Asia and the Middle East

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2004 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
June 2003


FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

3,000 60,000 40,000

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe overall INL program objective is to work with the Government of Afghanistan (GOA) and the international community to reduce poppy cultivation, reform the Afghan judicial system and improve law enforcement capabilities so as to strengthen the rule of law, enhance public security and attack illegal drug production and trafficking.

Administration of Justice. Under Italian leadership, the Judicial Commission, the Ministry of Justice, and related offices will establish a functioning justice system for Afghanistan based on the rule of law that meets internationally accepted human rights standards and enhance public security by providing a legitimate means of resolving disputes.

The Judicial Commission will emerge as the lead Afghan agency for coordinating justice system reforms and will have the resources necessary to do its work.

The Judicial Commission, in conjunction with relevant GOA officials, Italy, the UN and other donors, will develop and implement a unified framework to guide reform of the Afghan justice system.

The GOA, with Italian and UN assistance, will identify the repairs needed for its physical plant (courts, administrative offices, etc.), arrange foreign donor funding and begin rehabilitation.

The Judicial Commission and Ministry of Justice will identify necessary legal changes and draft appropriate laws.

Training on civil laws, human rights and basic legal principles will be provided for judicial personnel and law texts and laws will be distributed throughout Afghanistan.

Women jurists will be reintegrated into the judicial system.

The government will promulgate professional standards for legal system personnel.

Civilian Law Enforcement. Under German leadership, Afghan police and other law enforcement capabilities will be improved through training, technical assistance and institutional capacity building in order to strengthen the rule of law and enhance security in Kabul and in the provinces.

The Ministry of Interior will develop a telecommunications maintenance and repair facility to ensure an ongoing capability to keep its radio systems functioning.

The new U.S. training facility for lower-level police officers in Kabul will be established and training for at least 1,000 police officers will be completed; personnel that complete the training will receive new uniforms and personal equipment.

Office supplies and equipment will be provided to police stations in the Kabul area.

An identification card system linked to a personnel database to register police will be established.

An HF radio communication system will be established to link the Ministry of the Interior with police headquarters in each of the 32 provinces of Afghanistan.

At least two groups of police from outside Kabul will have received training so that they can act as trainers in the provinces. Training in the provinces will begin.

Counternarcotics Support. Under British leadership, opium poppy cultivation, abuse and trade will be reduced by providing alternative livelihood programs, demand reduction projects, an antidrug campaign, and drug law enforcement assistance. Greater European involvement in alternative development efforts in Afghanistan will occur.

Afghan authorities will take responsibility for destroying illegal drug crops and assessing the extent of cultivation.

The National Security Council’s Counternarcotics Directorate (CND) will be fully staffed, adequately equipped, funded, and have appropriate facilities in which to work.

The CND will create a framework for centralized statistical reporting on drug arrests and seizures and assume a working role in the annual opium survey and in assessing alternative livelihood needs.

Net poppy cultivation will fall by one-quarter.

Rural development assistance will focus on medium- and long-term projects that bring sustainable alternative livelihoods to poppy growing areas.

New drug intelligence, investigation and interdiction units will be organized and trained and begin operations focusing on Kabul; a British-funded investigative unit will be based in Kandahar.

Centralized data collection on drug arrests and seizures will begin; measures needed to attack drug money laundering will be defined.

A new drug law will systematize data collection and evidence handling.

The Ministry of the Interior will reorganize in accordance with German technical advice and establish a counternarcotics department.

A centralized statistical reporting system will begin to issue reports and procedures for securing, testing, and destroying seized drugs will be developed.

A law making money laundering illegal will be drafted and promulgated.

With the assistance of UNODC, the CND will conduct a baseline assessment of the extent and nature of drug abuse and dependence in Afghanistan. Working with the Ministries of Public Health, Information and Culture, Education, and Telecommunications, the CND will coordinate a national drug abuse prevention and treatment program.

Program JustificationThe fall of the Taliban regime and Operation Enduring Freedom have provided Afghanistan a rare opportunity to rebuild the country. Poppy cultivation resumed in Afghanistan after September 11, 2001, and Afghanistan resumed its place as the world’s largest producer of opium in 2002, despite the imposition of the government’s January 2002 ban on cultivation. Without an organized security force or rule of law, the drug trade and crime will undermine efforts to create a stable recovery in Afghanistan. Although President Karzai has issued decrees outlawing the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs, the central government’s ability to enforce the decrees is minimal. The USG estimates the extent of poppy cultivation to be 30,500 hectares. There is limited Afghan capability to estimate illegal drug cultivation and destroy illegal drug crops and there is no integrated drug intelligence, investigation, and interdiction capability within the Afghan National Police. Drug arrests, seizures, testing, and destruction are haphazard and drugs confiscated by the authorities are sometimes stolen and/or resold. There is urgent need to help the Afghans pursue licit crop cultivation and enforce their ban on poppy cultivation and the opiate trade.

In addition, a functioning justice system will enable Afghanistan to work with U.S. law enforcement in the future, give Afghans a legitimate means of settling disputes, aid economic recovery through the promotion of foreign investment, and help secure human rights. Currently, the Afghan justice system is in almost complete collapse. Court buildings are destroyed. Records are lost. Temporary facilities are in use. Most personnel are untrained in the law. Women legal professionals disappeared from the system during the Taliban period and have largely not yet returned. Therefore, there is the need to modernize and re-establish a fair and transparent justice system.

The Afghan National Police is a fractured organization without strong central authority. The Ministry of the Interior struggles to identify and exert control over an estimated 75,000 police throughout the country. There is a need to modernize and professionalize the National Police to improve the security environment. The Ministry of the Interior is unable to communicate with or exercise effective supervision of the Afghan National Police. The police are underpaid and ill equipped. They are subject to corruption and intimidation by well-armed and well-financed warlords. The National Police needs to be reorganized to function more effectively.

The FY 2004 INL program will have three main components that build on efforts begun with FY 2002 supplemental funding – police training and reform, justice sector reform and counternarcotics activities.

Program AccomplishmentsINL has successfully concluded a Letter of Agreement with the government of Afghanistan for $60 million to provide justice, law enforcement and counternarcotics program assistance.

Administration of Justice. The Afghan government has appointed a judicial commission made up of 11 members, including two women, considered to be reform minded. The Italian government, under urging from the U.S., has committed an additional $20 million for judicial reform over the next two years. INL has put mechanisms in place to refurbish and supply basic equipment to courts in Kabul, as the needs are identified in conjunction with the planned UNDCP assessment. The pre-Soviet basic legal codes, the 1964 Constitution, and the Bonn Agreement have been distributed or are in the process of being distributed to every province in Afghanistan in local languages. These have been well received by local administrators and judges. INL funds supported a United States Institute of Peace conference in early February 2003, which brought together 21 Afghan legal professionals, human rights, constitutional and judicial commission members, legal activists and international experts to discuss approaches to criminal justice and the development of an independent and fair system of justice. The group cut across ministry and ideological lines, and discussions that they began for the first time in Washington will continue in Kabul. INL is working closely with the international community and USAID to begin a training program for judicial personnel in 2003.

Civilian Law Enforcement. INL is in the process of putting together a U.S.-led international training team that will meet to develop curriculum and training plans. The U.S. members have already been selected and a compound has been leased in Kabul to house the team in anticipation of their arrival. A U.S. Police and Justice Advisor has been deployed to Kabul to oversee the progress of the U.S. contribution to the police and justice programs. INL has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Department of Justice ICITAP program to assist with curricula development, training and train-the-trainer elements of the Afghan program. The new training site has been identified and INL continues to make progress on its development. A communications team is currently in Kabul and is identifying the precise locations of the base stations in preparation for the installation of the communications system.

Counternarcotics Support. Under significant U.S., UK and UN pressure, the government of Afghanistan has taken important steps to curb poppy cultivation and trade in Afghanistan. In accordance with the UK plan, President Karzai decreed a ban on opium poppy in 2001, and he created the Counternarcotics Directorate as the central drug policy-making body for the government. The government has been undertaking an eradication campaign in poppy provinces over the last several months, which the U.S. will support with significant assistance for alternative livelihoods programs in those areas. USAID and INL have provided more than $135 million in humanitarian, health, and rural livelihood assistance to principal poppy-producing provinces – $14.5 million was directed specifically towards reducing poppy cultivation. INL is in the process of obligating an additional $17 million for alternative development programs through 2003. In July of 2002, INL deployed a full-time officer to oversee all INL programs at the Embassy in Kabul. INL has also provided funds to build and staff the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, which is now fully staffed and operational and has been instrumental in moving the Afghans forward on counter-drug programs. INL contributed to a UNODC program to build the government’s drug policy office, the Counternarcotics Directorate, within the National Security Council, which has acquired office space and is hiring staff. The CND staffing consists of the Director-General, several policy advisors and support staff. With extensive assistance from UNODC, the U.S. and the UK, a draft National Drug Control Strategy has been prepared and reviewed by five drug sub-sector working groups, alternative livelihoods, demand reduction, law enforcement, judicial reform and coordination activities. These Working Groups will implement counter-drug programs as directed by the CND. The Cabinet will approve the Strategy in early 2003. The Ministry of Justice has drafted a new drug law as well. The Germans have begun training an intelligence unit, while an investigative unit for a regional office in Kandahar, trained by the British, is underway. INL will fund the training and equipping of an interdiction unit under the auspices of the UNODC in early 2003.

FY 2004 ProgramBuilding on programs begun with $60 million from the FY 2002 supplemental, $40 million in FY 2004 funds will be used to continue counternarcotics, police and justice development programs. Of the total FY 2004 funding, $17.8 million will be used to fund counternarcotics support; $18.5 million for the Civilian Law Enforcement program; $3 million for the Administration of Justice program, and $0.7 million for Program Development and Support.

Counternarcotics Support and Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. Funding for counternarcotics projects will support the UK lead on counternarcotics activities in Afghanistan and include enforcement, institution building, public diplomacy, demand reduction and rural livelihood programs in major poppy-growing areas. The INL alternative development plan has initiated assistance programs in major poppy areas. It is necessary to provide early aid to the poppy farmers, who are enmeshed in a vicious cycle of opium credit taken against future crops. Within two to three years, however, we plan to discontinue alternative development assistance because: (1) as their capacity grows, the Afghan counternarcotics police will enforce the opium ban in the countryside, and (2) the rural development programs of the major assistance providers will “mainstream” the special needs of poppy farmers in their programs. Alternative development programs should not continue indefinitely because of the perverse effect they may cause over time, by which farmers grow poppy because that is the fastest way to get assistance. Alternative development and income generation programs provide immediate assistance in poppy-growing areas to promote voluntary eradication and provide sustainable, alternative crops and income opportunities. These programs will include agricultural inputs and training for farmers, and vocational training to generate income for other vulnerable populations such as women. A portion of the counter-narcotics funds will support drug control capacity-building programs to assist the Afghan government to maintain a national drug control coordination office. Funds will also support training for border police to improve interdiction capacity and cross-border cooperation and training for a counter-narcotics force to enforce the poppy ban and pursue drug traffickers. The remaining funds will go to programs that focus on counteracting the debilitating effects of illicit drug production and abuse through demand reduction projects and a major public affairs program to encourage support for a drug-free society.

Civilian Law Enforcement. Assistance to train and equip police in FY 2004 will continue to complement the German-led efforts to re-establish law enforcement functions and take steps to organize and professionalize the 75,000-member Afghanistan National Police Force that will be established. The program will build on an effort that enhanced police capabilities in Kabul, contributed non-lethal personal equipment, materials, and supplies, provided an identity card system with personnel database, and established a country-wide chiefs of police communications network. U.S. assistance will support Afghan training activities at the new Ministry of Interior police school in Kabul and the National Police effort to improve and modernize police organization and capacities in the 32 provinces outside Kabul. Funds will be used to assist Afghan trainers deliver basic skills curricula for lower-level police that provide training in the principles of supervision and management for all levels of the police organization, stresses human rights and provides personal police equipment. U.S. assistance will also expand the police identification card system and enhance the police physical plant and infrastructure in the provinces. During FY 2004 INL will expand training of police to include police from outside Kabul who will be trained as trainers.

Administration of Justice. Assistance in the justice sector will continue to support Afghan and Italian-led efforts to rebuild and reform the domestic justice sector. Efforts will focus on establishing the rule of law through assisting the Afghans in rebuilding justice system infrastructure, including court and training facility refurbishment, training of justice system personnel in criminal procedure, human rights and basic skills, and assisting with the development and implementation of professional standards. In addition, we will continue to support the Ministry of Justice and the work of the judicial commission in its efforts to reform the justice sector.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counter-narcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Counternarcotics Support        
Sustainable Alternative Development 3,000 27,050 12,000
Drug Control and Capacity Building 3,832 3,000
Border Security Program 2,000
Subtotal 3,000 30,882 17,000
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 2,000 800
Civilian Law Enforcement         
Training of Afghan Police 15,000 12,500
Equipment, Communications Support 9,600 6,000
Subtotal 24,600 18,500
Administration of Justice        
Justice Sector Training Program 1,500 2,000
Justice Sector Reform & Infrastructure 500 1,000
Subtotal 2,000 3,000
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 225 345
Non-U.S. Personnel 36 45
ICASS Costs 90 100
Program Support 167 210
Subtotal 518 700
Total 3,000 60,000 40,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

4,200 2,500 3,000

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsA Lao capacity to reduce opium production and narcotics refining through alternative development and crop eradication programs will be built.

Road construction in Phongsali province will be completed; access to markets, government services, food production and alternative income activities will improve; eradication efforts in Phongsali, Luang Prabang and other poppy-growing provinces will increase; and road construction and related activities in Luang Prabang province will begin.

Drug addiction and abuse levels will be reduced.

A nationwide train-the-trainer effort will be developed and implemented; additional treatment centers will be constructed; and demand reduction education and treatment at national- and municipal-level drug counseling centers will increase.

Counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities to combat the production and trafficking of heroin, opium and methamphetamine and promote effective interaction with law enforcement agencies in the international community will be improved.

Effective utilization of donated equipment by the counternarcotics units, Customs Department and Commission for Drug Control and Supervision will result in increased arrest and seizure rates; and improved access to investigators, reports, suspects and samples will become evident.

Program JustificationLaos was the world’s third largest producer of illicit opium in 2002. According to U.S. estimates, although opium poppy cultivation in Laos rose slightly in 2002, potential opium production decreased fourteen percent, to around 180 metric tons. Opium poppy is generally grown in remote, mountainous areas largely populated by ethnic minority groups that have traditionally resisted the imposition of central authority. Laos is one of the world’s poorest countries, with a lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence.

In 2000, the Government of Laos (GOL) declared counternarcotics to be a national priority. Since then, it has adopted stricter drug control policies, including tough new measures for eliminating opium production, imposing the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes, and organizing a national campaign to address the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse among Lao youth. The GOL has pledged to reduce opium production by 40 percent in 2003, and eliminate it altogether by 2005.

Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and beyond, and is increasingly coming under siege by drug traffickers. Law enforcement capabilities in Laos are both rudimentary and under-funded: more training and better coordination are badly needed – as well as increased GOL support – to be effective against the major trafficking organizations active in Laos.

Laos has the second highest opium addiction rate in the world and much of the opium poppy grown is consumed in Laos. The addict population supports the Lao opium production and increases the difficulties of eradication and crop substitution. In addition, Laos shares with the rest of South East Asia the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse. There is still little conception in Lao society of the complexity and pathology of drug addiction.

INL development projects are aimed at providing income alternatives for opium poppy farmers before instituting a program of crop eradication. Without such alternatives the farmers would face extreme hardship and the Lao Government would be unwilling to enforce eradication. The crop substitution areas funded by the U.S. Government consistently show lower levels of opium cultivation.

The law enforcement project will help train and equip specialized counternarcotics units, with the goal of placing one in each of the 18 provinces in Laos. It will also support Lao Customs and the Commission for Drug Control and Supervision.

The demand reduction project will support Lao demand reduction and drug abuse education efforts through several NGO and international organization channels.

Program AccomplishmentsThe INL-funded alternative development project in Houaphanh Province has succeeded in reducing opium production in the project area to below commercial levels. The project has included construction of 160 kilometers of rural access roads, irrigation and hydroelectric dams, clean water systems, local hospitals, and primary schools. New rice strains and commercial crops have been introduced and commercial weaving and silk production have been promoted. Similar crop control project in Phongsali Province and Luang Prabang are underway, starting with road construction. At U.S. urging, the GOL has commenced eradication efforts in areas where successful alternative development projects have reduced cultivation to below target levels.

The first INL-supported counternarcotics units (CNUs), now in ten provinces, are slowly maturing and expanding their cooperation with other counternarcotics forces in the region. INL funds administrative expenses of the Ministry of Interior’s Drug Control Department, which supervises CNU police officers. Counternarcotics police have improved data collection and entry for arrests and other relevant information, and several CNUs have contributed to effective interdiction efforts. In 2002, CNUs reported 235 cases resulting in the arrests of 472 suspects. Drugs, vehicles, weapons and cash were confiscated in some cases. However, CNU cooperation with U.S. law enforcement remains hampered by restricted access and cumbersome regulations on contacts and training. The INL project intends to eventually open CNUs in each province and to equip and staff branch offices along trafficking routes; however, GOL cooperation with existing CNUs will have to improve further before the program is expanded. Lao Customs made several significant seizures in early 2003 and promptly shared information with U.S. agencies. Over 300 officials from the CNUs, Customs, and other agencies have received basic officer training and specialized training at ILEA Bangkok.

The GOL is formulating a national demand reduction strategy to focus on the growing problem of ATS (amphetamine-type stimulants). U.S. funds helped build an ATS addiction clinic in Vientiane in 2002 and paid for DEA demand reduction training for 67 police. Opium addiction remains the major drug problem in Laos, however, and in 2002 the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimates the nationwide opium addict population decreased slightly, to 56,613 vs. 58,000 in 2001.

FY 2004 ProgramThe FY 2004 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years.

Alternative Development/Crop Control. The majority of FY 2004 funds will be used to expand the crop control project in Phongsali province, and to support eradication efforts in other poppy-growing areas such as Houaphanh, Oudomxai and Luang Prabang. According to the UN, Phongsali is the most important poppy-growing province, but has received little development assistance due to its extremely remote location and lack of roads. Funds will be used for completion of a 72-km road as a platform for alternative development activities, such as weaving and raising livestock.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction funding will support efforts throughout the country to increase education and treatment. Specifically, financial support will be provided to a Demand Reduction Training Center to be operated by NGOs within the country to develop and implement a nationwide train-the-trainer initiative. Funds will also be provided to assist the National Center for Demand Reduction in Vientiane and drug counseling centers in several cities and towns.Narcotics Law Enforcement. Funds for narcotics law enforcement will be used to provide housing, equipment, and training for the CNUs currently active in ten provinces. Assistance will also continue to the Lao Customs Department and National Commission for Drug Control and Supervision, which oversees all GOL counternarcotics activities. In addition, funds will be used to provide training for law enforcement officials from these and other agencies at ILEA Bangkok. Funding will continue to be used to pay administrative expenses of the Drug Control Department of the Ministry of Interior, which supervises the CNUs.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Narcotics Law Enforcement 200 50 100
Crop Control/Alternative Development 2,523 1,505 1,902
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 900 300 300
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 304 257 285
Non-U.S. Personnel 27 28 30
ICASS Costs 102 107 112
Program Support 144 253 271
Subtotal 577 645 698
Total 4,200 2,500 3,000

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

75,5001 15,000 6,000 38,000


Budget Summary ($000)

1This total includes $73 million from the Pakistan Emergency Response Fund (ERF) Supplemental.

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe capacity of the Government of Pakistan (GOP) law enforcement agencies to deter, prevent, and investigate major crimes including terrorism and trafficking in drugs, persons and contraband will be enhanced.

The criminal database and automated fingerprint identification systems will be implemented at federal and provincial levels; key training segments (e.g., port of entry operations, criminal investigations, first response to crime scenes) will be delivered and replicated by Pakistani trainers; and donated equipment will be effectively utilized in investigations and operations.

Border controls and border security will be greatly improved as a result of greater access to the western border and coast regions by law enforcement officials, so as to deny safe haven to terrorists and criminals.

There will be an increase in arrests of terrorists, traffickers and smugglers on the western and coastal borders; greater law enforcement access to currently inaccessible areas, particularly in FATA; an increase in GOP law enforcement interagency information sharing and joint operations on the western border; and an increase in effective utilization of Quetta-based air assets in operations and establishment of Peshawar forward operating location.

Police reforms called for in the GOP’s Police Order 2002 will be implemented.

A nationwide training needs assessment will be completed; Strategic plans and training curricula for law enforcement will be developed; criminal investigation training will be standardized country-wide; and an executive management training continuum will be established.

The GOP will provide fast and responsive assistance on cooperative investigations.

U.S. law enforcement agencies will experience improved cooperation with their GOP counterparts.

Program JustificationPakistan remains a key ally in the war on terrorism and the ongoing fight to curb drug trafficking in southwest Asia. The GOP has been an important partner of the United States and has demonstrated a firm commitment to combat these menaces that threaten Americans and Pakistanis alike.

The GOP has taken into custody well over 400 alleged al-Queda members since the 9/11 tragedy. However, it remains hampered by the inaccessibility of large portions of its border with Afghanistan that continue to provide potential safe-havens for terrorists and other criminals. US- and GOP-sponsored road building projects in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are helping to open up some of these areas to law enforcement. However, law enforcement agencies remain under-equipped and poorly trained for effective border control operations – another problem that the US-sponsored border security program, started with FY 2002 Emergency Response Fund supplemental funding, is helping to address.

While Pakistan has held the line on zero opium poppy cultivation, a remarkable achievement given that it was the third largest supplier of opium just a decade ago, it faces a serious threat from drug traffickers, particularly from Afghanistan. GOP seizures of narcotics, primarily heroin and hashish, remain significant but undoubtedly represent only a small fraction of what actually is transiting the country. Arrests of traffickers in the rugged border terrain are difficult as traffickers generally are far better equipped than police. The provision of vehicles, radios, and surveillance equipment as part of our border security program is only now beginning to mitigate this problem.

The GOP recognizes that its ability to combat terrorism and other serious forms of criminality successfully will require not just an infusion of resources focused on the border but also large-scale reform and improvements to law enforcement institutions country-wide. These reforms include better cooperation among law enforcement organizations, more focus on service to the community, and enhancement of technical skills. In October 2002, Pakistan promulgated Police Order 2002, a roadmap for reform. Two boards, the National Police Management Board and the National Police Training Management Board, have been convened to oversee reform efforts and to facilitate coordination and standardization of law enforcement training, policies, and procedures across the country. Pakistan will need outside expert help and resources to fully implement these reforms.

Program AccomplishmentsCrop control programs in FY 2001 and FY 2002 succeeded in reducing poppy cultivation to a virtually zero-growth level with ongoing U.S. assistance in facilitating law enforcement access to poppy growing areas (through road construction) and crop substitution programs. In addition, the Anti-Narcotics Force, the Frontier Corps, Customs, the Maritime Security Agency, and Pakistan Coast Guard, with operational and material support from the United States (under the border security and law enforcement support programs), made narcotics seizures totaling more than 8.9 metric tons of heroin and 71 metric tons of hashish in FY 2002. There have been several prominent prosecutions of major drug traffickers; the appellate process is ongoing.

The Ministry of Interior Air Wing was established from scratch in FY 2002 using border security program resources. Five HUEY II helicopters have been delivered and training for new Air Wing personnel is nearing completion so that the helicopters can soon be utilized for border security operations. Three fixed wing surveillance aircraft will be delivered in the first half of 2003.

More than 1,100 vehicles and hundreds of pieces of communications equipment recently have been delivered to recipient agencies under the border security program. These resources will give law enforcement better access to rugged areas of the western border and improve coordination and communication among those agencies. Outposts are being constructed to support the placement of Frontier Corps personnel at remote border sites.

Training courses involving personnel from fourteen different agencies have begun to improve skills in basic point of entry operations, criminal investigations, first-response at crime scenes, instructor development and executive management. The concepts introduced in these sessions were too new and their audience as yet too limited to have had a measurable impact on the quality of law enforcement and border security to date. However, the students were eager to acquire and implement new skills and substantially more training is scheduled over the next several months.

FY 2004 ProgramThe FY 2004 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years, particularly since 9/11.

Border Security. FY 2004 funds will be used to build on the successful implementation of commodity support, training, and technical assistance that was started with FY 2002 ERF supplemental funding. By giving law enforcement agencies operating on the border basic and more advanced tools that they have long lacked, the program is aiding them to secure the western border and coastline from terrorists, criminal elements and narcotics traffickers. Funds will be used to provide ongoing maintenance, support and operating expenses of the Ministry of Interior Air Wing, which includes three fixed wing surveillance aircraft and five helicopters that are based at Quetta in Balochistan province. They also will extend air mobility for rapid response platoons and other law enforcement personnel into the North West Frontier Province through the establishment of a new forward operating location in Peshawar with five helicopters.

Law Enforcement Initiatives. Assistance to law enforcement agencies in FY 2004 will address two objectives: providing operational assistance to support immediate term needs with short-term results and supporting GOP-led reform of law enforcement institutions that, while perhaps not producing immediate results, will provide for a higher quality and consistency in law enforcement and respect for human rights that is sustainable over the medium to longer terms. In support of the first objective, a range of law enforcement organizations, including the Pakistan Coast Guard, the Maritime Security Agency, the Home Departments, Customs, and the Anti-Narcotics Force will receive assistance including small-scale transportation and communications equipment, training, and operational support, such as office supplies, fuel and maintenance. This support will facilitate important operations against traffickers, smugglers, and other major criminals. Funds for law enforcement reform will provide technical assistance and training for the development of strategic plans for providing law enforcement services and education; enhance the infrastructure and capabilities of the provincial and national law enforcement academies; improve the criminal investigative capacities of provincial and federal law enforcement personnel and provide equipment to link the police at the local, provincial, and federal levels to law enforcement agencies not covered under the border security program.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Narcotics Law Enforcement          
Khyber, Mohmand, Bajaur, FATA Rd. Projects 3,500
Support to the Law Enforcement Agencies 320 1,492 1,500
Support to FATA Law Enforcement 1,500
Criminal Information/AFIS Database 10,000
Police Reform 9,300
Subtotal 320 15,000 1,492 10,800
Crop Control/Alternative Development 1,450 100
Border Security           
Helicopter & Fixed Wing Operational Support 29,000 3,500 9,000
Preshawar Forward Operating Base 17,000
Border Control Infrastructure 39,000
Training 5,000
Subtotal 73,000 3,500 26.000
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 223 272 365
Non-U.S. Personnel 86 100 134
ICASS Costs 155 200 210
Program Support 266 336 491
Subtotal 730 908 1,200
Total 1 75,500 15,000 6,000 38,.000

1The FY 2002 total includes $73 million from the Pakistan Emergency Response Fund (ERF) Supplemental.Philippines

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request


Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) will develop an effective civilian police force in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and elsewhere in the Philippines.

A series of basic and advanced training activities, integrating police and prosecutors where possible, will be delivered and later replicated by Philippines trainers, and the Philippines Drug Enforcement Agency will be provided with organizational support and training that will enable it to undertake its mandate effectively.

The criminal justice institutions, including law enforcement, judicial, and prosecutorial bodies, will be developed and modernized.

Functioning forensic and investigative facilities to support criminal investigations will be established and equipped; an effective national automated fingerprint identification system and criminal database will be implemented; and there will be improved police-prosecutorial working relationships leading to increases in successful prosecutions.

Program JustificationThe Philippines lies at the crossroads of the global wars on terror and drugs. At the request of the Philippine Government (GRP), U.S. military forces played a significant role in rooting out Islamic militants in the Southern Philippines in 2002, including the Abu Sayyaf Group, designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the Department of State. The successful joint effort showed the effectiveness of the Philippines military but exposed yawning gaps between the military and civilian law enforcement community. This gap threatens national security by leaving the Philippines vulnerable to domestic criminals, international narcotraffickers, and terrorist organizations.

A strategic ally, the Philippines has reached out to the U.S. for assistance with building capacity on the civilian side as well. In July 2002 President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (GMA) vowed to build a strong republic by enhancing peace and order. Her administration listed the drug menace as “public enemy No. 1,” signed a comprehensive anti-drug law, and established a new counternarcotics organization modeled after the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. While the will is strong, however, the capabilities remain weak. Strengthening the law enforcement and criminal justice systems remains a top GRP priority and is central to the U.S. goal of fighting terrorism and the organized crime that both nourishes and feeds off it.

Systemic problems in the criminal justice system as well as inadequate funding hamper the GRP’s ability to combat terrorism and other transnational crime. The problems are especially acute in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), but to a great extent apply throughout the Philippines. In the ARMM, a lack of resources and professionalism, ineffectiveness, corruption, and widespread behavior inconsistent with the rule of law plague both the police and the rest of the criminal justice system - the courts, prosecutors, and penal personnel. The result is a criminal justice system with minimal political legitimacy that paves the way for the excesses of local political strongmen, former separatists turned bandits, traditional warlords, and militias. This, in turn, provides fertile ground for ASG and other Islamic terrorists to operate and expand their influence.

Many of the systematic factors limiting the criminal justice system in ARMM apply to the Philippines as a whole, including pervasive corruption, lack of public respect and support, inadequate resources, poor leadership, low morale, lack of basic skills, and reliance on extra-judicial measures. The GRP will require substantial outside assistance to “enhance peace and order” and build a strong and effective law enforcement capability.

Program AccomplishmentsAlthough this is a new program for FY 2004, INL plans to begin some aspects (e.g. assessment, training) in FY 2003.

FY 2004 ProgramThere are two major components to the FY 2004 program that stem from assessments conducted in FY 2003 and build on initial training courses offered in FY 2003. The combination of hands-on skills enhancement training in tandem with a simultaneous effort to establish a mechanism to address long-term organizational change is best suited to achieve tangible, measurable, and sustainable improvements in the law enforcement and criminal justice sectors.

Law Enforcement Support. FY 2004 funds will provide training (investigative techniques, community relations), technical assistance and limited commodities (communications equipment, motorcycles, protective gear), and infrastructure upgrades (police offices and boxes, training facilities) to build effective civilian law enforcement capacity, starting with the ARMM and extending elsewhere. An important element will be a train-the-trainers component enabling the Philippine National Police (PNP) to deliver training where and when needed. FY 2004 resources will also be used to upgrade the skills of new PNP and Philippines Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) officers, provide mid-level management development training, provide equipment and supplies, and promote respect for the rule of law. Support will also be provided to non-governmental organizations that have ongoing programs to strengthen the rule of law in the ARMM and elsewhere.

Administration of Justice. FY 2004 funding will be used to provide technical training, advice, and assistance in support of legislative reform to establish the necessary framework for effective law enforcement. Legislative, technical, and advisory support will be provided to government efforts to make the newly established PDEA an effective drug enforcement agency. Technical and material support will also be provided to improve law enforcement information management systems, enhance forensic investigative capabilities, and improve communication and cooperation between law enforcement agencies, leading to increased rates of arrests and convictions.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Law Enforcement Support 1,100
Administration of Justice 800
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel
Non-U.S. Personnel 75
ICASS Costs 20
Program Support 5
Subtotal 100
Total 2,000

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

4,000 3,700 2,000


Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Royal Thai Government (RTG) drug law enforcement capabilities to investigate and prosecute major drug traffickers and their organizations will be improved.

Technical assistance, training, and equipment delivered and effectively utilized by the Office of Narcotics Control Board, Police Narcotics Suppression Bureau, Border Patrol Police, Attorney General’s Office, and other organizations will result in an increased number of investigations and successful prosecutions.

The criminal justice sector will be reformed, thereby improving the effectiveness of prosecutions of drug traffickers and other major offenses such as money laundering.

New or amended criminal laws passed (e.g. witness protection, wiretap evidence); delivery and implementation of key training segments; new prosecutorial and investigative techniques implemented and utilized will produce an increased number of cases successfully prosecuted.

Opium poppy cultivation will be reduced through eradication and small-scale alternative development projects.

There will be a reduced area under poppy cultivation, especially in the border areas; lower potential production of heroin; and an increased number of farmers provided with viable economical alternatives.

There will be a reduced drug addiction rate and expanded awareness campaigns in schools and community groups.

RTG and NGO drug abuse prevention and treatment training programs, community outreach, and epidemiological and prevention studies will increase the effectiveness of drug awareness and demand reduction efforts.

Program JustificationPositioned in the center of the Golden Triangle and possessing the most advanced transportation infrastructure in the region, Thailand finds itself at the nexus of a wide variety of transnational crime. Trafficking in narcotics, weapons and people, alien smuggling, money laundering and terrorist financing are all serious concerns. Thailand, which has identified drugs as its foremost national security issue, has a long tradition of counternarcotics cooperation with the United States and the international community. Thailand has one of the most effective opium eradication and crop substitution programs in the world, and Thailand no longer meets the U.S. statutory definition for a major source country for heroin. In 2003, Thailand’s alternative development programs were used as a model for similar programs in Afghanistan, the world’s largest producer of illicit opium.

Thailand has also been a leader in developing programs aimed at treatment, epidemiology of substance abuse and demand reduction. Thailand is a key regional leader in efforts to develop international cooperation to fight transnational crime and narcotics, through bilateral agreements, taking a strong role in the regional ACCORD (ASEAN-China Cooperative Operations in Response to Dangerous Drugs) and by co-managing with the U.S. the International Law Enforcement Academy in Bangkok. Extensive law enforcement cooperation programs continue to bear fruit, and with U.S. support and encouragement, Thailand is in the process of modernizing its criminal laws and enhancing its law enforcement and regulatory capabilities against money laundering and financial crime.

Thailand takes justifiable pride in its progress on these issues, but the RTG realizes that much remains to be done and looks to the U.S. for direction, support and expertise. Thailand’s criminal justice sector is inadequate to deter or effectively prosecute traffickers in drugs, people and weapons, or dismantle criminal organizations whose activities adversely affect regional security and other U.S. interests. INL-funded Resident Legal and Financial Crime Advisors play key roles in providing the RTG the expertise to address these issues through a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework.

Drug law enforcement assistance has been at the center of U.S. cooperation with Thailand against the production, trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs. Traffickers have diversified drug smuggling operations to include direct maritime transshipment from Burma to major container ports, many of which are in Thailand. Northern Thailand’s good roads link refineries in Burma with the remainder of Thailand’s transportation system and acts as a conduit for drugs flowing out of drug producing areas and commodities and materials needed by trafficking groups flowing in. There is also increasing pressure on law enforcement resources caused by the huge surge in methamphetamine production and trafficking in the region, usually by the same groups involved in opium production. The RTG is also attempting to prevent, disclose and punish pervasive public corruption – which a U.S. Dept. of Justice assessment in the fall of 2000 found to be the single most debilitating factor affecting the entire Thai criminal justice system – and has sought U.S. assistance for this important task.

Despite the success in crop reduction, attention must continue to be paid as growers adopt multiple irrigated cropping throughout the year and traffickers offer advance payments to growers. Continued U.S. support is crucial to maintaining RTG efforts and preventing a rapid rise in opium cultivation, particularly in the rugged areas along the borders with Burma and Laos. U.S. assistance will continue to be instrumental in the successful opium crop reduction program, particularly as attention and resources are increasingly being turned to methamphetamine and other amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). The sharp increase in local use of ATS puts pressure on demand reduction efforts and requires different approaches than were used when the main focus was on heroin use.

Program AccomplishmentsU.S. estimates for the opium poppy crop in 2002 were 750 hectares, the lowest level since monitoring began in the mid-1980s and the fourth year in a row that the crop has remained below 1,000 hectares. The opium poppy crop reduction effort is a strategic success in that Thailand was one of the original major source countries for heroin and is the only major producer to have reduced production below the U.S. statutory definition for a major source country.

At U.S. urging and with U.S. assistance, Thailand is in the process of amending virtually all of its basic narcotics and all other substantive and procedural criminal laws. Thailand has drafted, passed, or implemented legislation to enhance important prosecutorial tools, such as plea-bargaining, witness protection, qualified immunity, and address other issues necessary for implementation of the UN conventions against transnational organized crime and illicit traffic in drugs. These latter include a robust anti-money laundering law, an amendment to the narcotics law providing authority to conduct wiretaps and use electronic evidence, and plans to develop a witness protection system modeled on the U.S. program. Amendments to the money laundering law to establish additional predicate offenses, including terrorism and intellectual property crime, are under consideration. Many significant legislative issues remain to be addressed, but INL-funded technical advice and assistance programs support a wide range of activities and resulted in tangible accomplishments.

Thailand continues to play a leading regional role in counternarcotics and fighting other transnational threats. Thailand has encouraged China to take stronger action to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals used to manufacture methamphetamine and has developed increasingly close and productive counternarcotics cooperation with Burma, despite a temporary freeze in 2002 following border clashes. At the Government of Burma’s invitation, in early 2003, Thailand established several pilot alternative development projects in Burma based on Thailand’s successful experience. Thailand also plays a leading role in the ACCORD plan of action designed to promote regional cooperation on drug and crime control efforts. Thailand also funded regional drug law enforcement training courses in 2002 and 2003.

Law enforcement investigations using INL assistance have led to significant arrests, seizures, and prosecutions of Thai and non-Thai traffickers, including seizure of funds and assets belonging to several associates of major Wa trafficker Wei Hsueh-Kang. The RTG has cooperated with China, Burma, and others on significant drug investigations, resulting in numerous seizures of significant quantities of heroin and methamphetamine tablets.

Thailand has increased demand reduction and drug prevention efforts with grass roots programs around the country. INL funding supported the landmark 2001 National Household Survey of Drug and Substance Abuse, which established the first credible baseline for levels of drug abuse in Thailand. The survey has been instrumental in developing effective drug abuse awareness campaigns, and placing drug treatment centers where they are most needed. In 2001-2002, the RTG established a network of community-based and national level prevention and rehabilitation programs.

FY 2004 ProgramThe FY 2004 program has four elements, which build on longstanding counternarcotics cooperation projects while emphasizing institutional development and reform.

Drug Law Enforcement. FY 2004 funds for this project will provide technical assistance, training, and equipment, with emphasis on areas affected by new or evolving trafficking patterns. Funds will support institution building aimed at achieving more effective efforts to arrest, prosecute, and convict significant traffickers and dismantle their organizations. FY 2004 resources will provide training and equipment throughout the country and will support improved coordination between various law enforcement agencies and other organizations involved in counternarcotics.

Criminal Justice Sector Reform. Funding will be used to strengthen and modernize Thailand’s legal and regulatory capabilities against money laundering and financial crimes. Funds will support consideration of new or amended substantive and procedural criminal laws, as well as prosecutorial and investigative techniques (e.g. wiretap evidence) to improve the effectiveness of prosecution of drug trafficking and other offenses. A Resident Legal Adviser (initiated previously with central funding) will advise Thai authorities on draft criminal laws, procedures, and practices. FY 2004 funds will maintain support initiated in previous years from other funding sources for the Anti-Money Laundering Office, and other institutions that investigate money laundering, to prevent and punish money laundering related to drug trafficking, terrorism, and other transnational organized crime. However, significantly decreased funding levels will likely result in the termination of either or both the Resident Legal Adviser or Resident Financial Adviser positions, with remaining funds used to try to support limited program activities (e.g. temporary, short-term advisory visits and/or seminars) to sustain initiatives funded during FY 2001-2003.

Alternative Development/Crop Control. Crop control funding will continue to support Thailand’s strategic success in eliminating major opium poppy production and will provide enhanced emphasis on small-scale and demonstration alternative development projects, with special emphasis on border areas where similar activities are being implemented in neighboring countries with U.S. or other international support.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. Funding for demand reduction will provide support for activities initiated in prior years from other funding sources that support Thai government and NGO drug abuse prevention and treatment training programs, community outreach, and epidemiological and prevention studies.

Regional Narcotics Control. FY 2004 funds will fund conferences and training in Thailand and elsewhere in the region in support of Thailand’s increasing regional leadership role in counternarcotics and crime issues.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Narcotics Law Enforcement        
Drug Law Enforcement 1,339 1,312 600
Criminal Justice Sector Reform 500 500 175
Subtotal 1,839 1,812 775
Crop Control/Alternative Development 836 700 300
Regional Narcotics Control 159 150 50
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 552 350 150
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 274 307 323
Non-U.S. Personnel 76 85 90
ICASS Costs 151 169 178
Program Support 113 127 134
Subtotal 614 688 725
Total 4,000 3,700 2,000

Asia/Middle East Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

5,050 4,500 1,000

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe cultivation and production of opium poppy in Burma will be reduced.

A sustainable crop-substitution program in Burma will provide opium farmers with alternative farming methods and skills, tools and inputs to grow a variety of alternative crops.

Program JustificationIn Asia and the Middle East, the transnational nature of narcotics trafficking and crime threatens regional stability by undermining democratic institutions, fostering conditions that support organized criminal and terrorist networks, corrupting governments, and subverting the rule of law. Drug trafficking continues to proliferate throughout South and East Asia, involving traffickers from the region and as far away as Africa and Europe. Successful local criminal groups rely on open borders, poorly trained law enforcement, and corrupt officials to build regional and transnational criminal networks. Trafficking networks that exploit weak law enforcement and criminal justice environments can also be used by terrorist organizations for financial and logistical support. The economic, social, and political impact of drug trafficking and the more recent explosion of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have led governments throughout the region to declare the threat posed by illicit drugs their primary national security concern.

Asia/Middle East Regional funds are a critical source of support for counternarcotics and law-enforcement programs designed to assist countries in combating illicit narcotics in a number of ways. The funds support alternative-development projects to reduce opium poppy cultivation, police training, and legal reform. They support bilateral and regional initiatives, both critical to effective narcotics control. Often, availability and use of these funds are the crucial difference between a country’s ability to confront drug-related problems or be overwhelmed by them.

Program AccomplishmentsA range of counternarcotics programs throughout Asia and the Middle East has been funded to help law enforcement institutions cope with narcotics production, narcotics trafficking, and related criminal activities.

In Burma, Project Old Soldier is working to provide alternatives to the cultivation of opium poppy in the Kachin area of the Shan State. The project began in five villages in 1997 and involved approximately 100 villagers. It has now expanded to 88 villages and has more than 2,000 participants. It receives strong support from the participants for providing economically viable alternatives to opium poppy cultivation. An independent monitor has confirmed that the project is effective and hampered only by the lack of funding. None of the funding has benefited the government of Burma.

In Thailand, support to the Anti-Money Laundering Office has funded a Regional Financial Advisor, training, and limited commodity assistance. The Financial Advisor has organized seminars on preventing, investigating, and prosecuting money laundering and other illicit financial activities and is assisting the Royal Thai Government (RTG) coordinate efforts to organize the second Pacific Rim Money Laundering Conference. The RTG Police Money Laundering Unit has conducted numerous investigations and seized millions of dollars of assets, including those of public officials suspected of involvement in money laundering crimes. For example, a prison commander was arrested for his role in a narcotics deal with a prisoner in which 1.8 million amphetamine tablets and 31 kilograms of heroin were seized. Funding was also provided to assist the RTG in reforming its criminal code to better facilitate the investigation and prosecution of transnational criminals. Subjects addressed include wiretaps and use of electronic evidence, plea-bargaining and witness protection, and comparisons of inquisitorial and accusatorial systems of criminal justice.

The influx of illicit narcotics, particularly of synthetic drugs, into Indonesia has increased over the past several years. The training and equipment provided to the Indonesian National Police (INP) Anti-Narcotics Unit has been instrumental in increasing its capacity to detect and investigate narcotics trafficking cases. Applying the tools learned in training programs, the INP seized a large-scale ecstasy-manufacturing laboratory in Jakarta in April 2002. Counternarcotics assistance also achieves the larger U.S. policy objectives in Indonesia of building a civilian, decentralized police force based on democratic principles, respect for human rights, and adherence to the rule of law.

In India, INL commodities and training assistance has contributed to substantial progress in the areas of narcotics interdiction, reduction of illicit opium poppy production, precursor chemical control, and domestic demand reduction. For example, the Indian Central Bureau of Narcotics, a major recipient of INL assistance, has reported numerous significant seizures as well as eradication of 208 hectares of illicit opium poppy in 2002. The Indian Narcotics Control Bureau has cooperated with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, the Indian Chemical Manufacturing Association, and the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to tighten controls on precursor chemicals. The Joint Licit Opium Poppy Survey has been expanded and extended, with American experts advising the Government of India in methodologies for measuring and preventing diversion of licit opium produced for the pharmaceutical industry to the illicit market.

Fiji serves as a regional hub for shipping and air transport and has become a major transshipment point for heroin and cocaine. Drug test kits and evidence collection kits provided to the Government of Fiji have helped in field investigations of the numerous yachts that transit the 300 islands. Two patrol boats provided to the Maldives have helped the government interdict illicit narcotics entering the islands on fishing boats from India. In Nepal, INL has sponsored drug enforcement and policy integrity training as well as demand reduction programs. A major police professionalism project is planned for 2003. In Sri Lanka, funds will be used to assist the Police Narcotics Bureau in institutionalizing modern management principles, concepts, and skills among mid-level officers to ensure continuity in investigations and programs. Assistance will be offered to improve the organizational system, position descriptions, and training procedures.

In China, a Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) has been stationed in Beijing to advance reforms in criminal law and the professionalization of the criminal justice system. The RLA works with a variety of officials-—legislators, prosecutors and judges, law-enforcement officers, academics-—to explain the U.S. legal system and meet larger U.S. policy objectives of enhancing respect for the rule of law and protections for human and civil rights.

Asia/Middle East Regional funds have been used to provide seed funding to ACCORD (ASEAN and China Cooperative Operations in Response to Dangerous Drugs), a major regional initiative aimed at joint actions in key areas: demand reduction, strengthening the rule of law, enhancing law enforcement, and ridding the region of all forms of illicit narcotics by 2015. The participating states have met and developed a regional action plan and mechanism to coordinate information. Task forces have been created for civic awareness, demand reduction, law enforcement cooperation, and alternative development, and a business plan has been approved. The Regional Cooperative Mechanism for executing the ACCORD Plan of Action was approved and staffed.

FY 2004 ProgramAlternative Development/Crop Control. INL will continue support to Project Old Soldier, the highly effective crop-substitution program in Burma. Funds will be used to provide uneducated opium farmers with knowledge of alternative farming methods and skills, tools and inputs to grow a variety of alternative crops that supplement their daily diets and incomes. U.S. and local experts, including an agronomist and a small staff, will provide agricultural advice and expertise to this project.

Program Development and Support. These funds will be used to cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation in the Narcotics Affairs Section in New Delhi and at USEU Brussels.

Asia/Middle East Regional
INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Narcotics Law Enforcement 3,181 1,559
Alternative Development/Crop Control 1,260 260 270
Administration of Justice 2,000
Program Development and Support 609 681 730
Total 5,050 4,500 1,000