some harbor criminal and terrorist intentions. Morocco also consistently ranks among the world's largest producers and exporters of cannabis. The value of this illegal trade is estimated at $1 billion per year.

The 2003 terrorist bombings-carried out by an indigenous group-and the arrests and prosecutions of a number of al-Qa'ida terrorists and their Moroccan accomplices in 2002 are indicative of underlying social tensions throughout the region. These tensions have the potential to overwhelm ill prepared law enforcement institutions whose mismanagement of civil unrest could deepen the chasm between Moroccans and their government, and underscore the need for programs - such as community policing - to improve relations between the government and civil society.

The Government of Morocco (GOM) continues to advance its political and economic reform agenda as it moves towards becoming a market-oriented democracy. In 2003 Morocco held free and fair local government council elections and concluded a Free Trade Agreement with the U.S. Morocco also distinguished itself as a solid partner in the fight against global terrorism. U.S. support for Morocco's political and economic transition and its continued development as a moderate, Muslim state is consistent with our National Security Strategy, strikes at the root causes of terrorism, and improves America's image with the Moroccan people.

Program Accomplishments

The U.S. has gained considerable credibility with Moroccan border enforcement agencies after a year of engagement with its Customs, Police and Gendarmerie. An initial assessment conducted by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in June 2003 led to the design and implementation of a four-phase Border Interdiction project. Phase I began with the delivery of four courses, including seaport, airport and land interdiction, at the ports of Casablanca, Nador, Tetuoan and Oujda. One hundred eight officers from Moroccan Customs, Police and the Gendarmerie received training in enforcement operations, narcotics identification and testing, interviewing/observational techniques, developing a risk targeting system, and baggage/personal/vehicle searches among others.

The Phase II Mid-Management Seminar included an exchange visit in the U.S. with 12 Moroccan Customs officials representing the three border security agencies, Customs, Police and Gendarmerie. Participants observed U.S. Customs and Border Protection activities at U.S. land, sea and airports along the U.S. southern border as well as key air and marine ports of entry. Observation included the use of body scan equipment, medical x-ray van, mobile baggage x-ray and other advanced scan technologies. Participants were also briefed on automated targeting systems and advanced passenger information systems. The visitors also received classroom instruction at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) in Georgia. The participants were senior enough in their organizations to influence decisions and initiate procedural changes within their agencies.

In Phase III, forty-eight mid- to-high level officers from the border agencies participated in an Integrity Training and Internal Controls course. Phase IV consisted of the assignment of a U.S. Customs technical advisor in March 2004 to the ports of Casablanca, Tangier, Tetuoan, and Nador. The advisor worked with the inspectors at each port to reinforce training and broaden the perspective of the participants. This technical assistance was instrumental in the discovery of 36 kg of narcotics and other seizures. The technical advisor's observations also provided a more detailed understanding of Moroccan Customs and areas of needed improvement. A second US Customs inspector conducted a 30-day technical advisory in July 2004 at the same four ports. Local officials were trained in the use of laser range finders, fiber optic scopes and Buster density readers. Three CT-30 kits, containing these tools-as well as probes and lighted inspection mirrors were procured and donated. Shortly after the departure of the technical advisor and the donation of the equipment, officials at the port of Tangier made their first seizures involving concealments in gasoline tanks using the fiber optic scopes.

FY 2006 Program

FY 2006 funding will be used to improve Morocco's capacity to control its borders, to professionalize the police, and to continue support for the pilot community police program. A resident program manager will assist in the development of a strategic plan for improving border controls that addresses systemic problems, including corruption. Training and technical assistance will be directed at Moroccan customs and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land and sea ports of entry.

Border Control: Funds will be used to provide x-ray technology and training at major seaports for container examination, specifically a mobile backscatter van to provide x-ray screening at the port of Tangier, which receives 30% of inbound cargo and the greatest amount of ferry traffic from Europe. Funds would also be used to purchase tool trucks for the ports of Nador and the ports of Tangier, and funds permitting, a permanent tool station at Tetuoan.

Police Professionalization/Border Control Training: Training will be offered at the mid-management level from the three border agencies: targeting, port security, and training methodology; training will be expanded to include the National Training Center and the K9 training center. Integrity training will be funded again this year. Training in basic inspection skills at the smaller air and seaports will be funded for rank and file officials. Modest tool donations to these ports of entry will be made in conjunction with the training. Training for border security along the Algerian and Mauritanian border will include tracker training, sensors and sensor training and monitoring devices. Funds permitting, equipment donations will include Contraband Enforcement Team Kits consisting of fiber optic scopes, laser range finders and "Buster" density readers will be purchased for three ports. The remaining funds would be used for the purchase of night vision goggle binoculars and narcotics testing kits.

Community Policing: Funds will be provided to the three communities as part of a pilot program initiated in 2004. Funds will provide for a technical advisor and limited commodity purchases.

Program Development and Support: Funds will be used to pay for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hires and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005 FY 2005
FY 2006
Border Control - - 1500 - 1,000
Law Enforcement Support Police - - - - -
     Professionalization 500 - 300
Community Policing - - 992 - 300
Sub Total - - 2,992 - 1,600
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - 250
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - 50
ICASS Costs - - - - 50
Program Support - - - - 50
Sub-Total  - - - - 400
Total - - 2,992 - 2,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Pakistani control over the border with Afghanistan and Iran is further strengthened.

Ability to monitor the 2,000-mile border with Afghanistan and Iran to interdict the passage of terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminals will be improved. Access to previously inaccessible territory and the presence of security forces will be expanded through road construction. GOP border security surveillance and interdiction capabilities will be increased through continued air support, ongoing training activities, increased mobility, intelligence sharing, and expanded communications and other equipment (e.g., surveillance equipment).

The capability of the Government of Pakistan to investigate and prevent criminal and terrorist activity is improved.

Technical assistance, training, and equipment will augment the capacity of Pakistani law enforcement and security agencies. Modern forensic and fingerprint identification methodologies will be instituted as standard procedures in criminal investigations. Institutional police reform programs will emphasize executive management skills, improved police training, infrastructure development, strategic planning, and internal controls to prevent corruption. Police reform programs will also include the provision of model policing projects and support for a national dialogue among law enforcement agencies.

The ability of the Government of Pakistan to deter and eradicate opium poppy cultivation and interdict narcotics trafficking is expanded.

Opium poppy eradication efforts will continue their expansion into non-traditional areas. Poppy cultivation will decline as alternative crop programs and road infrastructure projects expand. Demand reduction and narcotics awareness public education efforts will be expanded to prevent drug abuse.

Program Justification

Pakistan is a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism, and was named a Major Non-NATO Ally in early 2004. The Government of Pakistan (GOP) has demonstrated a commitment to combat transnational threats such as terrorism, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking. Since September 11, 2001, the GOP has taken into custody roughly 600 suspected al-Qaida and/or Taliban militants. In addition, the United States, Afghanistan, and Pakistan are working together through a Tripartite Commission to promote mutual understanding and stability in the region.

Pakistan's border with Afghanistan and Iran runs approximately 2,000 miles through rough mountainous and desert terrain that is remote, and thus provides a potential safe haven for terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals. Monitoring and maintaining control over this border has long posed a challenge for the under-equipped and under-trained Pakistani security agencies. This situation is made more serious and difficult by the massive scale of opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, arms trafficking, and continuing concerns about the movement of al-Qaida and Taliban militants into Pakistan to seek refuge and plan further terrorist acts, potentially including operations directed against U.S. interests. Commodities and infrastructure support, as well as training, already provided by the USG have improved the capabilities of agencies operating on the border, but still do not come close to meeting the requirements of these forces that collectively number more than 60,000 personnel. Ongoing assistance over a period of years, at a rate the GOP can absorb, will be necessary.

Large areas of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the border with Afghanistan are virtually inaccessible, including to law enforcement agencies. This renders frontier areas attractive to terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals who seek refuge. INL-funded rural road construction programs begun in the FATA in opium poppy growing areas a decade ago succeeded in facilitating law enforcement access for eradication and interdiction activities. At the same time, improved infrastructure opened these remote areas for legitimate commerce, counter-drug education efforts, economic development projects, and vital health and education facilities and also extended the Government's presence into the areas. The INL-funded roads are accompanied by small infrastructure projects that improve the lives of the people and help gain their support for the entry of law enforcement into these areas. This program is expanding into areas along the Afghan border where al-Qaida and Taliban militants may otherwise find safe haven. Continued road construction is needed in the tribal areas through FY07 to sufficiently open up these inaccessible areas.

Law enforcement institutions in Pakistan have been neglected for decades. This has resulted in a very weak capacity to investigate even basic crimes such as stolen vehicles much less the far more serious threats posed by terrorists and narcotics traffickers. GOP capacity to combat terrorism and other serious forms of criminality successfully requires not just an infusion of resources, but also comprehensive reform and improvements to law enforcement institutions countrywide. These reforms include better cooperation and coordination among law enforcement organizations, more focus on service to the community, and overall enhancement of technical skills, particularly for forensics.

In October 2002, Pakistan promulgated Police Order 2002, a roadmap for reform. Two boards, the National Police Management Board and the National Police Training Management Board, have been convened to oversee reform efforts and to facilitate coordination and standardization of law enforcement training, policies, and procedures across the country. Pakistan needs expert assistance and resources to implement these reforms fully. In support of this effort, INL assistance is providing leadership and management training at senior law enforcement levels in addition to furnishing training in basic and advanced criminal investigation techniques. Emphasis is placed on curriculum development, promotion of organizational change, and development of high accountability and public awareness standards.

The Federal Investigative Agency (FIA) and National Police Bureau (NPB) are spearheading the nationwide conversion to the international standard 10-print fingerprint card; 200,000 cards have been compiled to date, reaching a quantity that will allow the sharing of information with U.S. law enforcement agencies. To further institutionalize use of fingerprints for the expeditious identification of criminals, the INL program has also provided an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) that needs to be further expanded at the federal and district levels. Work also has begun on the development of a national criminal database that will link law enforcement agencies at the federal and provincial levels and enable them to share key criminal information in real time - this program also will require further expansion in 2006.

In 1990, Pakistan was a major producer of opium poppy. With assistance from the United States, Pakistan embarked on a 10-year plan to become poppy free. It essentially achieved that goal by 2000; however, due in part to massive cultivation in Afghanistan, Pakistan experienced a resurgence of opium poppy cultivation in 2002-2003. This included an expansion of cultivation into non-traditional areas along the western border in both the FATA and Balochistan. It is important that opium poppy cultivation be in the first instance contained and then eliminated as soon as possible, before its economic impact becomes too deeply rooted. Crop control efforts, including enhanced poppy monitoring, increased economic alternatives, and infrastructure projects, will decrease opium production. The GOP is committed to this effort, but lacks the resources necessary to implement effective anti-poppy efforts.

GOP seizures of narcotics, primarily heroin and hashish, are significant and increasing, but undoubtedly represent only a small fraction of what actually is transiting the country. Arrests of traffickers in the remote border areas are difficult, as traffickers generally are far better equipped than law enforcement agencies. The continued provision of vehicles, radios, and surveillance equipment as part of the Border Security Program is expanding the capacity of law enforcement agencies to monitor and interdict narcotics trafficking. Additional resources still are needed, especially as increased efforts to combat narcotics in Afghanistan will put pressure on neighboring Pakistan to stop any elements of the drug trade that try to move east across the border.

Pakistan also is combating an increasing drug addiction problem that threatens the welfare and economic stability of its society. A National Assessment of Drug Abuse in 2000 estimated 500,000 heroin addicts in Pakistan between the ages of 18 and 25. There are also concerns about a growing number of intravenous drug users. The GOP needs additional resources in demand reduction to complement its supply-side efforts.

Program Accomplishments

The Ministry of Interior's Air Wing (50th Squadron) has made remarkable progress since its establishment, with INL funding, in 2002. It currently has eight (soon to be 10) Huey II helicopters and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) night vision enhancement systems operating from Quetta, Balochistan. A forward operating base will be established in 2005 to better support operations in the tribal areas. The 50th Squadron is the only night-vision capable aviation unit in Pakistan, and has an excellent safety record. The program has trained three Frontier Corps elite Heliborne Assault Force (HAF) platoons from the Rapid Interdiction Force (RIF) as well as ANF units and is now capable of a integrated air-ground operations, deployment of both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, and night and night vision goggle operations. Throughout 2004, two or more of the Huey IIs were consistently deployed to the Wana area in support of the widely publicized operations there against al-Qaida forces. This important deployment to Wana limited the number of aircraft available to support other types of missions, particularly interdiction missions that generally required 6 aircraft (to move a platoon of forces). However, there were other successes. A major criminal figure responsible for kidnappings in Balochistan was killed by the U.S.-trained RIF and several of his cohorts were captured. A large poppy field was discovered and eradicated and several arrests were made. The Air Wing and Anti-Narcotics Force combined efforts in an air assault in Balochistan in October 2004 that netted 100 kilograms of heroin and 8 metric tons of dried opium poppy pods, demonstrating successful interagency cooperation. The Air Wing supported many other medevacs and performed critical logistics missions in support of security activities on the border, while continuing to train new personnel. Surveillance of the border improved significantly with the fixed-wing aircraft, providing useful background information, as well as mission-specific information to the border security agencies.

More than 1,100 vehicles and hundreds of pieces of communications equipment have been delivered so far to the Frontier Corps in Balochistan and the NWFP, the ANF and other agencies operating on the border. Despite security and aircraft availability limitations, fourteen border outposts were constructed in Balochistan and another thirteen are in progress; seven have been completed in the North West Frontier Province and nineteen more are underway. These resources provide border security and law enforcement personnel better access to rugged areas of the western border, and improved coordination and communication among those agencies. Training was provided to more than 950 law enforcement officials trained in criminal investigation skills and 183 on entry point security enhancement, small unit tactics, and port of entry operations in 2002-03. Over 700 officials in 2004 were trained in interviewing techniques, community policing, first response at crime scenes, criminal investigation management, victimology, and family crimes. Indicators have been positive, reflecting a 60 percent increase in operations in 2003 from 2002 for Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) Balochistan alone. Based on quantity, nationwide heroin seizures rose 224 percent in 2003 from 2002; opium seizures increased by 125 percent; and hashish seizures grew 6 percent. Sixty-three percent of the total seizures were made by the Frontier Corps and ANF personnel operating in Balochistan, which cover the major trafficking routes from Afghanistan and which have been primary beneficiaries of INL assistance. The ANF attributes its greater capacity on the border to the Border Security Program. Additional outposts are being constructed to support the placement of Frontier Corps personnel at remote border sites, with 21 border outposts completed in FY 2004.

To date, 449 kilometers of counter-narcotics roads have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies with an additional 60 kilometers underway for the Khyber. In addition, construction began for the first tranche of 17 new security roads along the Afghan border in the FATA for a total of 244 kilometers of additional border roads by the end of Phase I. In addition, over 700 small economic projects have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber Agencies and over 40 more are underway.

Training courses involving personnel from fourteen different agencies have begun to improve skills in basic criminal investigations, small unit tactics, port of entry operations, first response at crime scenes, use of continuum of force, building organizational capacity, instructor development, and executive management. INL-funded technical assistance has been provided in the development of an organization and structure for the Federal Investigation Agency Special Investigative Group (SIG), including 153 standard operating procedures (SOPs) for police management and operations. Assistance has also been provided to adapt these SOPs to Pakistan police organizations, and a Police Reform Study has been provided to the Minister of Interior and the President. Forensics assessments were conducted at Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore, and Karachi in order to better equip laboratories and train personnel, and to integrate the newly created agency, the National Forensic Sciences Agency (NFSA), which will be responsible for Pakistan's forensic laboratories. Finally, the first all-female training course was extremely well received and was attended by 100 women police officers.

GOP law enforcement agencies began using the international standard 10-print fingerprint card nationwide during the last two years; over 200,000 acceptable 10-print cards have been collected and are being entered into the AFIS system. A central fingerprint repository, a key requirement for such fingerprint database systems, was established in the Federal Investigative Agency. A steering committee has been established for the National Criminal Data Base (NCDB), which is an automated information database for use as an investigative tool for Pakistani law enforcement agencies. The NCDB will be based at the Federal Investigation Agency headquarters, and will support the processing of information about crimes. NAS laid the groundwork for the project through work with the provinces on supplemental criminal reporting systems that will provide raw data to be included in the database.

The GOP promulgated Police Order 2002, a broad framework for reform, in 2002. Public safety commissions, designed to promote community involvement in policing and police accountability to the public, were established throughout Pakistan in keeping with the Order. Discussions continued with GOP officials on furthering reform efforts, including through strategic planning. In support of building training capacities, training has so far been provided to police personnel from throughout Pakistan on leadership and management, organizational capacity, continuum of force, instructor development, and training management. In order to institutionalize change and reach a larger audience of police personnel, emphasis was placed on working with provincial and national training institutions to adopt the training curricula. Three of four provincial Police Colleges, Sihala (Punjab), Hangu (NWFP), and Shadadpur (Sindh) have integrated several USG courses into their basic course curriculum. This is significant due to the thousands of personnel they train annually.

The Government of Pakistan has made a strong commitment to combating opium poppy cultivation and improving monitoring and eradication efforts. Pakistan's example of being declared poppy free in 2001 by the UN is used as a model in promoting counter-drug efforts around the world. Cultivation of opium poppy, however, increased from a record low of 213 hectares in 2001 to 897 hectares in 2002 and 7,571 hectares in 2004; 3,145 hectares after eradication. While ground and aerial surveys demonstrated that opium poppy cultivation remained at roughly the same levels in 2003 and 2004 in the FATA, opium poppy cultivation in Balochistan and NWFP (Kohistan and Kala Dhaka) increased during this same period, spreading into non-traditional growing areas, with eradication efforts meeting little success. The GOP blames increased cultivation in Balochistan and NWFP on Afghans crossing into Pakistan to lease land or use tribal land for cultivation, as well as high opium prices. Other factors may contribute, such as inaccessibility of some areas to eradications teams, lack of economic alternatives, lack of adequate security forces to support eradication due to their deployment to counter-terrorism activities, and lack of a comprehensive opium poppy strategy and strong centralized government

Crop substitution programs, begun over a decade ago, have created a number of alternative economic opportunities. Initial reports suggest there has been a dramatic increase in the number of operations conducted against drug traffickers; for example, the Anti-Narcotics Force in Balochistan conducted 128 operations in 2003, as compared to 78 in 2002. DEA is working closely with the Anti-Narcotics Force's vetted unit, the Special Investigative Cell, to better enable it to disrupt and dismantle trafficking organizations. The Anti-Narcotics Force was granted permission to appeal the verdicts of two high-profile cases of concern (Manj and Notazai). A border coordination cell was created in Quetta to integrate information, planning, and operations among Pakistani agencies involved in counter-narcotics activities. This coordination will allow the Anti-Narcotics Force and the Frontier Corps to share information and cooperate on investigations. Pakistan participated for the first time in the Paris Pact expert meetings under the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Vienna in October 2004 and will host a Paris Pact expert roundtable in Islamabad in early 2005, underscoring its interest in working in a multilateral context to counter narcotics production and trafficking. With assistance from UNODC, Pakistan is also part of an Intergovernmental Technical Committee with Iran and Afghanistan to block the flow of drugs across borders. Pakistan is also part of the Tripartite Commission's counter-narcotics working group, composed of senior diplomatic and military representatives from Afghanistan and the United States to increase cooperation between Commission members and offer a forum for the in-depth exchange of views on topics of mutual concern, including security of the regions between Pakistan and Afghanistan and counter-terrorism efforts. Additionally, efforts are underway to engage Gulf countries to design a regional strategy.

FY 2006 Program

The FY 2006 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years, particularly since 9/11. The program also includes program development and support (PD&S) funds.

Border Security Program: FY 2006 funds will be used to build on the successful implementation of commodity support (vehicles, communications equipment, surveillance equipment), training, and technical assistance that was started with FY 2001 ERF Supplemental funding. The Border Security Program supports and expands law enforcement capacity to secure the western frontier against terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminal elements. Beneficiaries include the Ministry of Interior, Anti-Narcotics Force, Frontier Corps - Balochistan and NWFP, Federal Investigation Agency, Coast Guard, Customs, and Home Departments.

Funds will be used to continue construction of border security roads in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), a program begun with FY 2002 and FY 2003 Supplemental funds to facilitate the entry of security forces into inaccessible areas. Resources will also support the construction of small-scale infrastructure projects, such as dug wells and mini-hydroelectric schemes that accompany the road projects to secure community buy-in.

Funds will be used to provide ongoing maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, which includes three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft and eight Huey II helicopters that are based at Quetta, Balochistan province. Two additional helicopters will arrive in 2005. These aircraft permit monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug and other contraband traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas. Funds will also support operations at the Forward Operating Base that will become operational in 2005 to facilitate operations in the tribal areas.

Finally, funds will be used to support operations of a border security coordination center in Quetta. The purpose of the center is to integrate ground units, initially the Frontier Corps and the Anti-Narcotics Force, with the Ministry of Interior air wing assets to share information and coordinate operations.

Law Enforcement Program:Funds will be used to further enhance law enforcement capacities and to encourage more effective law enforcement cooperation within the Government of Pakistan, as well as with the United States and other countries. Funds will be used to continue providing training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills and forensics capacities, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Resources will also be used for police reorganization efforts, to include technical assistance, training, and executive travel to observe modern and progressive law enforcement organizations in the United States. Funds will also be used to support continuing and expanding community policing and professional standards pilot projects through training, technical assistance, and equipment. Funds will be used to continue the police leadership institute program at the National Police Academy for superintendent-level personnel, the police supervision academy curriculum at the Police College level for inspector training, and training facility upgrades at the National Police Academy, Police Colleges, and Police Training Centers to accommodate proficiency skills training.

Funds will continue to support implementation of the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) at the district level, expand multi-work stations where demand warrants, and link federal and major provincial penal institutions. Funds will be used to install the National Criminal Data Base (NCDB) at the district levels to provide access to law enforcement agencies, improving investigative skills and cooperation. Funds will be used for the continued enhancement of criminal investigation capabilities, including training and equipment for forensics labs.

Counter-narcotics Program: Funds will be used to support the construction of roads in opium poppy growing areas, particularly the non-traditional areas like Kohistan and Kala Dhaka where poppy only recently has been grown, to facilitate poppy monitoring and eradication, as well as provide economic alternatives through farm-to-market access and opportunities for development projects. This will include small water schemes to improve the economic potential of newly accessible areas and encourage the cultivation of high-value crops and intensive farming. Funds also will be used to introduce alternative crops, such as off-season tomatoes, particularly in the non-traditional areas.

Finally, funds will give operational support to law enforcement agencies, particularly the Anti-Narcotics Force. This support includes funding for the aerial poppy surveys, the poppy eradication effort, and demand reduction activities.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005 FY 2005
FY 2006
Border Security Program
FATA Road Projects - - 8,000 - 6,705
Aviation 23,500 - 12,000 - 13,000
Infrastructure/Commodities - - 4,902 - 6,000
Training/Training Materials - - 303 - -
GOP Interagency Coordination - - - - 50
Sub Total 23,500 - 25,205 - 25,755
Law Enforcement/Judicial System
Law Enforcement Reform 5,619 - 1,000 - 5,000
National Criminal Data/AFIS - - 2,000 - 1,000
Sub Total 5,619 - 3,000 - 6,000
Counternarcotics Program 1,500 - 2,700 - 7,000
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 268 - 350 - 350
Non-U.S. Personnel 98 - 150 - 150
ICASS Costs 301 - 380 - 380
Program Support 214 - 365 - 365
Sub-Total 881 - 1,245 - 1,245
Total 31,500 - 32,150 - 40,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) will develop an effective civilian-led police force.

Training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Philippine National Police (PNP). Training and technical assistance provided to the rank and file members will help improve the PNP's criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force.

The Philippine criminal justice system will be strengthened to successfully address transnational organized crime.

A forensic document laboratory and forensic document historical library to track terrorists, combat alien smuggling and prevent document fraud will be established and equipped; a national automated fingerprint identification system and criminal database will be established; and improved police-prosecutorial working relationships will be demonstrated through the establishment of joint task forces leading to successful case collaboration.

Program Justification

The Philippines is a strategic ally and one of the region's most important partners in the Global War on Terror. Enhancing the capacities of the law enforcement and criminal justice systems remains a top priority and is central to strengthening mutual security.

Philippine law enforcement suffers from a lack of resources and professionalism, low capacity and ineffectiveness, corruption, and widespread behavior inconsistent with the rule of law. The result is a criminal justice system with minimal legitimacy that paves the way for the excesses of local political strongmen, former separatists turned bandits, traditional warlords, and militias.

Problems in the broader Philippine criminal justice system that provide fertile ground for transnational criminal activity and terrorism need to be addressed by a long-term, comprehensive program of training and technical assistance in areas such as drafting laws, rules and regulations concerning criminal law and procedure; developing sustainable training programs; facilitating interagency and police-prosecutor cooperation; devising judicial administration and case management systems; and developing task force capability.

An FY 2003 assessment focused on Southern Philippines law enforcement in Basilan and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), conducted by INL and the United States Department of Justice's International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and the Office of Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training (OPDAT), revealed a variety of serious deficiencies within the criminal justice system. It also concluded that the public has little trust in law enforcement and recognizes the existence of corruption. Adding to this erosion of public confidence is the perception that the police engage in human rights abuses.

In the southern Philippines and throughout the ARMM these problems are exacerbated by an unstable and volatile struggle between insurgents, criminal/kidnapping gangs and terrorists intent on disrupting the government. Additionally, many law enforcement officers lack basic investigatory skills, particularly with regard to evidence collection and handling; and reliance on confessions that are often obtained extra-judicially. They also suffer from a lack of fully trained leadership, particularly at the first-line and mid-level manager level. An ineffective working relationship with the prosecutor's office is another key weakness.

Cooperation received from the PNP leadership and INL program momentum and successes realized to date in the challenging southern area of the Philippines must be expanded into a more far reaching program of institutional development of both the PNP at the central level and the Philippine criminal justice system. A comprehensive assistance program is necessary to achieve long term and sustainable results. Addressing PNP's weaknesses at the central level will maximize efforts undertaken in the southern Philippines. The program will further enable the PNP to increase its competencies and capabilities in order to become a fully functional partner with other entities of the Philippine criminal justice system, and a stronger and effective partner with other international law enforcement entities, particularly U.S. law enforcement agencies.

Program Accomplishments

In September 2003, a law enforcement training and technical assistance program was launched to focus primarily on Basilan and the ARMM, based on the assessment conducted by INL, ICITAP and OPDAT. Phase I of this program has focused primarily on the delivery of training courses in fundamental police tasks. Emphasis was also placed on providing training in the areas of contemporary police supervision. Due to security concerns, the majority of these courses were conducted in the Metro Manila area; however several iterations were held in Cebu and Davao to facilitate maximum participation by supervisors assigned to the ARMM. Over half of the trainees attending the supervisory development classes were chiefs of police assigned to police commanders within the ARMM. It is anticipated that these leaders will actively support the continued development of investigators and personnel assigned to their stations by applying the leadership and investigative skills they learned.

A significant element of all the training provided has been an intensive instructor development component aimed at creating "train-the-trainer" capabilities that will strengthen institutional capacities through replication and sustainability. Lessons plans used for all of the courses were provided to the PNP and graduates of the instructor development courses were subsequently used to deliver the courses.. The PNP has adopted the course lesson plans and integrated them into their existing investigative training curricula. This will guarantee the perpetuation of the skills as they are taught to future classes.

The Public Relations and Media Course presented to PNP Commanders has become a requisite training course for all graduates of the PNP Academy before they are assigned to the field. To date, over 300 personnel have attended this course. This training has resulted in a more professional interaction between the PNP commanders and the media. Previously, many commanders simply refused to speak to the press or avoided attempting to develop a working relationship. This training has had a positive impact on the development of improved media relations.

The USG funded Crime Scene Courses have trained and equipped nearly 200 criminal investigators in the identification, preservation and collection of crime scene evidence. These investigators have returned to their respective station houses to utilize these skills to help investigate and solve a wide variety of crimes. These lesson plans have also been adopted by the PNP and made a permanent part of the PNP's investigative training curricula.

Overall to date, 1,270 police officers and supervisors have been trained by the USG in the various courses offered. Students have included members of the PNP Criminal Investigation Unit, Forensics Unit, Crime Laboratory Unit, Special Action Force (Special Forces), Maritime Group, Airport Security Group, Public Safety College Staff and Regional Academy Staff of the PNP.

In 2003 , funding was provided to FBI Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) to assist the GOP with the establishment of an automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) that would meet international standards. The initial FBI assessment resulted in the provision to FBI of over 200 prints of suspected terrorists, including one print that matched an active case in the U.S. The project was conducted on a train-the trainer-basis and included training in basic fingerprint classification, and the lifting of latent prints at crime scenes. Fingerprint kits, latent kits, magnifiers and cameras were donated.

FY 2006 Program

The three major components to the FY 2006 program are Law Enforcement Support, Administration of Justice and Counter-narcotics. During FY 2005, a comprehensive organizational assessment of the Philippine National Police (PNP) is planned to identify and prioritize key institutional weaknesses and shortcomings of the organization to determine the overall capacity and organizational effectiveness. Input and active participation by Post's law enforcement attaches, and possibly subject area experts from their agencies, is envisioned. A portion of this assessment will be devoted to analyzing the working relationship that exists between the PNP and the prosecutors of the Attorney General's Office.

Law Enforcement Support: FY 2006 funds will be used for training and technical assistance to support new initiatives throughout the PNP that improve organizational structure, culture, and operational practices, particularly as they relate to personnel staffing and deployment, leadership and management, and community engagement. Funds will be used to strengthen law enforcement management, investigatory skills, education capacity, and curriculum relevancy.

Funding will also provide for continuation of the fingerprinting (AFIS) project and forensic document facilities, specifically training and equipment such as fingerprint identification kits, fingerprint booking stations, scanners, digital cameras, and a file server for the storage of prints. The AFIS when completed will conform to U.S. technological standards, ensuring interoperability, and real-time access by U.S. law enforcement personnel.

Administration of Justice: The effectiveness of law enforcement's working relationship with the prosecutors of the Secretary of Justice's Office is an important component of FY 2006 funding. The FY 2006 program is designed to improve police-prosecutor cooperation to better manage crime scenes, preserve evidence and bring criminals to justice. The strengthening of the working relationship between police and prosecutors through the implementation of policies and procedures -- that will require the police to consult with prosecutors during investigations -- will further establish corruption-fighting mechanisms, and initiate improvements in judicial administration and criminal case management. Funding will used to provide technical assistance, training, equipment and commodities such as crime scene kits.

Counternarcotics: Funding for this project will provide technical assistance, training and equipment for the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency. Specialized courses in criminal investigation and prosecution of drug crimes and management will be provided. Funds permitting limited equipment, such as drug identification kits will be provided.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005 FY 2005
FY 2006
Law Enforcement Support 1127 - 2,993 - 1,000
Administration of Justice 800 - 300 - 350
Counternarcotics - - 75 - 150
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - 450 - 350
Non-U.S. Personnel 54 - 75 - 75
ICASS Costs 15 - 70 - 70
Program Support 4 - 5 - 5
Sub-Total 73 - 600 - 500
Total 2,000 - 3,968 - 2,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Regional law enforcement cooperation will be enhanced leading to more effective coordination with countries in the region on efforts to prevent narcotics trafficking (including drug trafficking, terrorism, trafficking in persons, and other crimes).

Border liaison offices will increase their joint investigations and information sharing. Thai and Lao authorities will increase cooperation to disrupt trafficking along the Mekong River as demonstrated by increased seizures of illicit goods and/or drugs on the border.

Curricula and procedures for promoting public ethics, transparency and internal oversight will be established to enable government institutions within the justice system to reduce tolerance for public corruption and to investigate and prosecute public corruption cases.

A comprehensive training program of comparative ethics for members of the judiciary, lawyers and prosecutors to prevent, or identify and punish, public corruption, and to promote integrity among public officials are developed and implemented.

Program Justification

Thailand is at the center of a wide variety of transnational crime, including trafficking in narcotics, weapons and persons, conducted by terrorist and other criminal organizations. Thailand has achieved significant success in its comprehensive, long-term strategy against illegal drug abuse, trafficking and production. However, its criminal laws, criminal justice institutions, and regulatory and investigative capabilities need improvement to respond effectively to transnational and organized crime in the 21st century, and the corrosive problem of public corruption further seriously impairs those institutions.

The Royal Thai Government (RTG) considers illegal drug trafficking and abuse as one of its most serious national security problems. The use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) poses serious public health and social problems, and requires modification and expansion of demand reduction programs that were originally tailored for heroin abuse. A national campaign in 2003 to suppress the drug trade had some success, but was also criticized for human rights abuses, and its long-term impact remains unclear. Thailand is a leader in programs for prevention and treatment of drug abuse. Its effort to reduce and eliminate opium poppy cultivation and heroin production is one of the most successful in the world. U.S. drug control assistance to Thailand dates to the 1970's, but is being gradually phased out in recognition of the success against opium production and evolving patterns of international drug smuggling. After decades on the list of major narcotics producing and trafficking countries, Thailand was removed from the list for the first time in September 2004.

The RTG is making a systematic effort to review its criminal justice system, and to develop and implement new or modified substantive and procedural criminal laws, procedures and practices that respond appropriately to organized and transnational crime, and implement obligations of the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Drug Trafficking, the 2000 Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC), and the 2003 Convention Against Corruption.

Thailand is a leader in international cooperation against drugs and transnational crime. It has agreements for cooperation with the U.S., its neighbors and others, and takes a leading role in regional and multilateral drug and crime control organizations. Under a bilateral agreement concluded in 1998, the RTG and USG jointly operate the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Bangkok, which has provided training to over 4,000 law enforcement officials from Southeast Asia and China.

As traditional forms of U.S. counter narcotics assistance are reduced, "value-added" assistance in fighting corruption and other areas will continue to be crucial elements in Thailand's efforts to reform and modernize law enforcement institutions.

Program Accomplishments

INL-funded programs support a wide range of activities that have resulted in tangible accomplishments. For the sixth consecutive year, the opium poppy crop in 2003 remained below 1,000 hectares. Thailand's evolution from a major source country for opium to a net importer of heroin constitutes a significant strategic success and was a factor in removing Thailand from the list of major narcotics producing or trafficking countries in 2004.

With U.S. support and encouragement, Thailand is in the process of amending many of its basic narcotics and other substantive and procedural criminal laws. During 2004, Thailand employed new legal authorities authorizing use of wiretap evidence in drug investigations and allowing reduction of sentences for convicted drug offenders who cooperate with prosecutors and investigators. Legislation on plea-bargaining in criminal cases, controlled deliveries, establishment of a witness protection program and other improvements in substantive and procedural criminal law remain under active discussion and consideration by various Thai legal institutions and Parliament. Thailand signed the UN Convention Against Corruption, and the Thai Criminal Law Institute expanded its ongoing review of criminal laws to include that Convention. The RTG became a party to the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism convention after Foreign Minister Surakiart submitted the instrument of ratification at the UNGA on September 29, 2004.

Law enforcement investigations using INL assistance have led to significant arrests, seizures, and prosecutions of Thai and non-Thai traffickers. However, in response to reports of police involvement in unexplained killings of drug suspects during the government's anti-drug campaign at the beginning of 2003, INL suspended most forms of counter narcotics assistance to the Thai Provincial Police. That suspension remains in place pending investigations of the killings, including prosecution of anyone found responsible for wrongful extra-judicial killings. (No FY 2006 funds will be provided to Provincial Police absent such investigations; reduced levels of drug law enforcement funding will support counter narcotics efforts by other Thai agencies.)

In 2003, the Supreme Court's special political corruption chamber convicted Khun Rakkiat, Sukanya, a politically prominent former Minister of Health in the late 1990's, of accepting bribes. This was the first time a former minister has been convicted on corruption charges. Khun Rakkiat absconded before he could be sentenced. However, he was captured in Bangkok in September 2004 and is currently serving a 15-year sentence for corruption.

On May 24, 2004, Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and U.S. Ambassador Darryl Johnson presided over the dedication of the new permanent ILEA office/training academy facility on land made available by the Thai government. During 2004, the ILEA curriculum included drug and other law enforcement training, with many courses now addressing law enforcement measures relating to terrorism. In 2004, ILEA trained approximately 659 law enforcement officers and supervisors.

Thailand continues to play a leading regional role in counter narcotics and fighting other transnational criminal threats. The RTG has cooperated with China, Burma, and others on significant drug investigations, resulting in numerous seizures of significant quantities of heroin and methamphetamine tablets. Thailand participated in several regional conferences on the suppression of precursor chemicals in 2004. Thailand has encouraged China and India to take stronger action to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals used to manufacture methamphetamine. Thailand increased counternarcotics cooperation with Burma, and continued its pilot alternative development projects in Burma, based on its own successful experience. Thailand plays a leading role in the UN-sponsored ACCORD plan of action designed to promote regional cooperation on drug and crime control efforts. Thailand also continued to demonstrate regional and international leadership in law enforcement affairs, including the Government-funded and hosted regional drug law enforcement training courses in 2004 and a global conference on alternative development in December 2004, which was attended and supported by members of the Thai Royal Family.

The enhanced campaign against drug trafficking and sale during 2004 was accompanied by an intensified RTG effort to disseminate public awareness and prevention messages, and to expand substance abuse treatment availability to addicts or abusers who need it. In September 2004, the substance abuse academic network held the second national conference on substance abuse in Khon Kaen.

FY 2006 Program

The FY 2006 program is divided into two general categories: (1) Drug (and Customs) Law Enforcement, and (2) Measures Against Corruption.

As described below, the Drug (and Customs) Law Enforcement project will work on border security and regional cooperation in fighting drug trafficking. The "Measures Against Corruption Project," begun in 2003, addresses an issue underlying all INL efforts in Thailand. All projects build on longstanding counternarcotics cooperation projects while emphasizing institutional development and reform. All projects are thoroughly coordinated with relevant RTG agencies and the Mission's Law Enforcement Working Group.

Drug Law Enforcement: FY 2006 funds for this project will provide technical assistance, training, equipment and operational support to RTG institutions responsible for enforcement of laws against the production, smuggling, trafficking and sale of illicit drugs. It includes support for the RTG Special Investigative Units (SIUs), which cooperate directly with DEA and are funded by monies transferred to State/INL by DEA. It will include continued support for efforts to impede maritime trafficking, both on the high seas and particularly on the Mekong River. This project will also include Laos as a cooperating partner to enhance further bilateral cooperation. During this period, several major drug trafficking organizations will be substantially disrupted by arrests by RTG authorities and law enforcement cooperation between Lao and Thai authorities.

Measures Against Corruption: Corruption is the most difficult and durable problem faced by Thailand's entire law enforcement and criminal justice system. It is well entrenched and pervasive at every level. However, the government has declared war against corruption and has begun to implement measures to prevent, or to investigate and punish, involvement in corrupt activities by "influential persons" and officials. Early measures taken include a multi-agency agreement to pool resources in corruption investigations and an agreement between the Anti-Money Laundering Office (AMLO) and the National Counter Corruption Commission (NCCC) to expedite asset seizure procedures for politicians and officials found guilty of corruption. A project begun in FY2005 will be undertaken with the American Bar Association in conjunction with a wide variety of Thai legal institutions. The project is designed to improve understanding of ethics regimes by each of the three components of the justice system - judiciary, lawyers and prosecutors, to develop solutions to judicial misconduct and support training and education on ethics. A U.S. Supreme Court Justice and, depending on funding resources, other senior judges from the U.S. will participate in a seminar(s) on judicial ethics as part of the program.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005 FY 2005
FY 2006
Crime Control and Criminal Justice
Criminal Justice Sector - - - - -
Development 125 308
Measures Against Money
Laundering 50 - - - -
Sub Total 175 - 308 - -
Drug Control Assistance
Drug (and Customs) Law - - - - -
Enforcement 705 - 273 - 125
Crop Control/Alternative
Development 353 - 100 - -
Regional Narcotics Control 59 - 50 - -
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 176 - 100 - -
Sub Total 1,293 - 523 - 125
Measures Against Corruption - - 100 - 225
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 237 - 275 - 300
Non-U.S. Personnel 66 - 90 - 115
ICASS Costs 131 - 178 - 135
Program Support 98 - 134 - 100
Sub-Total 532 - 677 - 650
Total 2,000 - 1,608 - 1,000