Andean Counterdrug Initiative

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2005 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2004


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Estimated

FY 2005 Request




Program Objectives and Measures of Effectiveness


The production and export of coca and cocaine products from Bolivia is significantly reduced through eradication of illicit coca, increased interdiction, and the more robust economic growth in the Chapare and the Yungas regions.

Steady support for and the build up of the number of personnel under the Vice Ministry for Social Defense will continue to ensure coca cultivation in the Chapare and prevent the zone from returning as a major drug producing area.

A bilateral strategy to reduce excess/illicit coca cultivation in the Yungas, and control the legal coca market through licensing and prevention of diversion to drug production, will be implemented through completion of the DIGECO project.

Conversion of UH-1H helicopters to Huey IIs will also increase the effectiveness of these aircraft, although with a temporary decrease in operating hours.

Infrastructure improvement for bases of operations, increased purchases of humvees for additional eradication and interdiction operations and improved inspection and detection will head off an increasing influx of drug and precursor chemical trafficking activity resulting from the implementation of Plan Colombia and changing smuggling routes.

Improved and enhanced GOB capabilities will result in an increase in the volume of seizures of illegal drugs, precursor, and assets of traffickers.


In the face of opposition from entrenched cocaleros, programs are designed to establish strong economic and social systems that provide incentives and alternatives to the production and consumption of illicit drugs.

Through farming technology transfer, grants and training, viable, licit employment and income-earning alternatives will be created for approximately 30,000 families (5,000 additional families in FY 2005) that have previously grown coca in the Chapare. By the end of FY 2005, approximately 140,000-hectares will be planted with licit crops. Annual farm family income of USAID-supported families will have increased to US$2,400 and crop yields will have increased about 25% in the last two years.

Improvements to the availability of water, sanitation, electricity, education, health care, and roads for those towns not planting coca will provide market access in the Yungas.

The awareness of the local populace to the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking to Bolivia's economy and society will be increased.


Establishing stronger democratic and governmental presence will promote democracy and the rule of law in remote areas.

Assistance to municipalities including planning advice, assistance for participatory democracy and a stronger judicial presence will strengthen the presence of local government in remote areas.


The Government of Bolivia (GOB) develops stronger, more effective democratic judicial and law enforcement institutions capable of disrupting criminal organizations and the narcotics production and trafficking in Bolivia.

Training will increase the efficiency of prosecutors in the field to implement the Code of Criminal Procedures resulting in increased arrests of major drug traffickers and other persons with controlled substances.

The number of cases completed in the criminal courts within the legally prescribed time periods will increase.

Establishment of a reformed Directorate of Professional Responsibility will enhance transparency in the judicial system for National Police Force.

Training and equipment will increase the effectiveness of the Financial Investigations Unit within the Superintendency of Banks resulting in less money laundering in the country.

Program Justification

Bolivia remains the world's third largest producer of cocaine. Although a continuing, strong, forced eradication program reduced the area of coca cultivation in the once infamous Chapare valley by 15% in 2003, there was an increase of 26% in Yungas plantings, which resulted in an increase of 17% in overall cultivation. Although only 4,050 hectares, this increase, left unchecked, could lead to Bolivia's return to the high levels of production that were the hallmark of the mid-1990s.

Recently, Bolivia has become an increasingly important transshipment zone for Peruvian cocaine en route to Brazil and other Southern Cone countries. Even with USG-supported enhancement and growth of the GOB's interdiction forces, large areas of the country, particularly in the Chapare, northern Beni-Pando region and along waterways and borders, are not sufficiently covered. Vital to the control of excess and illicit coca cultivation in the Yungas will be an enhanced interdiction capability and a total revamping of the General Directorate for the Legal Trade of Coca (DIGECO, the governing body charged with regulating the sale of licit coca used by the indigenous population).

In October 2003, the Carlos Mesa government was inaugurated following the resignation of President Sanchez de Lozada, which was provoked by massive social/political protests in Bolivia. It faces critical challenges from a strong, radical and often violent opposition, a portion of which is led by militant cocalero leader Evo Morales, who wants to stop coca eradication and alternative development projects. Although the new administration has remained committed to long-standing GOB CN policies, FY 2005 could bring significant reversals in Bolivia's counternarcotics achievements if the GOB yields to pressures to make major concessions to coca farmer organizations. The FY 2005 budget request reflects a level of support needed to strengthen counternarcotics operations in the Chapare and the Yungas regions and in the border areas that are the crossing points for smuggling drugs and precursor chemicals. Increased violence -- directed against eradication, interdiction, and alternative development personnel and projects in the Chapare and Yungas in 2003 -- highlights the need to increase manpower and resources in these volatile regions. The most urgent funding need is to upgrade Bolivia's aging 16 Huey 1H helicopters. 2005 country funding and airwing funding will not cover this need. This will necessitate reprogramming of funding for some long-standing NAS Bolivia programs in order to begin upgrading of at least three helicopters to ensure operational continuity and accident-prevention.

Bolivia remains one of the poorest countries in the hemisphere with a per capita GNP of less than $1,000. Recent economic and fiscal reversals have left the government in one of its worst fiscal situations in recent years, with no viable options for improvement in the near to mid future. Without solid USG assistance, Bolivia will be unable to continue counternarcotics and alternative development programs.

Program Accomplishments

Bolivia continues to keep up an effective forced eradication program in the Chapare, and eliminated approximately 10,000 hectares of coca during 2003. The Special Drug Police (FELCN) and its operational units grew by 15% during 2003 (from 1,700 personnel in 2002 to 1,953 in 2003). FELCN continued its multi-year base construction plan, adding 3 large new bases in Guayaramerin, Riberalta and Yucumo, and expanding 10 other bases and offices throughout the country. Without counting Yucumo, NAS engineers completed a total of 32 construction projects during 2003. The two largest projects during 2004 will be a large CN police base in Locotal and expanded facilities at the Garras CN training school (both in Cochabamba department). During 2003, a major record-setting year, the GOB seized 101.5-metric tons (mt) of illicit coca leaf, 12.7-mt of cocaine (5.9-mt of HCl plus 6.8-mt of base), 8.5-mt of cannabis, 537,454 liters of liquid precursor chemicals and 536.8-mt of solid precursor chemicals, in addition to destroying 1,420 cocaine labs and making 3,823 drug arrests. These figures represent a 153 % increase in total cocaine seizures compared to 2002; a 259% increase in seizures of solid precursor chemicals; a 127 % increase in seizures of liquid precursors; a 25% increase in base labs destroyed; and an 18% increase in persons detained.

The Yungas is now the largest coca growing area in Bolivia, where topography and history argue against replicating the successful Chapare forced eradication strategy. The challenge will be to implement interdiction mechanisms to limit illicit coca cultivation in the Yungas and prevent traditional coca from diversion to cocaine production.

In response to increasing demands from Chapare farmers who had all of their coca eradicated, USAID accelerated alternative development activities -- to increase business and farmer investments, improve roads, increase technology transfer, strengthen local level organizations, privatize the production and marketing of planting material, and update state-owned research facilities. With steady progress, the licit crop cultivation in the Chapare has risen to over 129,000 hectares, and since 1998 over 26,000 Chapare families have received direct technical assistance. Annual family income from licit agricultural products in the Chapare increased from $2,055 in 2001 to $2,138 in 2002.

FY 2005 Program

In FY 2005, INL resources will support Bolivian efforts to reduce the growth and export of coca in Bolivia, increase interdiction of essential chemicals and cocaine products, foster alternative economic development, increase successful prosecutions of narcotics related cases, and improve the quality of investigations into alleged narco-related human rights violations. Counternarcotics alternative development support is conditioned on the elimination of illegal coca through forcible means (in the Chapare where all coca is illegal) and voluntary agreements (in the Yungas where Bolivian law allows up to 12,000 hectares of legal coca cultivation for traditional domestic use).

There are twenty-seven counternarcotics programs in Bolivia for which INL provides funding and support. These projects can be grouped into four areas: Narcotics Law Enforcement Interdiction /Eradication Operations; Alternative Development/Economic Incentives; Institution Building/Rule of Law; and Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. In addition, funding will also be used for Program Development and Support costs.


Ground Operations Support: Ground Operations projects support all non-air interdiction efforts that operate under the direction of the Vice Ministry for Social Defense. In FY 2005, INL will need to continue to assume operational mission costs to maintain the high level of interdiction for FELCN, and its subunit UMOPAR, support other CN missions, plus support the costs of maintenance for the physical infrastructure growth that occurred in recent years. There will be continued steady personnel growth for all sub-units to allow for increased coca control and interdiction efforts in the Chapare, Yungas, border areas, and principal trafficking routes. The size and effectiveness of chemical and financial investigative units will be increased as they take on broader and more complex responsibilities. The Special Intelligence and Operations Group and K-9 programs will be completing their major growth plans, and will concentrate on enhancing capacities and increasing self-sufficiency. The Office of Professional Responsibility will grow in FY 2005 to address the high level of corruption in the GOB, renewed efforts by narcotraffickers to compromise counternarcotics forces, and any allegations of human rights abuses. It will also extend its mission to cover the larger National Police Force. A recommissioned vetted and effective Seized Assets office will be completed in FY 2005, with the office moving to provide resources for CN work. The Controlled Substance Prosecutors, a branch of the Attorney General's office that prosecutes drug crimes, will receive enhanced support in FY 2005 so more prosecutors can join counternarcotics police units in raids and arrests, as required by the new criminal procedure code.

Air Operations Support: The Red Devils Task Force is comprised of Bolivian Air Force personnel who provide general aviation support for eradication and interdiction with 16 aging UH-1H helicopters, and six light fixed wing aircraft. The Black Devils Task Force, also made up of Bolivian Air Force personnel, flies three C-130B aircraft in support of counternarcotics and eradication missions. Enhanced interdiction and eradication operations will necessitate additional funding for these units in FY 2005. However, the lack of additional INL Air Wing funding to begin the required conversion of the UH-1H helicopters to Huey IIs may require cuts in funding of the key long-standing NAS Bolivia programs. This is absolutely essential so that INL can begin the critical upgrades for the helicopters in FY 2005 - and for bare-bones maintenance of existing air assets.

Blue Devils Task Force: The Bolivian Navy Riverine unit patrols the country's extensive river system to interdict drug and precursor chemical trafficking, as well as to provide intelligence and logistical support to other counternarcotics units. The repair and expansion of aging land support bases (including the riverine training school), begun in FY 2004, will be completed in FY 2005 along with replacement of antiquated equipment and modest personnel increase.

Green Devils Task Force: This project provides logistical ground transportation support to Bolivia's eradication and interdiction forces through the transport of personnel, cargo, support equipment, fuel and rations. To accomplish these CN missions, FY 2005 funding will support 120 sophisticated, specialized vehicles, including 5,000 gallon fuel tankers, 5 ton tractors, 5 ton dump trucks, 2 1/2 ton trucks, 26 Homes, and an additional 20 trucks expected to arrive in 2004. An additional 30 humvees will also be added in FY 2005 due to increased eradication and interdiction operations.

Eradication Operations: The Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF) consists of 1,625 military, police and civilian personnel; one-half of the force provides security for the other half, which engages in coca eradication operations. Support includes food, billeting, field equipment, transportation and fuel. The Ecological Police identify new coca and seedbeds as well as provide additional security for the JTF. The Office of Agricultural Reconversion and Coca Crop Substitution (DIRECO) have a staff of agronomists, surveyors and field agents who negotiate coca eradication agreements and supervise the destruction of coca fields. The General Directorate for the Legal Trade of Coca (DIGECO) controls the licensing, transportation, pricing and marketing for licit coca grown in the Yungas region, where the Bolivian law allows up to 12,000 hectares of coca cultivation. In FY 2005, INL expects to fund the restructuring of this previously corrupt and inefficient office, begun in FY 2002 by vetting new personnel, providing needed training and revising standard operating procedures.

Field Support and Infrastructure: The Field Support and Infrastructure project provides assistance for administrative requirements of the Vice Ministry for Social Defense (which implements all GOB counternarcotics policies and programs), and the Garras School (which is the principal training center for the FELCN and has become an international CN police training center for other Latin American countries.) The Garras School is key to the success of GOB counternarcotics operations. Bolivia's large and diverse geography requires decentralized operations. This project therefore provides operating expenses for all NAS facilities located outside of La Paz, including rents and utilities for NAS field offices, vehicles and vehicle maintenance facilities and warehouses in Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Trinidad, Chimore, and Villa Tunari.


Alternative Development: In the Chapare, USAID will continue funding technology transfer, extension services, and grants coupled with extensive training to improve the competitiveness of fresh and processed licit products in domestic and export markets. In FY 2005, twenty associated producer organizations and businesses are expected to double their sales volume. USAID-financed local road maintenance associations will maintain a quarter of Chapare roads, critical to economic and social development. USAID will assist municipalities, strengthen participatory democracy and help ensure their annual plans respond to the needs of farm communities. At least three local producers' organizations will "graduate" from such GOB assistance. 10,000 land titles will be delivered to farmers, and a capacity to register and maintain cadastral information will be established in some municipalities. An integrated justice center will be established to improve citizen access to justice, law enforcement, and human rights.

In the Yungas USAID will fund improved infrastructure to communities that engage in coca reduction and pledge not to plant additional coca. The Yungas Development Initiative will continue efforts to increase participation. Endemic diseases like leishmaniasis and tuberculosis will be a primary focus of health activities. Continued support will be provided to university scholarship students. USAID will increase production, sales and market access for selected licit crops, including trees. It also will support the adoption of improved harvest and post-harvest technologies for coffee and tea. Low-cost forestry and agro-forestry practices will improve soil fertility, increase crop yields and promote sustainable use of forest resources.


Administration of Justice: FY 2005 funds will provide assistance in three critical areas: consolidating the transition to the new Code of Criminal Procedures and strengthening the judicial sector; implementing programs to expand access to justice and promote dispute resolution in rural areas most affected by violence and social conflict; and implementing anti-corruption programs.

Prosecutors: This project will develop the ability of the Office of the Bolivian Attorney General to prosecute drug-related crimes successfully. Progress will be measured, for example, in terms of: increasing the number and efficiency of prosecutors working in the Controlled Substances Prosecutors program; and training prosecutors on the new Code of Criminal Procedures.

Law Enforcement Development Program: This training project will develop the ability of Bolivian police and prosecutors to investigate and prosecute narcotics-related and other major crimes, as well as to enhance the ability of the government to attain secure borders.

Office of Professional Responsibility: Here the aim is to build a robust capacity to investigate and sanction police misconduct and to promote a culture supporting ethical law enforcement and rule of law. FY 2005 funds will increase the number of investigations and formally establish a reformed Directorate of Professional Responsibility for National Police Force.

Secure Border: Funding for this project will help the GOB improve effectiveness of entities that are responsible for maintaining "secure borders," including the Financial Investigations Unit within the Superintendency of Banks and the Directorate General for Migration. A special effort will be made with regard to trafficking in persons. FY 2005 funding will help the GOB develop a strategy and implementing tactics to address these inter-related issues.


Bolivia has a relatively small problem with drug abuse, which can be attacked before it becomes a crisis. Drug Awareness and Demand Reduction projects will help prevent the local market from being further fed by Bolivian crack and cocaine, as well as help to boost the USG public image. This project will increase public understanding of domestic Bolivian drug abuse and its toll on society. The Mesa administration correctly wants to increase attention to what it accurately sees as a growing problem.


PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2003 FY 2003
FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Ground Operations Support 12,890 - 12,890 - 13,743
GIAF, K9, Garras Training
Center, FELCN, OPR,
Commo, LEDP, SecBorders,
Air Operations Support 10,464 - 10,464 - 14,074
Black Devils, UH-IH
Blue Devils Task Force 1,587 - 1,587 - 989
Green Devils Task Force 1,762 - 1,762 - 1,803
Field Support and Infrastructure 4,555 - 4,555 - 3,460
Seized Assets 400 - 400 - 705
Controlled Substance Prosecutors 1,302 - 1,302 - 1,590
Sub Total 32,960 - 32,960 - 36,364
Eradication Operations
DIEGO, DIRECO, Eco Police, JTF 12,017 - 12,008 - 8,112
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 830 - 830 - 1,224
Administration of Justice * 3,500 - 3,376 - 3,500
Alternative Development * 38,227 - 38,376 - 38,500
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 781 - 830 - 606
Non-U.S. Personnel 922 - 980 - 1,084
ICASS Costs 500 - 530 - 761
Program Support 990 - 1,110 - 849
Sub-Total 3,193 - 3,450 - 3,300
Total 90,727 - 91,000 - 91,000
*  Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.


Budget Summary ($000)

FY03 Actual

FY04 Estimate

FY05 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Support to the Government of Brazil (GOB) will disrupt major trafficking organizations, increase interdiction activities and better control precursor chemicals by improving the capabilities of the Federal Police.

Training and equipment grants to Brazilian Federal Police will enhance port and airport security.

An increased and more effective GOB presence in the Amazon region will result in more riverine patrols and increased interdiction results.

Establishing and training a mobile fluvial counternarcotics center will support the Amazonian Surveillance System leading to increased successful interdiction operations.

The Government of Brazil (GOB) will disrupt several major trafficking organizations, increase interdiction activities and better control precursor chemicals by improving the capabilities of the various state police forces.

Better federal/state cooperation on anti-drug issues will produce increased combined operations and greater arrests.

The Brazilian criminal justice system will investigate and successfully prosecute significant drug traffickers and money launderers, reduce money laundering and dismantle international criminal organizations.

Strengthened communications improved counternarcotics skills and training in investigative techniques will increase arrests and prosecutions for money laundering crimes.

Improvements in the GOB's anti-money laundering regulatory apparatus will continue.

Increased public awareness of the dangers of drug trafficking and drug abuse will deter the rising problem of consumption of licit drugs.

Public support for law enforcement efforts increases as drug awareness programs deliver their message.

Support to local treatment and education facilities will result in a decline to rates of drug abuse.

Program Justification

Brazil shares its borders with Peru, Bolivia and Colombia, the three major drug source countries in the region. The sparsely populated Amazon region comprises more than one half of the country, which has long, porous borders. Brazil has a well-developed communications infrastructure and banking system that, together with major international airports and seaports, makes it a desirable transit route for illicit narcotics bound for the U.S. and European markets. These factors, coupled with increasingly successful enforcement efforts in neighboring countries, contribute to a growing drug transit problem in Brazil. The GOB has been particularly concerned about the security of the Amazon since the implementation of Plan Colombia.

In response to these concerns, Brazil implemented Operation COBRA in 2000 and Operation PEBRA and VEBRA in 2003. This activity is part of an ambitious inter-agency effort that allocates greater resources to the Colombian, Peruvian, and Bolivian border area to enhance border security and illegal narcotics control. USG counternarcotics support to Brazil, which has more than doubled since FY 2000, is largely assistance for Operation COBRA/PEBRA/VEBRA and the Federal Police (PF).

Program Accomplishments

Recent USG counternarcotics efforts in Brazil have resulted in material improvement in the performance and operation of GOB counterdrug law enforcement agencies and the implementation of cooperative initiatives to reduce both the supply of, and the demand for, illicit drugs. In eight states of the Amazon region, the INL projects provided basic law enforcement equipment to state civil police, while continuing support for Operation COBRA, including the operation of nine forward operating bases. In addition, INL funding allowed for the start-up of Project PEBRA and Project VEBRA in September 2003. During 2003, all of Brazil's 26 states and one federal district joined the Unified Public Safety System (SUSP), a national system to integrate diverse state civil and militarized police forces. In future years SUSP, which through the National Public Safety Secretariat receives INL funding, will assist the GOB in ensuring a unified approach to law enforcement and statistical crime and narcotics seizures reporting. In addition, during 2003 INL financing enabled the National Public Safety Secretariat and the National Anti-drug Secretariat (SENAD) to expand Drug Abuse and Resistance Education (DARE) programs to all 26 states and the federal district. Finally, with INL funding, SENAD is operating a toll-free drug information number, which provides callers with needed facts about the consequences of illicit drug use.

FY 2005 Program

Increased resources requested for Brazil will support projects designed to combat the continuing threat of cross-border narcotics trafficking, particularly from Colombia, consistent with the Administration's objectives for the Andean Counter-drug Initiative. INL resources will also reinforce Brazilian efforts to combat money laundering and promote effective public awareness/demand reduction programs.

Narcotics Law Enforcement: Funding for this project will be used to provide operational support and equipment to the Brazilian Federal Police to conduct more effective investigations and interdiction operations against specific international narcotics cartel leaders and their associates. In addition, the project will continue to build on training already provided by INL and other USG agencies to enhance port and airport security, and to counter narcotics trafficking activities such as arms trafficking and money laundering. Progress toward achievement of the project's goal of enhancing operations and interdiction will be measured in terms of increased effectiveness of investigative techniques.

Northern Brazil Law Enforcement: This project will continue to provide operational support to Brazil's interagency Project COBRA, which is aimed at fortifying the northern border through riverine control linked to a tactical command center in Tabatinga. Progress towards achievement of the project's goal of drug interdiction will be measured in terms of the deployment of material and personnel resources to operating locations in the Amazon as well as the actual performance of both these operation locations and the command center.

State Security Law Enforcement: This project will assist the counternarcotics activities of the Brazilian National Public Safety Secretariat and promote improved coordination of counternarcotics activities within Brazil's law enforcement community by providing equipment and training to Brazilian state, civil and military police forces. The project may include counternarcotics training for community-oriented police forces, and assistance in the implementation of a witness protection program. The specific goal of the project will be to enhance the effectiveness of the Brazilian state civil and militarized police in the areas of investigation, interdiction, and anti-trafficking operations, as well as to implement a formal witness protection program. Progress toward achievement of the project's goal of enhancing operations and interdiction will be measured in terms of increased effectiveness of state police investigations.

Fluvial Counternarcotics Operation Center: This project will provide the Brazilian Federal Police with riverine and maritime platforms for counterdrug surveillance and interdiction that will be integrated into the Brazilian Amazonian Surveillance System network. The Project centers on constructing and equipping of a fluvial mobile Counternarcotics center and will also provide operational support and training. The specific goal of the project will be to interdict the trafficking of illicit drugs on Brazil's rivers and coastal waters. Progress toward that goal will be measured in terms of the number/frequency of successful interdiction operations.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: The recognition of the seriousness of the increase in drug use in Brazil, particularly among young people, has led to the passage of drug legislation that emphasizes demand reduction. In FY 2004 the Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction project will continue support for demand reduction programs through SENAD, focusing on drug education. The goal of this project is to increase public awareness of the drug problem in Brazil and enhance the capacity of the GOB to reduce the demand for illegal drugs. INL will seek to build public support for counternarcotics efforts by providing grants to individual state drug councils, federal and state government agencies, university educational research and treatment groups, and private organizations and youth programs. Progress will be measured in terms of the capacity of Brazilian organizations to provide effective demand reduction programs and any changes in the public's drug consumption patterns.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will provide necessary resources for salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2003 FY 2003
FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Narcotics Law Enforcement 2,000 - 3,780 - 3,000
Northern Brazil Law Enforcement 2,080 - 4,500 - 2,500
State Security Law Enforcement 1,000 - 1,000 - 1,000
Fluvial Counternarcotics Operations
Center - - - - 1,500
Sub Total 5,080 9,280 8,000
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 500 - 500 - 500
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 166 - 166 - 178
Non-U.S. Personnel 44 - 44 - 77
ICASS Costs 90 - 90 - 106
Program Support 120 - 120 - 139
Sub-Total 420 - 420 - 500
Total 6,000 - 10,200 - 9,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request





1Includes $ 93.0 million in FY 2003 Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds (FY 2003 FOAA, PL 108-7) transferred and merged in to the ACI account to help the Colombian Military defend the Cano-Limon pipeline against sabotage by illegal armed groups.
2Includes $20.0 million from FY 2003 supplemental FMF funds (PL 108-11) transferred and merged in to the ACI account in support of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators


The cultivation of coca leaf and opium poppy is reduced to a minimal level.

All remaining Colombian coca and opium poppy will be sprayed. Successful reduction of concentrated cultivation requires intensified spraying to counteract smaller, or more dispersed fields.

Manipulation of illicit crop growers' cost/benefit analysis through forced eradication and alternative development will restrain cultivation: replanting in traditional areas will decrease, as will the spread of cultivation into new zones.

The capability of the Government of Colombia to disrupt and dismantle major drug trafficking organizations and prevent their resurgence is strengthened.

INL-supported aircraft and units will be used to successfully capture and bring to justice high-level drug trafficking figures.

Despite an increasingly dangerous counternarcotics aviation environment, INL-supported COLAR and CNP aircraft will maintain mission capable rates.

The cocaine and heroin processing industries are disrupted and the diversion of licit chemicals into illicit channels is significantly reduced.

A mobile, active CD Brigade and support for increased DIRAN presence in remote Eastern, Southern and Western zones will increase range and effectiveness in destroying cocaine and heroin labs.

Support for CNP and COLMIL interdiction units and increased security presence at Colombian seaports, airports, and highways will support the continued high rates of interdiction of processed drugs and precursor chemicals.


The Government of Colombia capability to establish the rule of law throughout its territory, reducing the numbers of illegal armed groups, is greatly enhanced.

Construction of new police facilities, formation of additional carabinero and municipal units, and support for human rights investigative units will sustain presence of permanent police in municipalities where CNP presence was reestablished in 2003.

Additional legal assistance offices and oral trial courtrooms will be set up. An effective human rights early warning system will continue to monitor human rights and provide early warning of problems.


Expanded alternative development projects and social and infrastructure projects increase legal economic opportunities to former small field coca growers and to vulnerable groups.

Alternative development projects will increase the number of families assisted, jobs created, and legal crops supported in areas that extend beyond southern Colombia, where appropriate.

Program Justification

Colombia continues to be the dominant supplier (some 90%) of cocaine sold in the U.S. and a leading supplier to European markets. Colombia is also a major source of heroin in the U.S., particularly in eastern cities. Besides being a producer of raw materials for cocaine and heroin, Colombia is a major manufacturer of refined drugs as well as the home and headquarters of major trafficking criminal and narco-terrorist organizations. INL funding supports Government of Colombia's (GOC's) continuing efforts to counter the huge illegal narcotics industry and the threat it poses to Colombia's democracy and its economy (as well as that of its neighbors), and to the security, health, and well being of U.S. citizens.

The funding requested in FY 2005 will build upon the successes of the Plan Colombia Supplemental of 2000 and subsequent Andean Counterdrug Initiative programs. Our specific goals are to pursue vigorous eradication and interdiction efforts that will disrupt and destroy the production and transport of drugs destined for U.S. and other markets; promote alternative development designed to provide legal, viable, economic options to farmers and others in the illegal drug trade; reestablish government control and the rule of law in conflict areas; assist in the institutionalization and professionalization of Colombian counterdrug entities to improve their effectiveness and capabilities while enhancing the respect for basic human rights; and ameliorate the suffering of citizens adversely affected by violence associated with the illegal drug trade.

Program Accomplishments

In 2003, the aerial eradication program improved upon the record levels of spraying accomplished in 2002. The U.S. government estimates that spraying reduced the Colombian coca crop by 21 percent in 2003 to 113,850 hectares. This is the second straight year of a double-digit coca decline in Colombia and a 33 percent reduction from the peak growing year of 2001. Aircraft sprayed 127,000 hectares of coca through the year in the face of an increasingly hostile security environment (ground fire impacts doubled in 2003). In addition, 3,830 hectares of opium poppy were eradicated in 2003 (2,821 sprayed and 1,009 hectares manually eradicated). Opium eradication built on the 25 percent reduction during 2002 and further reduced the Colombian poppy crop by more than 10 percent in 2003 to an estimated total of 4,400 hectares.

Colombian interdiction programs continued to attack the heart of drug production. The Colombian Army (COLAR) Counterdrug (CD) Brigade destroyed 16 cocaine-processing laboratories and over 948 cocaine base laboratories while seizing 4.2 metric tons of cocaine. The CD Brigade also provided valuable mobile ground support for aerial eradication, an increasingly vital mission as sustained high spray levels are straining the drug industry. The Colombian National Police (CNP) Directorate of Anti-Narcotics (DIRAN) destroyed 86 cocaine-processing laboratories, over 300 cocaine base laboratories, and seized over 37 metric tons of cocaine and over 13 metric tons of coca-base.

In 2003, U.S. funds assisted over1.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and over1,170 ex-combatant children. The Early Warning System, created in 2001 by Plan Colombia to prevent massacres and forced displacement, issued 234 alerts that resulted in over 177 GOC responses. Twenty-eight oral trial courtrooms have been constructed with U.S. financing to support the modernization of the justice system, increase access to legal services, and help Colombia's transition from an inquisitorial to an accusatorial system of justice. An additional eleven justice houses were completed in 2003 bringing the total number of justice houses established with USAID assistance to 33 as of September 30, 2003. These 33 justice houses have enabled the Colombian judicial system to handle an additional 1.9 million cases. Colombian extraditions to the U.S. increased 70 percent in 2003: the GOC extradited 68 fugitives (64 Colombian nationals and 4 others) to the U.S. in CY2003, compared with 40 fugitives (37 Colombian nationals and 3 others) extradited to the U.S. in CY2002.

USAID-supported expanded alternative development programs initially concentrated during 2001 in the southern departments of Putumayo and Caqueta into northern and western Colombia. As of September 30, 2003, cumulative results for the alternative development program reported that over 31,000 families had been assisted, and more than 38,500 hectares of licit crops had been established. In addition, USAID assisted local community groups with construction of 630 social and productive infrastructure projects. These results were achieved in spite of formidable security threats and a lack of viable economic infrastructure in many areas. The GOC and USG plan to continue alternative development during FY 2004 and will expand upon successes achieved to date. The program will continue to work with communities to establish coca-free zones and require up-front, manual eradication of illicit crops (or agreement not to plant illicit crops) as a requirement for participation in the program. USAID assistance will support projects that create jobs for ex-coca producers and will focus on activities that increase family income, private sector partnerships, agribusiness promotion, and the development of relevant infrastructure. The program will continue to target areas both in and beyond southern Colombia where illicit crops are currently grown and where there is potential to increase legal economic activities.

Through another program, INL supported the reestablishment of a Colombian National Police presence in areas of conflict. With U.S. training and equipment, the CNP established a police presence in county seats of almost every one of the 158 municipalities that lacked any public security at the start of the year. This program directly helped to markedly reduce homicides, massacres, attacks on civilian populations, and internally displaced peoples in Colombia and is key to all of our institution building and alternative development programs.

FY 2005 Program

Our counternarcotics programs in Colombia will build upon the historic successes of 2003 and 2004 and help President Uribe break the back of narco-terrorism in FY 2005 and consolidate the gains his Administration has made in this area. Aviation costs associated with eradication and interdiction will increase as drug cultivation is dispersed into smaller, more isolated fields. Also current assets will be used to wage an intensified battle against narcotics trafficking and terrorism.

Interdiction and Eradication

Colombian Army Aviation Support: This funding provides fuel, spare parts, repair and maintenance costs for the current stock of 71 helicopters (32 UH-1N's, 14 UH-60's, and 25 Huey II's) that provide essential airlift capacity for operations against high value narco-terrorist targets. FY 2005 funds will also support helicopters in the infrastructure security project in Arauca. COLAR support includes training crews and providing aviation infrastructure support. The FY 2005 increase comes from the expected growth in missions, area of operations, and number of vetted units receiving U.S. support. The strategic focus will be to increase the COLAR's ability to target high-value narco-terrorist leadership by using aggressive, smaller, more mobile units. This shift will require sustained higher levels of helicopter airlift support.

Colombian Army (COLAR) Counterdrug (CD) Mobile Brigade: Funding for this project will provide ongoing logistical and operations support to the First COLAR CD Brigade in support of its mission to conduct interdiction operations against high-value narco-terrorist targets and support eradication missions. The CD Brigade was retrained and retooled so that it can expand its interdiction against high-value targets and its support of aerial eradication outside southern Colombia in 2003. That has required the purchase of additional military equipment and ammunition, as well as contributions to upgrade selected forward operating locations, general maintenance, and repair costs for this vital unit.

Colombian National Police (CNP) Aviation Support: Funding for CNP Aviation Support assists CNP Air Service (ARAVI) helicopters, which serve as transport aircraft and eradication escorts, and ARAVI fixed-wing aircraft that move cargo and troops and conduct intelligence operations. It currently supports 59 rotary-wing and 23 fixed-wing ARAVI aircraft; by FY 2005 these numbers will increase to 62 and 24 respectively. Major purchases include: additional aircraft for support, transport, and intelligence gathering; operation and maintenance costs; training for CNP personnel; and upgrading existing aircraft. Funding will also be used to purchase spare parts, tools, maintenance labor, ammunition, training, communications support and aviation-related infrastructure costs. Aggressive spraying in 2003 and 2004 should offset replanting and new cultivation, and by 2005 the program should be entering a "maintenance spraying" phase. Nonetheless, field dispersal, smaller fields, and aircraft range limitations will diminish efficiency and keep eradication flight hours high.

CNP Support for Eradication: Funding will provide for operations and maintenance for the current stock of eradication aircraft: spray aircraft, escort helicopters, imagery gathering aircraft, and heavy transport aircraft. These funds will purchase additional Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) and camera platform aircraft, and will also be used to buy the glyphosate and surfactant used for eradication. INL expects more dispersed cultivation, as noted above, which will raise transport costs for both fuel and herbicide.

CNP Support for Interdiction: These funds support non-aviation CNP anti-narcotics directorate (DIRAN) activities, including training and equipping DIRAN's 20 operational companies and three airmobile interdiction companies (Junglas). Equipment and training will also support road interdiction operations. Funding will cover all DIRAN training costs in Colombia and in U.S. Military and commercial training institutions. It will also upgrade existing DIRAN interdiction facilities and construct new transitory facilities, especially along Colombia's eastern, southern and western zones so that DIRAN can project force into those remote, but critical areas. For the Port Security program, funding will provide equipment and training for port and police personnel plus polygraph testing. For the Airport Security program, INL will: purchase small equipment; fund operational expenses and machine maintenance costs; training costs of new anti-narcotics police assigned to the airports, and re-certification costs of canines and handlers.

CNP Administrative Support: The focus here will be on new base construction, munitions and arms, upgrading of security and equipment, and establishment of interoperable communications and information systems.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Alternative Development and Institution Building

The first three programs, Support for Democracy, Alternative Development, and Support to Vulnerable Groups, are carried out by USAID. Programs under the "Public Security Assistance" heading are carried out by INL and the U.S Department of Justice.

Support for Democracy (USAID): These are divided into five interrelated components: protecting and promoting human rights; modernizing the criminal justice system; strengthening local governance; increasing government transparency and accountability; and supporting public and private sector peace initiatives. Project activities in 2005 will assist the GOC to establish the last two Justice Houses and the last two Oral Trial courtrooms envisioned under Plan Colombia in 2000. The Justice Houses are expected to resolve an additional 695,000 cases in 2005. Assistance will be given to offices of an additional 20 human rights or labor organizations that are targets for potential human rights abuses, and to an additional 1,000 threatened individuals. USAID will continue strengthening the Early Warning System to prevent massacres and forced displacements while promoting respect for human rights. The Peace Activities Program will continue to support the High Peace Commissioner's office in negotiations related to potential peace settlements and, if approved, help in the reintegration of ex-combatants.

Alternative Development (USAID): These funds will be used to increase legal economic opportunities for small producers of coca and poppy as an alternative to illicit cultivation. The funding will support four principal activities: licit employment and economic opportunities; private and public national and local institutions; rural infrastructure; and the management of natural resources and the environment. Projects include: introducing and promoting alternative legal crops and other economic activity in areas of illicit cultivation, developing local and international markets for these products, providing technical assistance and training to improve economic capabilities and efficiency, and building or rehabilitating roads, bridges, electric power grids, schools, health clinics, potable water and sewage systems in remote regions of the country to generate new jobs and improve access to basic services.

Support to Vulnerable Groups (AID): These funds will support programs that provide economic and social opportunities to vulnerable groups, particularly internally displaced persons (IDP). USAID will assist no less than 170,000 IDPs in areas of credit, micro-enterprise, vocational training, job placement, health care, social and psychological counseling, shelter and housing, income generation, increased access to education and improved/expanded basic community infrastructure (such as water and sewage systems, centers for conflict resolution, etc.) and institutional strengthening. By providing viable employment options and improved living conditions, the program discourages families from taking up cultivation of illicit crops. Working with a municipal focus, the program runs more than 400 projects in 27 departments and 200 municipalities throughout the country. USAID will provide technical assistance to serve at least 350 former child combatants and other vulnerable children. The program is prepared to serve a vastly expanded number of children in the event there is a mass demobilization of illegal armed groups.

USAID Operating Expenses: This is the annual operating expense budget for USAID/Colombia. It covers ICASS costs, general administrative and operating expenses as well as salaries, benefits and allowances for Foreign Service National (FSN) and contract employees that manage or support alternative development and related USAID activities.

Promote the Rule of Law (INL AND DOJ). These funds will enhance the GOC capacity to address crime and to institutionalize the rule of law throughout its territory. The Reestablish Public Security in Conflict Zones program will expand the CNP presence in conflict zones so that the GOC can provide the social and economic benefits of democracy to all Colombians. Funds will be used to organize, train and equip follow-on municipal police units to be stationed in new areas. Funding will also be used to organize, train and equip 150-man, mobile "Carabineros" (rural police) squadrons. Equipment purchases will include field equipment, weapons and munitions, communications/command and control systems, medical supplies, force protection upgrades, vehicles, and operational logistics support. U.S. funds will also be used to construct hardened police stations in the larger municipalities to provide cover for reinserted units in particularly conflicted areas. Other rule of law programs will train and equip CNP bomb squads; assist in prison reform; support GOC counternarcotics organizations. Support for the Culture of Lawfulness program will promote long-term change in societal attitudes towards the law through school-based programs in Bogot´┐Ż and Medellin and expand these programs into police and military academies. U.S. DOJ Judicial Reform Programs include support for Human Rights Units to provide training, equipment, and operational funds for existing and projected human rights investigative units as well as maintenance and expansion of the forensic system; Prosecutor/Investigator Training and Technical Assistance to train and assist Colombian prosecutors and police investigators to implement the new criminal procedure code. Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering projects will enhance asset management and tracking; and Code Reform projects will prepare officials for implementation of the new criminal procedure code and development of GOC justice sector organizations.

INL Budget

FY 2003 FY 2003
FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005
Support to the Colombia Military
Army Counterdrug Mobile Brigade 6,300 - 5,000 - 5,000
Army Aviation Support 128,750 - 147,304 - 149,485
Air Bridge Denial Program 8,000 - 7,121 - -
Navy Maritime Interdiction Support 1,000 - - - -
Intelligence, Surveillance and Recon. - 20,000 - - -
Cano-Limon Pipeline 93,000 - - - -
Sub-Total 144,050 20,000 159,425 - 154,485
Support to Colombian National Police
Aviation Support 62,260 - 60,338 - 80,500
Support for Eradication 48,727 15,000 44,185 - 47,515
Support for Interdiction 20,963 - 40,973 - 22,000
Administrative Support 2,000 - 2,000 - 1,500
Sub-Total 133,950 15,000 147,496 - 151,515
Support to PRM
Support to Population, Refugees,
and migration groups/IDPs 3,500 - 5,000 - -
Sub-Total 3,500 - 5,000 - -
Promote Social & Economic Progress
Support for Democracy * 24,000 - 24,000 - 24,000
Alternative Development * 60,200 - 59,845 - 60,200
Support for Vulnerable Groups/IDP * 38,000 - 37,634 - 38,000
Sub Total 122,200 - 121,479 - 122,200
Promote the Rule of Law
Special Financial Investigations Unit 500 - - - -
Bomb Squad/Explosive Database
Center 1,000 7,000 500 - 800
Prison Security/Drug Rehabilitation
Training - 500 - -
Ministry of Defense Human
Rights Reform 1,000 - - - -
Treasury Program Support 2,000 - - - -
Judicial Reforms Program 7,500 - 7,500 - 6,000
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 500 - 250 - 200
Culture of Lawfulness Program 500 - 250 - 400
Presidential Security 7,000 - - -
Reestablish Public Security in
Conflict Zones 10,500 5,000 13,800 - 20,400
Sub-Total 23,500 19,000 22,800 27,800
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 1,825 - 2,000 - 2,200
Non-U.S. Personnel 1,464 - 1,500 - 1,500
ICASS Costs 805 - 1,000 - 1,000
Program Support 1,906 - 2,300 - 2,300
Sub-Total 6,000 - 6,800 - 7,000
Total 526,200 54,000 463,000 - 463,000
$93.0 million of FMF program funds appropriated under the FY 2003 FOAA (PL 108-7) was transferred and merged in to the ACI account $20.0 million of FMF funds appropriated under the FY 2003 Wartime Supplemental Act (PL 108-111) was transferred and merged in to the ACI account.
*   Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators


Enhanced Ecuadorian National Police, criminal justice system and military forces efforts and improving cooperation disrupt the transiting of drugs through Ecuador from neighboring countries.

Additional counternarcotics police along frequently used or newly emergent trafficking routes create choke points and improve interdiction results.

Provision of additional coastal surveillance equipment, communications gear and training improve interdiction operations by the Ecuadorian navy in the country's coastal waters.

International trafficking in drugs, persons, and other illicit goods are disrupted and criminal organizations dismantled.

Improvements in mobility, communications and technical operations will enable increased drug seizures by the counternarcotics Police Directorate Port and Canine Operations.


Government presence along Ecuador's northern border is enhanced such that incursions from Colombia's narcoterrorists diminish.


Improvement in law enforcement and judicial capabilities will upgrade government institutions in order for them to better combat drug and other organized crime.

Training of police units and new counternarcotics personnel in advanced interdiction methods, conduct of joint operations and maximization of intelligence will increase interdictions and arrests.

Additional police personnel will be hired and trained.

Judicial sector training will maximize the implementation of money laundering and precursor chemical controls resulting in increased prosecutions for violations.


Improvement in economic/social infrastructure will decrease demand for illicit drugs in Ecuador.

Support to the demand reduction programs of the GOE will increase their use and improve their results.

Public education campaigns will promote the war on drugs among the Ecuadorian people resulting in stronger feelings against illicit drug crops and lessened resistance to US policies.

Public infrastructure improvements will increase access to markets for licit crops and improve competitiveness of indigenous industries.

Program Justification

Ecuador is a major transit country for drugs and precursor chemicals. Armed violence on the Colombian side of Ecuador's northern border renders interdiction especially difficult on the Ecuadorian side. As drug eradication and interdiction programs in neighboring Colombia continue to expand, insurgent groups that control the Colombian drug crop cultivation regions increasingly affect Ecuador. The security situation along Ecuador's northern border, most notably in Sucumbios province where most of Ecuador's oil wealth is located, has continued to deteriorate due to increased Colombian guerrilla, paramilitary and criminal activity, as well as increasing social unrest fueled by chronic and increasingly high levels of poverty. Cocaine and heroin enter and transit the country primarily by land, but exit the country via commercial containers. Ecuadorian counternarcotics police, with help from the USG, continue efforts to enhance port inspection facilities and to improve drug-detecting technology in ports and airports. Cocaine seizures in 2003 were approximately six metric tons, compared to approximately nine metric tons in 2002. Similarly, heroin seizures decreased from approximately 334 kilograms in 2002 to 270 kilograms in 2003. Joint police/military operations located and destroyed about 5,400 cultivated coca plants in scattered locations along the northern border in 2003. The new Code of Criminal Procedures, promulgated in 2001, has caused confusion as police, prosecutors and judges struggle to agree on how it should be implemented. The USG and other donors are working closely with Ecuadorian law enforcement and judicial authorities to clarify the situation. When fully implemented, this code will strengthen the criminal justice system and speed up the process by converting to oral trial procedures.

Ecuadorian alternative development efforts are focused on economic and social development programs along the northern border that are "preventative" rather than "alternative" development, since illicit crop cultivation is not currently significant in the area, but is a major problem in the adjacent coca-cultivating Putumayo region of Colombia. Attention to alternative development will assist the vulnerable population in the northern border areas by strengthening its licit economic base and community infrastructure, thereby building public support for local democratic institutions and enabling the community to better resist the pressures of criminal elements and the illicit coca/cocaine economy.

Program Accomplishments

In 2003, Ecuadorian army units along the northern border were provided with tactical radio communications, computers, field supplies and ground vehicles, including 100 Humvees and 51 heavy trucks. Resources were provided to the Ecuadorian Navy for expanded patrol and interdiction operations on Ecuador's northwestern coast. Support to Ecuador's army and navy is strengthening Ecuador's northern border and its ability to control of movement of goods and persons through ports. Military-police cooperation in joint missions on the northern border continued to improve. Army and police forces in the northern border area interdicted a large volume of illicit precursor chemicals en route to Colombia. Drug seizures have not increased, but the presence and increasing mobility of Government of Ecuador (GOE) military and police has presented a strong deterrent to any further criminal expansion.

A major police counternarcotics base in Sucumbios Province (northeastern Ecuador) was completed in April, with another under construction in San Lorenzo, Esmeraldas Province (northwestern Ecuador). Having police bases in these locations makes it possible to maintain police presence and counternarcotics operations in vulnerable areas on sites significant to the movement of drugs. Two additional bases, in north-central and southwestern Ecuador, were in the design phase. Facilities for the police's intelligence unit were expanded. Port cargo inspection facilities in Guayaquil were renovated and new facilities in Manta are nearing completion. Guayaquil and Manta, in that order, are the two busiest ports in Ecuador, through which most shipping, licit and illicit, takes place. Well-functioning cargo facilities serve to strengthen control of the movement of goods and persons through ports, although drug seizures have remained small. A port cargo inspection facility was being designed for Puerto Bolivia, Machala, in southern Ecuador.

Program security assistance has provided training to improve military and police professionalism and capabilities while reinforcing the principles of civilian rule and human rights. The Port Security project's U.S. Customs (DHS/ICE) advisor in Guayaquil continued to improve the police's investigative and search techniques, and kept the police coastal units attentive to law enforcement priorities. This activity has made some advances in police professionalization, although much more needs to be done.

The northern border area alternative development projects progressed rapidly. Among the most notable achievements to date have been the construction of over 30 potable water systems; the provision of water systems in two temporary shelters for displaced Colombians; construction of several sewer systems to northern border localities; significant land titling initiatives for farmers; and sustained support for Afro-Ecuadorian and indigenous communities along the northern border.

FY 2005 Program

Interdiction and Eradication

Police Operations: Funds will support the Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA) port and canine operations; acquisition of law enforcement and communications equipment; vehicle acquisition, maintenance, repair and operational costs; and the cost of providing a port advisor from the U.S. Customs Service (DHS/ICE).

Military Coastal Control: Continuation and expansion of the coastal control project is intended to further develop a national coastal surveillance system and provide additional interdiction capability in the form of surveillance, communications and interdiction equipment and training, which will enable the Ecuadorian Navy to observe and analyze coastal maritime activity to detect vessels engaged in illicit activities, and to more effectively patrol coasts and estuaries with limited vessels as a deterrent to illicit activities.

Police Facilities Construction: Funding will support expansion of police presence and counternarcotics operations in sensitive locations inadequately protected against narcotics trafficking. The FY 2005 project will continue the expansion of interdiction facilities with an integrated checkpoint and possibly a helicopter facility at Santo Domingo de los Colorados, and will renovate Ecuador's largest and most active counternarcotics police provincial headquarters, in Pichincha. The project is intended to increase the numbers of counternarcotics police stationed in the target areas, to continually maintain 30- to 40-member units at key interdiction points, including remote outlying sites.

Police and Judicial Training: With 150 new DNA personnel annually being added through 2006, the need for basic and advanced training continues, emphasizing ground and airborne field operations, intelligence methods, and cargo and personnel inspection techniques, with military co-trained with police where appropriate. The project will also extend and refine training in implementation of the new Code of Criminal Procedures, working particularly with the National Commission on Judicial Reform, established in 2003.

Money Laundering and Chemical Control: Ecuador is a major drug transit country with a dollar based economy and weak banking controls; the country also produces chemical precursors and is a transit corridor for diverted chemicals. In FY 2005, the project will provide training and equipment to assist the GOE as it establishes new financial investigation and chemical control units and the enforcement units that will form from these.

Drug Awareness/Public Diplomacy: This project will counter misunderstandings and disinformation in the Ecuadorian public regarding USG policies and activities and the true nature of the drug, terrorism and other transnational challenges by providing informational materials, sponsoring travel to view USG counternarcotics projects and activities, and funding guest speakers. The project will also give direct support to drug awareness projects operated by the GOE.

Program Development and Support: PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anti-crime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Alternative Development and Institution Building

Northern Border Development: The goal of this project, administered by USAID, is to constrain the spread of the illegal narcotics activities into Ecuador by assisting the GOE to strengthen state presence and community structures in the North, generally supporting and expanding licit social, economic and political activities. FY 2005 will focus on increasing the program's geographic reach, while expanding infrastructure, local government institutional support and community strengthening. Over the remaining life of the project,currently due to end in FY 2006, the project will also continue to increase jobs and incomes in the North by supporting the competitiveness of existing rural enterprises. Activities will include capital investment and complementary technical assistance to help local governments build and sustain social and productive infrastructure; technical assistance and training to municipal governments and local communities to identify and resolve local development problems democratically; support for small farmers to legalize land holdings; and support to strengthen the competitiveness of existing agricultural and related enterprises in the North.

INL Budget

FY 2003 FY 2003
FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Police Operations 4,325 - 8,188 - 3,725
Police Facilities Construction 2,700 - 3,565 - 2,000
Police and Judicial Training 1,000 - 1,000 - 950
Money Laundering and Chemical
Control 150 - 150 - 300
Sub-Total 8,175 - 12,903 - 6,975
Military Border and Coastal Control 6,000 - 6,000 - 3,000
Drug Awareness/Public Diplomacy 125 - 150 - 75
Alternative Development * 15,896 - 14,912 - 15,000
Cacao Project - - 300 - -
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 208 - 210 - 400
Non-U.S. Personnel 76 - 85 - 90
ICASS Costs 228 - 240 - 255
Program Support 188 - 200 - 205
Sub-Total 700 - 735 - 950
Total 30,896 - 35,000 - 26,000
* Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators


The Government of Panama (GOP) combats its geographic fate as a crossroads for narco trafficking by significantly improving its ability to interdict land and maritime shipments of illicit drugs, chemicals, weapons, and people, and enhances control of its borders, airports, and seaports.

Training and equipment provided to DHS's Container Security Initiative in Panama would make the program fully functional, resulting in an increased number of seizures of shipment of illicit goods.

Further training of specialized Panamanian National Police units in the Darien region and focused support to the Mobile Interdiction Units along the Eastern border will slow the transshipment of drugs across its border with Colombia.

Training on long-term maintenance of new aircraft will increase the capabilities of the National Air Service (SAN) while making the organization more self-sufficient.


Panama becomes a less attractive haven for transnational organized crime by increasing its institutional capabilities to investigate and prosecute criminal activities, cooperate with other nations including USG law enforcement, seize and forfeit assets, and cripple criminal organizations engaged in such crimes as drug and arms trafficking, alien smuggling, money laundering and terrorism.

Further advanced training curricula emphasizing the use of technology and better program planning help the GOP modernize its criminal justice system.

Building on the 2004 arrest and deportation to the U.S. of top Colombian drug lord Henao Montoya, accomplished by two INL-funded police organizations with cooperation from USG law enforcement authorities, there will be an increase in the number and importance of traffickers arrested and successfully prosecuted, deported, or extradited as a result of GOP investigations and cooperative bilateral or regional law enforcement efforts.

As a regional financial center and focus of money laundering for narcoterrorist dollars, increasing the GOP's ability to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes, particularly in the Colon Free Trade Zone, and to coordinate effectively with international partners is paramount.

Having trained the Financial Analysis Unit (FAU) of the Presidency, the NAS will focus on strengthening the capacity in Panama City of the Financial Investigation Units (FIU) of the Technical Judicial Police and expanding to two new cities through training and equipment.

The FIU units will increase the number of investigations of financial information requested by other countries and cases of suspicious financial transactions, particularly black market peso exchange, resulting in an increase in successful prosecution of money laundering cases.

Panamanian Customs Service will be provided with training to improve skills for investigations into black market Peso exchange, money laundering and infringements of intellectual property rights.

Corruption which has undermined GOP efforts against narcotraffickers and organized crime is identified as a significant problem and combated though a successful strategy supporting and modernizing its specialized law enforcement units and holding the PNP accountable.

The FAU and the FIU begin to investigate allegations of government corruption and new anti-corruption units are created in the PTJ. Offenders are prosecuted and incarcerated. Illegally obtained funds are returned to government coffers.

Public trust in criminal justice institutions and personnel, particularly the National Police, increases with a performance measurement and evaluation system, and improved transparency.

Program Justification

As law enforcement activities in Colombia become more effective, Panama will be under increasing pressure as a haven for illegal activity and a crossroads for the transshipment of narcotics and other illicit goods. Despite excellent bilateral law enforcement cooperation, international drug shipments continue to be trafficked through Panama destined for the U.S. and Europe because of the country's strategic position and developed infrastructure. An ineffective criminal justice system that is undermined by corruption and inadequate maritime, airport, and border controls all contribute to Panama's vulnerability to transnational organized crime. In addition to drug trafficking, criminal groups engage in money laundering, chemical diversion, arms trafficking, alien smuggling and other illicit activities. The steady flow of illicit drugs has taken a toll on Panamanian society by increasing domestic drug abuse and undermining key institutions.

Panama is an attractive site for money laundering operations due to its dollar-based economy and large, sophisticated banking and trading sectors. In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) determined that Panama was not cooperating effectively with other governments in this area, in part because of institutional weaknesses. As a result of the passage of new legislation and increased prosecutions, Panama was subsequently removed from the FATF list of non-cooperating nations. However, Panama continues to need technical assistance and material support to enhance its efforts to implement and enforce the new legislation and to dismantle criminal and terrorist groups engaged in money laundering, particularly in the Colon Free Trade Zone.

Program Accomplishments

Law enforcement cooperation between the U.S. and Panama is outstanding, as demonstrated by the 2004 capture and deportation to the United States of Colombia drug lord Henao Montoya. In 2003, INL funds were used to support programs and activities critical to GOP and USG shared law enforcement objectives. Technical assistance and equipment provided by INL to law enforcement agencies at the border, on key transit routes, and in airports has increased the GOP's capacity to interdict drugs and secure its borders. Furthermore, INL has supported interdiction efforts through assistance to the Joint Information Coordination Center that has led to enhance information sharing and cooperation between U.S. and GOP law enforcement agencies. INL funds have played a key role in interdiction successes of the National Maritime Service (SMN) by providing training, technical assistance and equipment upgrades that have recapitalized the SMN's small boat fleet. INL support has further enhanced GOP capability to investigate narcotics cases through the training and equipping of the Public Ministry/Technical Judicial Police (PTJ) vetted unit in 2003. Furthermore, the ability of the GOP to interdict drugs along its land routes has increased through the successful deployment of the Panama National Police (PNP) Mobile Inspection Unit. An International Airport Drug Task Force has increased seizures at Panama's International Airport. Law enforcement cooperation between Panama and other Central American countries has been exceptional. In Nicaragua, for example, the cooperation of Panamanian authorities was invaluable in the corruption convictions of several high-level government officials. In addition, although the United States is the primary provider of assistance to the SMN, other regional navies, in particular Chile and Colombia have provided training and participate in exercises.

In FY 2005, INL will develop a project to assist the GOP to investigate and prosecute cases of corruption, in particular by strengthening the anti-corruption prosecutor's office. Support to law enforcement agencies will continue with the provision of commodities and training to support the PNP, the SMN, and the National Air Service (SAN). The NAS will launch a police modernization project that will focus on community policing and enhanced use of technology as a management tool for police officials. INL will provide infrastructure support, equipment and training for airport and border control facilities to enhance control of the entry of aliens into the country, including drug traffickers and smugglers.

Further support to improve the capability of Panamanian law enforcement agencies will be provided to the Joint Information Coordination Center (JICC), the National Criminal Statistics and Analysis Agency (CONADEC) to enhance GOP intelligence infrastructure, enabling the security forces to better investigate narcotics trafficking activities. Training and commodities will be provided to the Public Ministry's Elite Vetted Unit, the PTJ and the PNP. Having trained the Financial Analysis Unit (FAU) of the Presidency, the NAS will focus on strengthening the capacity of the Financial Investigation Unit (FIU) of the Technical Judicial Police through training and equipment to detect, investigate, and prosecute sophisticated money-laundering cases. In cooperation with the SMN, the NAS will develop a port security project to increase the interdiction of illegal goods passing through the Colon Free Zone and Panama's other ports of entry in conjunction with the implementation of the Container Security Initiative.

FY 2005 Program

National Police: Due to its geographical location, Panama is a primary trafficking route and transshipment point for Colombian narcotics moving northward toward the U.S. The PNP is on the front line of efforts to stop this flow of drugs as near to the source as possible and to control land trafficking routes. This is the third year of a five-year program to train and equip select small units of the PNP. In all, the project will train approximately 375 individuals. This year, the NAS will emphasize the training of units in the Darien region of the Panama-Colombia border. As in previous years, training will largely be through Mobile Training Teams and other "train the trainer" programs.

National Air Service: Because of the shared border with Colombia, the flow of drugs through Panamanian air space is a significant concern. Funding will be provided to the SAN to increase air mobility capabilities and internal management structures. This year, assistance will seek to maximize the effectiveness, through long-term training on preventative maintenance procedures and operations, of new aircraft introduced into the SAN fleet in 2003 and 2004.

Border Enhancement: Effective control of Panama's land, sea, and air ports is vital to controlling the illicit flow of narcotics and other crime. Assistance will be provided to the Mobile Interdiction Unit for the operation of border and interior checkpoints, with a focus in 2005 on checkpoints on the eastern provinces of the country, to deter trafficking in arms, narcotics and aliens through the country. This project will continue to provide resources to support the Tocumen Airport Task Force and joint USG/GOP law enforcement interdiction operations in interior provinces and along the Costa Rican border.

National Maritime Service: GOP narcotics interdiction capabilities will be further enhanced through continued support for the professionalization of the SMN and with equipment and training provided by the U.S. Coast Guard. In 2005, assistance will seek to ensure the continued operability of Panama's small and medium boat fleets, which were built up in 2003 and 2004 with USG assistance. In addition, Panama will benefit from increased maritime patrol and port security enhancements, thereby providing an additional deterrent to migrant smuggling and trafficking in other contraband.

Port Security: In FY 2005, training and operational assistance will be provided for the Port Security System project. This multi-year project will complement the 2004 deployment of the Container Security and Proliferation Security Initiatives and will be expanded to provide all remaining ports with communications links to the Tocumen International Airport and the Colon Free Zone. In 2005, the SMN will take a more active role in inspecting vessels visiting and transiting Panama's territorial waters. This project will enhance the ability of the GOP to secure its borders and increase both land and sea interdiction capabilities.

Public Ministry Special Investigations Unit: Funding will be provided to the Public Ministry for training, commodities and operational support to the Vetted Special Investigations Unit (SIU). Funding will support a technological modernization of the unit, in particular with regard to surveillance equipment. This will build on the successes of the program and will contribute to the eventual assumption of all costs by the GOP.

Panamanian Customs Service: Operational assistance and training will be provided to Panamanian Customs officials for cargo inspections, investigations into black market peso exchange, money laundering and infringements of intellectual property rights. An effort will also be made to professionalize the Customs Service by developing technical training programs to improve the integrity of higher-level officials.

Technical Judicial Police: Having provided training and commodities to the counternarcotics unit and the central and regional forensics laboratories of the PTJ, the NAS will focus on developing the sex crimes unit of the PTJ. Funds will also be used to upgrade the PTJ vehicle fleet.

Financial Investigations Unit: Training will be provided to prosecutors and the FIU to improve investigative skills and enable the prosecution of increasingly sophisticated money-laundering cases, in particular those linked to the Colon Free Trade Zone. The NAS will help double the size of the FIU in Panama City and will attempt to set up additional units in two other major cities.

Anti-Corruption Program: This project is intended to improve the capabilities of investigators from the PTJ and prosecutors from the Anti-Corruption Prosecutor's Office to successfully investigate and prosecute cases involving misuse of public funds. The program will be closely coordinated with efforts of US Law Enforcement Agencies and USAID's governance project, which will assist civil society groups involved in anti-corruption efforts. In 2005, the NAS will establish a specialized anti-corruption unit within the PTJ.

Law Enforcement Modernization: Short, medium, and long-term training strategies and programs to increase the use of technology developed by a law-enforcement training advisor will be presented to GOP law enforcement institutions for implementation.

Program Development & Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits and allowances for U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2003 FY 2003
FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005
Border Control Enhancement
National Police 567 - 750 - 750
National Air Service 500 - 487 - 500
Border Enhancement 875 - 750 - 500
National Maritime Service 900 - 1,000 - 750
Port Security 150 - 300 - 250
Sub-Total 2,992 - 3,287 - 2,750
Law Enforcement Enhancement
Public Ministry Special
Investigations Unit - - - - 500
Panamian Customs Service - - 300 - 200
Technical Judicial Police 425 - 500 - 500
Financial Investigations Unit 175 - 250 - 200
Law Enforcement Modernization - - 650 - 500
Sub-Total 600 - 1,700 - 1,900
Anti-Corruption Initiatives 100 - 600 - 450
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 100 - 100 - 100
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 311 - 330 - 350
Non-U.S. Personnel 48 - 50 - 50
ICASS Costs 254 - 320 - 300
Program Support 95 - 100 - 100
Sub-Total 708 - 800 - 800
Total 4,500 - 6,487 - 6,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Peru (GOP) institutionalizes policy-making and coordination and begins to take over management of certain counternarcotics programs.

The maintenance and operation of Peruvian National Police air wing is performed 100 percent by Peruvian nationals.

Completion of ongoing upgrades in the INL helicopters operated by the police aviation unit allows the extension of counternarcotics-related law enforcement efforts to remote areas of Peru.

Capability of, and coordination among, those Peruvian agencies involved in counter-narcotics law enforcement improves, leads to more effective action against illicit drug trafficking east of the Andes.

Multi-agency anti-narcotics coordination center is established in Pucallpa to disseminate and exploit information about drug trafficking Peru, including in its airspace east of the Andes, on its waters, and on the ground.

Planning begins on a comprehensive maritime and port interdiction program to thwart exploitation of Peru's northern ports by narco-traffickers.

Improvements in the efficiency of the Peruvian judicial sector allow it to effectively process drug cases.

Continuing USG support for special narcotics prosecutors and support for judicial personnel in regions with heavy narcotics caseloads results in an increase in the number of arrests/prosecutions of major criminals and narcotics traffickers and a decrease in time suspects are held in jail pending trial.

The illegal cultivation of coca and opium poppy is reduced and eventually eliminated, along with illicit drug trafficking through and from Peru.

Coca cultivation will be reduced through forced and voluntary eradication by an additional 12,000 hectares in CY 2005.

The GOP, with the help of the USG, develops a reconnaissance capability to identify and eradicate opium poppy cultivations.

Licit Peruvian coca fields are recorded and tracked better.

The number of port and road counternarcotics interdiction checkpoints east of the Peruvian Andes are increased by ten percent in 2005 resulting in a ten percent increase in the number and amount of cocaine seizures.

Continued project efforts to upgrade DIRANDRO operations at Peru's airports leads to an increase in drug seizures from commercial planes and passengers.

New equipment for FIU's make the units more effective and increase the number of drug-related money laundering arrests and prosecutions by 10 percent a year.

Viable alternatives to the illegal coca economy provide incentives to decrease illicit coca cultivation.

Provision of economically viable alternative development benefits in and outside of the coca-growing areas allows farmers to pursue alternatives to coca.

Implementation of comprehensive macroeconomic policy reforms expands the licit economy.

An increased awareness of the dangers of drug trafficking and drug abuse leads to a reduction in the demand for illicit drugs.

Assistance to Ministry of Education and surveys to better identify vulnerable groups for assistance focuses public awareness campaign more effectively.

Both public support and GOP political will for law enforcement efforts against illegal drug cultivation and trafficking increases.

Both survey results and GOP actions indicate that Peruvians will no longer tolerate illegal drug cultivation and trafficking.

Program Justification

Peru is the second largest cocaine producing country in the world and a major exporter of high purity cocaine and cocaine base to markets in South America, Mexico, the United States, and Europe. The country's cultivation decreased 15 percent in 2003 and is 84,000 hectares below the 1995 level. Peru legally produces cocaine base and coca leaf for medical and commercial consumption in the U.S. and Europe.

The principal goal of the U.S. counternarcotics strategy in Peru is to reduce, and ultimately to eliminate, the production and processing of opium poppy and coca. This goal is consistent with the President's National Drug Control Strategy and the Andean Counterdrug Initiative, which seeks to deny traffickers the ability to spillover from one country to another as law enforcement successes eliminate established drug cultivation and operational areas. The means to achieve this goal is firmly rooted in implementing complementary programs of eradication, interdiction, and alternative development in the drug cultivation source valleys and to intercept coca movement throughout Peru.

To decrease coca cultivation, funding is required to support airlift for drug crop eradication and law enforcement interdiction in outlying areas, to gather and process intelligence needed to support air, ground and water-based law enforcement endgames, to support USAID-implemented voluntary coca eradication efforts, and to strengthen alternative development in and outside of drug cultivation areas. Of immediate concern in areas subject to eradication is near-term alternative development emergency assistance to help meet nutritional and health needs, generate family income lost to eradication of coca fields, and long-term alternative development to sustain the development of licit economies.

President Toledo and his Administration have shown the political will to confront drug issues. Shortly after taking office, Toledo followed through on his promise to appoint the first ever Drug Czar for Peru with cabinet level authority. However, the GOP lacks the financial resources and equipment to adequately address drugs in the midst of double-digit unemployment and a stagnant economic growth. These problems are exacerbated by ongoing riots and strikes by several sectors of the national economy, a resurgence of terrorism, and continued corruption.

Anticipated European assistance pledged during donor conferences to support GOP alternative development efforts has not materialized in the amounts anticipated.

Program Accomplishments

GOP eradication efforts resulted in a decline in the number of hectares under coca cultivation from 36,600 in 2002 to 31,150 in CY 2003, the lowest level of coca cultivation in Peru since 1986. In terms of absolute numbers, the GOP eradicated over 11,000 hectares of coca in CY 2003, well exceeding its goal of 8,000 hectares. This 11,000 total represents the GOP's best performance on eradication since 1999. In 2003, INL supported the initiation of a pilot program of voluntary coca eradication, implemented by USAID and the GOP. This program supports communities and local municipalities in return for verified elimination of coca cultivation. In 2003, it accounted for the elimination of approximately 5,445 hectares of coca in Peru. Under this program, communities that have eliminated coca are eligible for employment-generating public works for short-term assistance and longer-term alternative development.

While the police were able to take some actions to eliminate opium poppy, overall eradication totals were small as limited intelligence, the remoteness of the growing areas, and heavy cloud cover made such activity difficult. Police units did, however, step up foot patrols in suspected poppy-growing areas in an effort to locate more fields.

During 2003, the Peruvian National Police Narcotics Directorate (DIRANDRO) conducted well-coordinated operations in the Monzon Valley, a notorious lawless area where large-scale coca cultivation and processing is rampant. An extensive five-day operation in November resulted in the destruction of maceration pits and rustic labs and the confiscation of over 400 kilos of coca base and large amounts of precursor chemicals. A follow-up operation in December 2003 netted lesser results, but still contributed to the GOP's efforts to reestablish the rule of law in that area. Similar operations in the Apurimac-Ene Valley region encountered success as well.

DIRANDRO also continued its campaign of truck and vehicle inspections of suspected drug and chemical smugglers using the roads and highways throughout Peru. The PNP Road Unit conducted weekly road operations using trained K-9 drug dogs on the major highways exiting the coca producing jungle region heading west to the coastal areas, on major roads entering Lima, and throughout key Departments in Peru. In cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies, private shipping companies improved their abilities to monitor sea cargo containers. They provided DIRANDRO and Peruvian Customs with information to support investigations of major Peruvian and other international trafficking organizations utilizing sea cargo containers to transport large shipments of cocaine to the U.S., Mexico and Europe.

The GOP established a Financial Investigations Unit (FIU) and named a director and staff. The Peruvian Congress passed legislation in mid-2003 placing the FIU under the Prime Minister's office and provided it with initial funding. Senior FIU leadership have made clear their intent to have the Peruvian FIU join the Egmont Group of international FIUs as soon as possible. Peru's FIU began accepting suspicious activity reports from banks on September 1, 2003.

Discussions began between the USG and the GOP on establishing an Anti-Narcotics Coordination Center (ANCC), which will gather, process and disseminate actionable intelligence so that Peruvian law enforcement and military units could undertake air, ground, and water-based end games against trafficking targets.

Recent opinion polls reflect that 90% of urban Peruvians recognize the link between coca leaf cultivation and narco-trafficking, and that the majority of Peruvians view cocalero groups as unreasonable in their demands and favor GOP action to address the illegal coca problem. A nationwide political stakeholder analysis revealed that key players see coca cultivation and narco-trafficking as important problems in Peru, and that they are willing to act on these issues given institutional leadership on the issue.

In the Alternative Development program, key results in 2003 included:

459 communities (about 19,000 families) will voluntary subscribe in the community development/auto-eradication program.

The inclusion of more than 11,000 families in programs designed to produce licit crops and the improvement of 1,251 kilometers of roads, 18 bridges, 124 potable water systems, 7 electricity systems, 4 irrigation systems, and 157 schools/health posts.

The generation of 33,820 full-time equivalent jobs and more than $22 million in new sales, including $9.7 million in exports.

Technical assistance to micro-finance institutions, thereby allowing these entities to serve more than 80,000 clients

FY 2005 Program

Interdiction and Eradication

Law Enforcement Support: A wider range of law enforcement operations is planned for FY 2005, with activities envisioned not just in the major coca-growing valleys and the transit zones, but in those areas that have been traditionally hard to penetrate as well. As in the past, the operations will include air, land and riverine operations, road stops and the use of canines. FY 2005 plans include providing additional training and field exercises to enhance the capabilities of DIRANDRO to conduct advanced road and riverine exercises, as well as to provide greater security for eradication teams in outlying areas. These enhanced law enforcement efforts will require additional vehicles, communications, field gear, emergency/safety reaction gear, and drug detector canines. Progress will be measured in terms of the amount/frequency of seizures and arrests, and the increase in the interdiction and enforcement capability of DIRANDO units. Progress will be measured in terms of the number of seizures and arrests as well as increases in the effectiveness of DIRANDRO operations.

Aviation Support: Aviation support is an ongoing project that funds pilots, aircrews, and support personnel for 24 USG-owned UH-II helicopters, two INL-owned fixed wing aircraft, and 4 Peruvian Mi-17 helicopters, which support coca eradication and law enforcement actions in the field. FY 2005 funds will also cover fuel, maintenance, hangars and warehousing, aircraft rental when needed, and operational support for DIRAVPOL personnel.

Eradication and interdiction missions are becoming more difficult and dangerous, because of the need to access illicit crops (particularly opium poppy) at higher altitudes in more rugged terrain and because of the growing potential for narco-trafficker inspired violence. To help protect both program assets and personnel, funds will be used to acquire a second C-208 aircraft that can carry imaging acquisition and other sensor equipment, thus allowing law enforcement efforts to take place in a more secure environment. Progress will be measured in terms of eradication/interdiction figures and the extent to which the GOP personnel can take further responsibility for program repair and maintenance functions.

Riverine Support: FY 2005 funding will focus on readying Peru to conduct wide-ranging and effective counter-drug enforcement operations on the rivers in, and flowing out of, the major coca-growing regions. The principal goal of our efforts will be to consolidate the GOP's capability to maintain an effective riverine drug interdiction program through infrastructure development, facilities improvements, equipment acquisitions, training, and operational planning and execution. All this will pave the way for transfer of the program to full GOP management and control. Progress will be measured in terms of the number of riverine drug seizures as well as improvements in the GOP's effective riverine capabilities and its ability to respond to actionable intelligence about the movement of suspected coca products on Peru's rivers.

Coca and Opium Poppy Eradication: In 2005, coca eradication will be more difficult now that the areas of less resistance have been cleared of coca, and more established cultivation areas are being targeted. The GOP will continue its two-track approach of voluntary eradication in selected communities and involuntary eradication in national forests, new growth areas and around drug-processing facilities. By covering logistical and transportation costs, the FY 2005 budget will support eradication efforts by the GOP's Coca Reduction Agency (CORAH) at a wider array of sites. Eradication efforts will likely be concentrated on three kinds of targets: a) remaining hard-core trafficker dominated areas such as the Monzon and Apurimac-Ene Valleys, b) other zones where coca has increased in recent years, such as the Puno and Quillabamba areas, and c) continual monitoring and mop-up of new coca. There are indications that drug traffickers are trying to jump-start an opium poppy-growing industry in Peru by providing seeds to farmers to grow in high-altitude, difficult-to-reach locations. The FY 2005 budget will also strengthen PNP efforts to eradicate opium poppies wherever detected. The ongoing conversion of the UH-1H helicopters in the INL fleet to Huey IIs will enhance ability of the GOP to get at illegal poppy cultivation. Progress will be measured in terms of the number of hectares of coca/opium eradication and the change in the number of hectares under coca cultivation.

Support to the Armed Forces: The USG and the GOP are currently working to establish an Anti-Narcotics Coordination Center (ANCC), aimed at improving the capacity of the Peruvian military and police to effect air, ground, and riverine end games based upon actionable intelligence. Support costs for this program will likely include facility renovation and improvement, aircraft modification, fuel facilities and training. Separately, in 2001, a USG maritime assessment team validated reports that traffickers were exploiting ports on the northern coast of Peru. Accordingly, funds will also be used to begin planning for a comprehensive port and maritime interdiction program, designed to detect and seize illicit drugs passing through Peru's ports and offshore waters. Such an effort will require extensive cooperation on the part of the Peruvian Navy, the Coast Guard, police, and Customs as well as significant expenditures for the purchase of equipment (boats, x-rays, detection aircraft) in subsequent fiscal years.

Customs Interdiction: The Peruvian Customs Service is responsible for inspecting arriving and departing passengers and cargo at Lima's air and maritime terminals, at other air and maritime ports of entry, and at land border checkpoints. The Service's customs drug enforcement section specifically concentrates on interdicting narcotics, principally at the country's airports and ports. In FY 2005, funds will provide increased training and items such as X-ray equipment, thus expanding our cooperative relationship with the drug enforcement section, while, at the same time, encouraging increased DIRANDRO focus on this area. Continued funding will not only allow the drug enforcement section and DIRANDRO to bolster their ongoing programs at the country's principal airport and port, but other smaller installations as well. Progress will be measured in terms of the number of cocaine and opium poppy derivatives seized.

Narcotics Prosecution: In FY 2005, funding will continue to support a cadre of GOP prosecutors assigned to oversee police and military drug enforcement operations, interrogate suspects and witnesses, secure evidence, supervise the destruction of illegal facilities such as laboratories or airstrips, and prepare cases for trial. Additional funding will permit the USG to provide higher-level training to prosecutors already in the program and entry-level training to those that have just come on-board. In addition, funding will allow selected jurisdictions with currently inadequate resources to better handle heavy narcotics caseloads. Progress will be measured in terms of the number of arrests/prosecutions of major criminals and narcotics traffickers and any decrease in time suspects are held in jail pending trial.

Counternarcotics Policy Development: Under Peruvian law, only the official government agency set up to control all legal coca cultivation and purchases (ENACO) can legally purchase and sell coca leaves. Legal uses include pharmaceuticals and local consumption in the form of chewing and teas. As ENACO has too few resources and is poorly managed, INL seeks to improve its effectiveness in controlling the legal coca market in Peru. INL funding will help ENACO identify what coca fields are legally registered and create an updated database to track purchases and sales. Progress will be measured by: a) the extent to which ENACO begins to register purchases and sales of coca leaf, and b) completion of a full study on the legitimate market for coca leaves.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: This project will focus on providing the Peruvian public with information about the harmful personal and societal effects of cocaine production and abuse, conducting surveys on drug abuse to identify groups requiring assistance, and supporting educational fora for prevention and treatment professionals. This project will continue to provide assistance to drug awareness institutions and the Ministry of Education, to support drug awareness, abuse prevention and treatment programs. Progress will be measured in terms of public awareness of the illegal drug problem and changes in public drug consumption patterns.

Crop Monitoring and Research: An affiliated organization of CORAH called CADA (Coca Survey and Verification) provides a means to verify the extent of coca reduction within communities, which is a critical condition of continued alternative development funding. In FY 2005, this project will expand efforts to verify licit crop development in coca growing areas in conjunction with forced and voluntary eradication efforts. The CORAH civil construction unit will provide counternarcotics law enforcement and military agencies with construction and facility improvement capabilities in outlying areas. Demand for both CADA and CORAH construction has been high: CADA statistical information is being used by the international community, such as the OAS Drug Commission, to prioritize its alternative development projects; and CORAH construction services have allowed the police and navy to establish riverine forward operational bases in key coca cultivation areas. Progress will be measured in terms of the degree to which CADA can provide support for specific activities like verification of coca eradication and construction of needed counter-drug facilities.

In addition, a joint USG/OAS/CICAD Alternative Crop Research and Extension project complements the bilateral alternative development program. This project will continue to perform field research into coffee and cacao diseases, with a focus on finding ways to increase production yields in alternative development areas and developing international markets. The U.S. private sector has responded favorably to these efforts, and has provided supplementary personnel and funds for expert marketing and scientific assistance. FY 2005 funding will support the dissemination of the practical research results to alternative development farmers throughout the region.

Public Relations and Media Engagement: Among some sectors in Peruvian society, the prevailing attitude is that coca cultivation is an innocent activity that does not affect Peru. Too few public figures speak out against coca cultivation in the local media. This situation hinders the ability of the GOP to carry out is anti-drug program. To remedy this problem, INL will fund a campaign undertaken by NGO partners to better inform the Peruvian public of the dangers the illegal drug trade poses to the country. Progress will be measured in terms of changes in the public's attitudes towards efforts to control the cultivation, production, and trafficking of illicit drugs.

Money Laundering Support: Although Peru continues to suffer from narcotics-related money laundering and other financial crimes, the GOP lacks both the resources and the expertise to address this problem in a comprehensive manner. This project will provide the GOP with badly needed resources and greatly enhance its technical capability to combat money laundering, thus furthering USG efforts to disrupt international criminal organizations and activities in Peru. Specifically, the project will fund the second year of a two-year technical assistance program and will provide direct support (i.e., procurement of computers, maintenance of databases, and administrative costs) for the Financial Intelligence Unit's operations. Progress will be measured in terms of the number of money laundering cases successfully prosecuted and the money laundering training provided to judicial, police, and banking officials.

Chemical Control: The GOP urgently needs to devise a national plan to control the commerce of precursor chemicals and to dispose of seized illicit chemicals. Discussions between the USG and the GOP have identified initiatives addressing chemical importation, illicit diversion, environmental safety, and proper disposal of chemicals and hazardous materials used in the production of cocaine. FY 2005 funds will be used to establish a training program for police in the legal, technical, and enforcement aspects of chemical control. The project will also provide resources to the PNP for the establishment of a chemical controls program at checkpoints on the major roads connecting Lima to the source zones. Progress will be measured in terms of the amount of precursor and essential chemicals seized, tracked, and disposed.

Program Development & Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances for U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Alternative Development and Institution Building

In FY 2005, INL will fund, and USAID will implement, an integrated development approach that will create jobs in coca-growing regions, strengthen local institutions and reduce coca cultivation. The program consists of the following components:

Increasing Competitiveness: To remove barriers to development and increase the economic competitiveness of coca-growing areas, FY 2005 assistance will fund road rehabilitation and maintenance, electrification and other infrastructure activities, particularly in support of the ongoing voluntary coca eradication program. Funding will also directly support producers who have identified business deals, thus helping participants improve the quality, quantity and timing of their production as well as utilize productive chains to ensure it generates income and employment. FY 2005 monies will provide technical assistance to institutions that provide credit mechanisms and land titles to rural residents, thereby enabling producers and businesses access to financing to respond to markets. Finally, our funding will support outreach efforts to build awareness and acceptance that coca impedes economic development and to help convince communities to accept voluntary eradication.

Reducing Conflict: To reduce conflict associated with the narcotics business as well as erode a base of potential support and financing for terrorist organizations, the USG's voluntary eradication program seeks to promote community participation in public decisions. FY 2005 funding will support an alternative development communications and outreach program designed to persuade the public that coca and the narcotics industry is a threat to their well being as individuals and as a society. If successful, this campaign will bring about behavior change on the part of those participating in coca cultivation, thus leading to increased social stability and decreased violence associated with the business. Progress is to be measured, inter alia, in terms of the degree to which these efforts promote voluntary eradication, thereby enabling communities involved in coca cultivation to establish legal lifestyles and break relations with narco-traffickers -- who routinely use physical intimidation and threats to maintain production.

Reducing Corruption: Narcotics production and trafficking thrive on corruption. Accordingly, FY 2005 funding will support values-based communications efforts in the mass media designed to expose corrupt practices and change the social norms within the geographic focus of the program. Our goal will be to increase transparency in all programs: interactions, agreements and citizen involvement in oversight of program interventions, thus setting a standard for accountability that should carry over to oversight ofpublic funds. Democratically elected community oversight committees will serve as the watchdog for program implementation and will be asked to report questionable transactions.

INL Budget

FY 2003 FY 2003
FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Law Enforcement Support 9,400 - 11,000 - 18,550
Aviation Support 31,600 - 35,635 - 17,545
Riverine Support 1,000 - 2,000 - 1,000
Sub-Total 42,000 - 48,635 - 37,095
Coca and Opium Poppy Eradication 6,000 - 7,000 - 7,700
Support to the Armed Forces 3,500 - 1,000 - 2,160
Peruvian Customs - - 50 - 1,500
Administration of Justice/Prosecutors 300 - 700 - 1,700
Institutional Development 300 - 400 - 250
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 800 - 1,000 - 1,600
Money Laundering Support - - - - 500
Crop Monitoring and Research 3,600 - 4,300 - 4,005
Public Relations and Media - - - - 640
Chemical Control 125
Alternative Development* 68,552 - 49,705 - 50,000
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 819 - 875 - 875
Non-U.S. Personnel 862 - 925 - 929
ICASS Costs 659 - 705 - 805
Program Support 660 - 705 - 2,116
Sub-Total 3,000 - 3,210 - 4,725
Total 128,052 - 116,000 - 112,000
* Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request




Program Objectives and Performance Indicators


Venezuela's tradition as a conduit for drug trafficking, because of its geographic proximity to major illicit narcotics production centers, will be combated by disrupting the transshipment of drugs over its border and through its ports.

Improvements in airport cargo inspection technology and advanced training of immigration and customs personnel will increase the number of seizures of cocaine, heroin, weapons, and other contraband.

New detection equipment at land entry ports, better communications ability and support for expanded canine operations will facilitate investigation of shipments and bills of lading and other documents to detect and trace contraband shipments. Computers will assist in analysis of shipments to better profile suspicious commodities.


Strengthened Venezuelan government institutions will more effectively combat drug cartels and organized crime entities dissuading them from using the country as a base of operations.

A national drug intelligence network and database will be designed and functioning within 12 to 24 months to identify organized crime operations, organizations and personnel. Interdiction and prosecution rates will increase for first 18 months of operation.

Additional training for 1200 current public prosecutors and future funding for an added 1500 prosecutors will improve their effectiveness in the new oral adversary justice system and increase prosecution rates.

Construction of forensic laboratories and evidence vaults and the creation of special task forces will identify and bring to trial international organized crime members and others who threaten the US.

An increase in money laundering investigations and prosecutions will be fostered by additional computer enhancements to the FIUs and further training.

Program Justification

Venezuela is a significant conduit for narcotics trafficked to the United States, with an estimated 150 metric tons of cocaine transiting its territory. Venezuela shares a poorly controlled 2,100-kilometer border with Colombia. Venezuela's ill-secured seaports also serve as embarkation points for multi-ton loads of cocaine secreted in hundreds of thousands of cargo shipping containers that go to the U.S. and other countries each year. The significant level of uncontrolled commercial shipping activity also provides opportunities for smuggling weapons and other contraband into the United States.

Program Accomplishments

Cocaine seizures increased dramatically in 2003 to more than 27 metric tons - 60 percent higher than 2002 record seizures. Heroin seizures remained on a par with 2002 elevated rate and led those throughout South America for a fourth straight year. Large seizures of MDMA (Ecstasy) continued for the second year in a row. State of the art X-ray machines installed at two airports contributed to the increase in drug seizures, and work began on a model cargo inspection facility at Venezuela's primary container port at Maracaibo.

Despite these successes, continuing turmoil in Venezuela, highlighted by a two-month national strike, virtually shut down the country at the beginning of the year and distracted the GOV from important law enforcement tasks: passing needed legislation against organized crime, enhancing Venezuela's chemical control regulations, and fulfilling requirements of the U.N. International Convention for the Repression of Terrorism Financing (2000) and the U.N. International Convention Against Transnational Crime (the Palermo Convention - 2000).

In late December, GOV troops destroyed ten hectares of coca fields and several cocaine labs on the Colombian border in two operations. This was the first GOV eradication of coca that had taken place since 2001; for the second year in a row, no opium poppy eradication was reported.

FY 2005 Program

Port Security and Border Point of Entry Security: Each of Venezuela's commercial seaports and major land points of entry will be surveyed to identify weaknesses in physical, document and personnel security, and corrective measures recommended. Funding in FY 2005 will be used for the procurement, maintenance and recalibration of search and inspection equipment (including ion scanners, X-ray machines, and density sensors); automated data processing and communications equipment; vehicles; and training and operations support for the canine program. Funding will also support on-site advisory assistance by USG experts. Emphasis placed upon analysis of bills of lading and other shipping documentation that will help to detect suspicious shipments and identify the origin of contraband shipments will improve the GOV's ability to further increase drug seizures, and enhance the GOV's ability to conduct controlled deliveries - which will enable the GOV to collect intelligence on smuggling patterns and narcotrafficking organizations and members.

Airport Security: Airport cargo inspection and immigration control efforts will be enhanced by procurement and maintenance of improved document and cargo inspection equipment (such as ion scanners and X-ray equipment) to detect the presence of narcotics and explosives. Operator training and immigration control advisory assistance will improve the GOV's ability to detect narcotics and contraband shipments, deter trafficking in persons, and collect intelligence about possible movement of narcotraffickers using commercial aviation and enhance the GOV's ability to identify and interdict weapons and dangerous persons from boarding planes bound for the U.S.

Intelligence Fusion and Analysis: FY 2005 funding will support the design, procurement and installation of an automated wide-area network to connect intelligence field offices to a national level database to facilitate assembly, collation and analysis of trafficking trends, methods and organizational structures. Intelligence analysis training and advisory support are components of this project. Progress on detection, disruption and dismantling of narcotrafficking organizations depends on strategic intelligence developed from a comprehensive and coordinated analysis system. Within 12 to 24 months, the intelligence fusion and analysis program should enable the GOV to identify the majority of key criminals trafficking drugs in and through Venezuela, as well as to provide detailed information on their organizational structures and methods of operation. During the first 18 months of this project, noticeable increases in drug seizures should occur, followed by a reduction in drugs transiting Venezuela as traffickers shift to less difficult routes.

Money Laundering Control: Improved monitoring procedures for Venezuelan financial institutions and for the investigation and reporting of suspicious financial transactions is key to giving GOV financial crime enforcement agencies the ability to gather evidence that will lead to the prosecution and sentencing of organized crime and narcotrafficking members. FY 2005 funding will provide ADP upgrades to FIU entities that incorporate into the National Anti-Money Laundering Network and support training and attendance at international conferences by selected FIU officials. Seminars will keep positive debate alive during the development and progress of legislation on financial crime, and promote understanding of the new laws once enacted.

Administration of Justice: This project will continue to train Venezuela's 1,200 public prosecutors through the Department of Justice's Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training Program (OPDAT), the American Bar Association (ABA) and commercial training. The GOV will need training for the an additional 1,500 public prosecutors it plans to add, and will also need training for several thousand criminal investigators working in direct support of the prosecutors. This program has been critical to the transition by the prosecutors from the old, closed, inquisitorial justice system, to the new oral adversarial system put in place in 1999. FY 2005 funding will enable prosecutors and criminal investigators to improve their ability to gather and preserve evidence, build and manage cases, and effectively prosecute crimes under this new, transparent and expeditious system of justice. Funding will enhance forensic laboratories, evidence storage vault facilities, and assist in the creation of a special task force similar to the successful Prosecutors Drug Task Force, capable of identifying organizations that threaten U.S. security and arresting members of those organizations and bringing them to trial.

Program Development and Support: PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of the direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential housing, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

INL Budget

FY 2003 FY 2003
FY 2004 FY 2004
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Port Security 235 - 750 - 500
Border Security 235 - 750 - 500
Mobile Inspection 205 - 60 - -
Intelligence Fusion and Analysis 45 - 250 200
Precursor Chemical Control 50 - 50 -
Money Laundering Control 89 - 50 - 200
Sub-Total 859 - 1,910 - 1,400
Administration of Justice
Prosecutor Training 160 - 900 - 500
Prosecutor's Drug task Force 87 - 1,000 - 160
MOJ Infrastructure Development 80 - 300 - 100
Sub-Total 327 - 2,200 - 760
Drug Awatreness/Demand Reduction 89 - 50 - -
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 281 - 295 - 295
Non-U.S. Personnel 31 - 33 - 33
ICASS Costs 240 - 252 - 252
Program Support 248 - 260 - 260
Sub-Total 800 - 840 - 840
Total 2,075 - 5,000 - 3,000

Airbridge Denial Program

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request





Program Objectives and Performance Indicators


The Airbridge Denial Program (ABD) will provide effective intelligence; surveillance that will lead to increased interdiction of illicit drug trafficking aircraft and provide a real deterrent to the narco-traffickers in the region.

Establishment of additional forward operating locations will support the increase of Colombian Air Force tracking operations into previously untracked air space. The number of successful interdictions of Unidentified Assumed Suspect (UAS) air tracks will increase.

Training of pilots, technical operators, and maintenance personnel will keep the air fleet at high readiness and begin to focus on a future shift of more program and fiscal responsibility to Colombia.

Establishment and support for the Pucallpa Anti-Narcotics Coordination Center (ANCC) will enhance active surveillance of illicit aerial drug trafficking in Peru, provide better intelligence in air space east of the Andes used by drug traffickers, and will establish the threat level of aerial drug trafficking to the national security of the Government of Peru.

Regional illicit aerial drug trafficking flight patterns will be established and the number of aerial interdictions will increase.

Program Justification

The ABD Program is a new program that has been created at the direction of the President to support the Governments of Colombia and Peru in their fight against narcotics trafficking. The goal of the ABD Program in Colombia is to deter aerial trafficking of drugs and drug-related material into and within Colombia airspace. Under the Program's concept of operations, non-commercial aircraft flying in specifically designated and publicly declared areas of Colombia could be subject to special scrutiny by ground and aerial detection assets to determine whether the aircraft is reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking. Safety procedures have been established for intercepting and interdicting such aircraft. The goal of the program in Peru is initially to: a) enhance the GOP's capability to gather, analyze, and exploit information about illicit drug trafficking that may be occurring in Peru, including in its airspace east of the Andes, on its waters, and on the ground; and b) establish the law enforcement infrastructure necessary to combat such trafficking, consistent with the domestic legal requirements of the GOP.

INL has contracted for engineering, maintenance of equipment, training and safety oversight of this program in both Colombia and Peru. Cessna Citation 560 and C-26 aircraft have been specifically modified to provide the host countries with the necessary aircraft to support aerial surveillance and interdiction. To ensure effective utilization of these powerful resources, host countries will be trained in the tactics, techniques, and related doctrine that will lead to a systems approach in their counternarcotics surveillance and interdiction efforts. Additional USG contractor personnel along with Joint Interagency Task Force South (JIATF-S) will provide safety oversight of the program in accordance with agreed upon safety procedures and checklists.

Program Accomplishments


The ABD program in Colombia began in August 2003. This Program has given the GOC the ability to monitor, detect, sort and interdict unidentified assumed suspect flights. GOC inputs to the program consist of personnel salaries, travel and deployment costs, interceptor aircraft, maintenance, spare parts, weapons and ammunition. The USG support consists of contractor logistical support for USG supplied aircraft (Cessna Citation 560 and C-26 aircraft), contractor safety oversight personnel, communications equipment, infrastructure support and fuel.

The results for CY2003 are as follows:

Total number of Unidentified Assumed Suspect (UAS) Flights: 197

  • Total number of these flights sorted as friendly: 45
  • Total number of these flights where no action was taken: 69
  • Total number of these flights where action was taken: 76
  • Total number of UAS aircraft forced down: 6
  • Total number of UAS aircraft destroyed: 4
  • Total number of drugs seized: 4.0 K of cocaine
The overall goal is to deter drug traffickers from using Colombian airspace to transport illegal drugs or the proceeds from those drugs.


The program has not been initiated in Peru. Negotiations between the GOP and the USG will begin in April 2004. Program expected to be functioning by FY 2005.

FY 2005 Program


In FY 2005, the ABD Program budget will support the Colombian ABD Program. This support will include Contractor Logistical Support (CLS) including maintenance of aircraft, spare parts, and training and USG safety monitor oversight. Additionally, this funding will support up to three additional forward operating locations in order for the Colombian Air Force to conduct ABD operational missions in different parts of Colombia.

Our primary emphasis will be to continue training Colombian pilots and sensor operators for the Cessna Citation 560 and C-26 aircraft and to ensure that the aircraft are maintained properly while supporting fully operational ABD interdiction missions. Colombian self-sufficiency of the ABD program remains an important goal and INL will begin to explore ways to increase the level of host nation funding and involvement in order to decrease USG contributions.


In FY 2005, the ABD Program budget will also support the Peruvian Program. USG assistance will provide some assistance to setting up the ANCC at Pucallpa (infrastructure, communications improvements and command and control equipment) with emphasis on certain components to include: Contractor Logistical Support (CLS) including maintenance of aircraft, spare parts, and training and USG safety monitor oversight.

INL will continue training pilots and sensor operators for the Cessna Citation 560 and C-26 aircraft to gather intelligence and will ensure that the aircraft are maintained properly while supporting missions of detection, monitoring and surveillance.