Other Latin America

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2004 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
June 2003

The Bahamas

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

1,200 1,100 1,000

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsOperation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) achieves the capacity to impede the use of Bahamian territory for the movement of illicit drugs to the U.S.

The number and amount of seizures of cocaine and marijuana will increase, along with the number of arrests of narcotics traffickers.

Bahamian law enforcement, with U.S. assistance, conducts sophisticated criminal and financial investigations and effective maritime interdiction operations that will result in a reduction in narcotics trafficking activity.

Cooperation and coordination with U.S. law enforcement will increase and several major Bahamian drug trafficking organizations will be dismantled.

The number of narcotics trafficking and money laundering cases successfully prosecuted will increase.

Judicial institutions are modernized so that drug traffickers and money launderers are successfully prosecuted in an expeditious manner and their assets seized and forfeited.

The value of assets seized and forfeited will increase significantly and the government will respond expeditiously to U.S. extradition requests.

The Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas (GCOB) reaches Bahamian youth – including remote islands – with effective drug-use prevention programs.

Local surveys will show a decline in drug use.

Program JustificationAn estimated 12 percent of the cocaine from South America destined for the United States passes through the Jamaica-Cuba-Bahamas vector. Bahamian drug trafficking organizations send go-fast drug smuggling boats to Jamaica to pick up cargoes of cocaine and marijuana or, less frequently, to areas around Cuba to pick up airdrops from South America or Jamaica. These boats then return to The Bahamas before attempting to smuggle the drugs into south Florida. Since 1982, the Bahamian and U.S. governments have cooperated closely in OPBAT to interdict the flow of drugs through The Bahamas. OPBAT currently utilizes seven USG helicopters and other USG surveillance aircraft in coordination with Bahamian go-fast interceptor boats to detect and interdict drug smuggling go-fast boats operating in Bahamian waters. Detection of go-fast boats is difficult from the air as is the pursuit and arrest of smugglers who, once sighted and pursued by OPBAT, typically dump their illicit cargo in the sea and abandon their boats on the beach. The key to countering this threat in an area as vast as The Bahamas is accurate intelligence that permits the coordinated deployment of surveillance aircraft and interceptor boats. INL assistance is directed toward improving the capacity of Bahamian law enforcement to effectively participate in joint interdiction efforts.

The Bahamas is a major offshore financial center. In June 2000, citing deficiencies in the Bahamian anti-money laundering regime, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) included The Bahamas in a list of “non-cooperating” jurisdictions in the fight against money laundering. The Bahamas responded by enacting legislation in December 2000 reforming its bank secrecy laws and creating a Financial Intelligence Unit. In June 2001, FATF recognized these improvements by removing The Bahamas from the list of “non-cooperating” jurisdictions. The Bahamas now must develop the expertise and demonstrate the willingness to detect and prosecute financial crimes.

Program AccomplishmentsOPBAT is an important USG drug interdiction effort in the Caribbean and a model for regional cooperation. As in past years, project funding will support construction, maintenance and operating costs of three OPBAT helicopter bases and additional training for the Bahamian Drug Enforcement Unit training. In FY 2001 and FY 2002, INL provided a total of three go-fast interceptor boats to the Bahamian police to permit the pursuit and arrest of drug smugglers. An additional boat will be provided to the police in FY 2003. Total cocaine and marijuana seizures by OPBAT and Bahamian police during FY 2002 increased by 160 percent and 183 percent respectively, as compared to FY 2001. In FY 2002, a joint Bahamas-U.S. investigation resulted in the arrest of 32 members of a major Bahamian drug trafficking ring, the Austin Knowles organization. Also in FY 2002, The Bahamas Customs Department created a canine drug detector unit to prevent the exploitation of the Freeport Container Port by drug smugglers.

FY 2004 ProgramLaw Enforcement Investigations. This project works to increase the efficiency of the Bahamian police, Defense Force, and Customs Department to detect, investigate, and prosecute drug smugglers. It will fund training, technical assistance and vehicles as well as the expansion of the Customs detector dog program.

Operation Bahamas Turks and Caicos (OPBAT). This project will provide support to maintain OPBAT bases, repair and replace communications equipment, construct new buildings, procure water supply and treatment equipment, and provide interdiction operations training to promote more effective joint interdiction efforts.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. This project will continue to provide funding to the National Drug Council to promote drug public awareness activities to foster support for the interdiction programs.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funding will be used to cover the cost of salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. direct hire personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

The Bahamas
INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Narcotics Law Enforcement        
Law Enforcement Investigations 200 150 263
OPBAT 611 140 262
Fast Response Boats 355
Subtotal 811 645 525
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 60 50 50
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 153 190 200
Non-U.S. Personnel
ICASS Costs 97 130 135
Program Support 79 85 90
Subtotal 329 405 425
Total 1,200 1,100 1,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

3,500 2,500 3,000

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Government of Guatemala (GOG) achieves an effective program to interdict illicit drugs transiting the region en route to the United States.

Counternarcotics and law enforcement capabilities and results will improve as a result of increased training and material support while the performance of the judiciary will improve with the implementation of new procedures and installation of modern equipment.

The GOG controls opium poppy and marijuana crops with an effective eradication program.

The levels of drug crop production will decrease.

The GOG attains the capability to perform professional and effective investigations that lead to the successful prosecution and conviction of narcotraffickers.

The number of successful prosecutions will increase.

The GOG develops and maintains an effective and well-publicized demand reduction program.

Survey results will show that drug use by young people decreases.

Program JustificationGuatemala is a significant transit country for cocaine from South America to Mexico and onward to the United States. U.S. intelligence experts estimate that between 150 and 250 metric tons of cocaine are transshipped annually through Guatemala. Small amounts of opium poppy and marijuana are cultivated for domestic consumption. Diversion of precursor chemicals is a serious concern.

The GOG is working to strengthen its drug enforcement capability and in October 2002 formed a new counternarcotics investigation unit, the SAIA. The Ministry of Government (MOG), the Public Ministry (MP), and judicial organizations have initiated the integration of computerized systems to track cases and enhance information sharing within the GOG and eventually with counterpart Central American institutions. The GOG supports interdiction and eradication operations, including, when available, the use of aerial spraying against marijuana and opium poppy crops. At the same time, the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addiction and Illicit Drug Trafficking (SECCATID) is aggressively pursuing demand reduction in Guatemala.

The GOG was determined to have failed demonstrably in its counternarcotics efforts in 2002. Corruption forced the dissolution of the Department of Anti-Narcotics Operations (DOAN), which was plagued by scandals ranging from extra-judicial killings in Chocon, to the theft of 200% more drugs than were officially seized by police. INL support for interdiction efforts will include the training of the new counternarcotics unit (the SAIA), as well as operational support and equipment maintenance. While significant poppy cultivation in Guatemala has been eliminated, it remains necessary to periodically reassess the magnitude of the crop using the INL Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) capability. The Peten region of the country continues to be the main source of marijuana cultivation. GOG narcotics control police carry out manual eradication, limited air-mobile interdiction (with INL assistance), port control operations, narcotics investigations, and road interdiction and inspection functions.

Program AccomplishmentsDespite the rampant corruption and dismal performance of the GOG in 2002, the INL program moved forward. After the dissolution of the DOAN, INL provided extensive training to the 400 new SAIA agents at the Regional Counternarcotics Training Center. The center also successfully trained counternarcotics teams throughout the region on investigations, small unit tactics, information analysis and human rights. In addition, the program provided the necessary equipment for both the SAIA and the Narcotics Prosecutors to successfully perform their duties. The Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addiction and Drug Trafficking (SECCATID) was able to conduct a survey of drug usage amongst schoolchildren, and continued to build on ideas generated by a regional demand reduction seminar.

FY 2004 ProgramNarcotics Interdiction. This project focuses on developing the investigative and operational capacity of the SAIA. It will strengthen Guatemala’s enforcement capability by providing training, equipment, and infrastructure for the SAIA. INL will continue to support the Guatemalan Regional Anti-Narcotics Training Center, a fulltime facility offering courses to other Central American police as well as the Guatemalan forces. The NAS-funded training program at the center currently offers courses for detector dog handlers, instructors, supervisors and narcotics investigators for countries throughout the region. The project also supports the SAIA port security program by funding a U.S. Customs port advisor and training for SAIA agents.

Drug Crop Eradication. The Eradication Project supports continuing eradication of opium poppy and marijuana plants. This project increases eradication capabilities through training and logistical support for police units involved in counternarcotics operations. Operational training will be provided to support Mayan Jaguar and other USG regional eradication efforts, including RARE and Central Skies regional deployments.

Institutional Development. In addition to direct interdiction and eradication training and technical assistance, INL will make a concerted effort to develop the new narcotics police into a modern and efficient counternarcotics force. Emphasis will be placed on leadership skills, respect for human rights, case management systems, personnel management, career development in the police, and the promotion of inter-institutional cooperation.

Administration of Justice. The Narcotics Prosecutor Assistance Project will provide funding for the special narcotics prosecutors and an anticorruption prosecutor unit of the Attorney General’s office (Public Ministry). This project will expand the number of prosecutors in the program, increase professional training, and promote a modern case management system that can eventually be linked to the system being developed for the National Civilian Police. Better case management and a linking of systems should lead to increased drug convictions. This project supplies equipment and training in coordination with USAID judicial reform efforts and funds a local-hire legal advisor. A well-received element of the project, developed in 1998, provides assistance to the GOG to streamline operations, prepare cases and draft counternarcotics legislation. The legal advisor will assist in the drafting of counternarcotics and organized crime legislation in Guatemala and other Central American countries. The legal advisor will continue to develop the new financial crimes unit to investigate and prosecute money-laundering crimes.

Administration of Justice. This project will assist a Guatemalan Supreme Court initiative to improve the recently established high-impact courts designed to handle sensitive organized crime and narcotics cases that regular courts cannot handle. In addition to staff training, the court case-tracking system will eventually be integrated with the National Civilian Police case management system. The primary objective of the project is to promote greater coordination and cooperation between the judiciary, the prosecutors and the police. Project provided training and technical assistance would also encourage the adoption of asset forfeiture laws and narcotics-related legal reforms.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. The GOG recognizes that domestic drug addiction is a growing threat and has made demand reduction a national priority. This project is designed to advance efforts in this area while encouraging the government to pass needed counternarcotics legislation. The main recipient of aid from this project is the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addiction and Drug Trafficking (SECCATID). SECCATID develops education programs and actively promotes public awareness of drug issues. The project will also develop specific advertising and public information programs, including printed material and videos addressing the dangers of drug use by youth.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds will provide resources for salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Narcotics Law Enforcement        
Narcotics Interdiction 300 225 200
Drug Crop Eradication 125 100 100
Institutional Development 1,645 900 1,350
Subtotal 2,070 1,225 1,650
Administration of Justice 500 500 500
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 250 150 225
Program Development and Support      
U.S. Personnel 208 221 228
Non-U.S. Personnel 90 94 99
ICASS Costs 200 175 185
Program Support 182 135 113
Subtotal 680 625 625
Total 3,500 2,500 3,000


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

1,550 1,200 1,500

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Government of Jamaica (GOJ) achieves a more effective criminal justice system.

The enactment and effective implementation of modern anti-crime laws will enable Jamaican law enforcement to conduct sophisticated investigations, leading to an increased number of arrests and successful prosecutions of major drug traffickers, money launderers and other international criminals.

The GOJ will seize and forfeit an increased amount of assets derived from drug trafficking and other criminal activities.

The GOJ will respond more quickly to U.S. requests under the bilateral extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties.

The GOJ develops strong, corruption-free counter-drug institutions capable of disrupting and ultimately deterring the transshipment of drugs through Jamaica and eliminating the cultivation and production of marijuana in Jamaica.

The number of successful maritime interdictions of vessels transporting drugs will be increased.

Increased seizures will result from the improved detection of drugs, precursor chemicals and other contraband transiting Jamaica via commercial means.

A strengthened GOJ capability to identify public corruption will result in increased arrests and successful prosecutions.

Intensified law enforcement operations will result in an increase in marijuana eradication and marijuana seizures.

The domestic consumption of drugs in Jamaica is reduced.

Support for GOJ and NGO demand reduction efforts will increase the number of people who benefit from the anti-drug message, thereby reducing domestic consumption.

Program JustificationJamaica is a major transit point for South American cocaine en route to the U.S. and the largest Caribbean producer and exporter of marijuana for U.S. markets. Traffickers use Jamaica’s offshore waters, ports and airstrips to move drugs to the U.S. Jamaican ports are vulnerable to the illegal diversion of precursor and essential chemicals used in the production of illicit drugs. Corruption continues to undermine law enforcement and judicial efforts against drug-related crime in Jamaica. While Jamaica is not considered an important regional financial center, tax haven, or offshore banking center, the U.S. is concerned about the increase in money laundering in the Caribbean, including in Jamaica.

The GOJ publicly states its commitment to combating illegal drugs and drug-related crimes. The GOJ, however, operates under severe resource constraints, with over sixty percent of its national budget expended for debt servicing. Therefore, U.S. and other donor assistance is essential to help the GOJ develop and sustain an effective counter-drug/crime capability.

Counternarcotics assistance for Jamaica seeks, through the provision of equipment, technical assistance and training, to help the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), the Jamaica Defense Force (JDF), Jamaica Customs, and other GOJ agencies carry out effective counterdrug and anticrime law enforcement investigations and operations, resulting in the dismantling of drug trafficking and other international criminal organizations, a reduction in the amount of drugs transiting Jamaica destined for the U.S., increased seizures of precursor and essential chemicals being diverted for the manufacture of drugs, and the extradition to the U.S. of fugitives from U.S. justice. The program will also strengthen the ability of the GOJ to detect and deter public corruption. Limited funding is provided for programs to reduce the demand for drugs in Jamaica.

Program AccomplishmentsThe GOJ continues to support existing counternarcotics law enforcement and interdiction programs and take steps to strengthen its counterdrug law enforcement capability, with the support and direction of the political leadership. In 2002, the Jamaican Parliament enacted legislation permitting court-ordered wiretaps and approved implementing regulations for the Corruption (Prevention) Act, the final step needed to bring that Act into force.

Despite its resource constraints, the GOJ spends substantial amounts to maintain an interdiction capability consisting of helicopters and patrol vessels. To augment limited GOJ maritime interdiction resources, counternarcotics program funding was used to purchase three go-fast interceptor boats for the JDF Coast Guard (JDFCG). The JCF has increased the staff of the Narcotics Division and established a special vetted unit, which is supported, in part, by program funds, to work with DEA on investigations targeting major drug trafficking organizations. As a result of joint JCF-JDF operations, the amount of cocaine seized during 2002 increased over the previous two years.

The GOJ continues to provide resources for the Financial Analysis Unit and Fugitive Apprehension Team, the latter of which has been successful in locating and arresting persons subject to U.S. extradition requests. In 2002, the GOJ extradited nine people to the U.S. Jamaica Customs is in the process of expanding the Contraband Enforcement Team, as called for in its modernization program. In addition, the Port Authority of Jamaica is procuring video surveillance equipment for the seaports and hiring an expert to provide technical assistance in port security. The GOJ continued its marijuana eradication program, although the amount eradicated in 2002 fell far short of the amount agreed to by the USG and GOJ.

In 2002, program funds were used to provide equipment for the police academy and an advisor for the National Firearms and Drugs Intelligence Center. Program funds were also provided for a one-year $2.2 million border control project, to be implemented by the International Organization for Migration, that will improve Jamaica’s border management systems through the provision of computers and other technology at Jamaica’s international airports and seaports as well as technical assistance and training in areas such as risk profiling, documentation fraud prevention, and criminal intelligence.

FY 2004 ProgramAll aspects of the counternarcotics program are focused on Jamaican implementation of the 1988 UN Convention Against the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The program also provides resources to enable the GOJ to counter public corruption in compliance with the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. The requested funding level for FY 2004 will permit the GOJ to undertake the intensity of counter-drug, anti-money laundering and anti-corruption efforts that will foster an environment conducive to the development of legitimate agriculture and commerce in this struggling economy.

Narcotics Law Enforcement. This project is designed to strengthen GOJ capability to identify, investigate and prosecute drug traffickers, money launderers and other international criminals; apprehend fugitives from justice; detect diversion of essential and precursor chemicals; eradicate marijuana cultivation; and counter public corruption. Through this project, training, technical assistance, and equipment are provided to Jamaican agencies involved in counternarcotics and anticrime activities. Requested funding will be used for training, technical assistance, and equipment for the JCF Special Vetted Unit, Fugitive Apprehension Team and Narcotics Division. Funding will also be used to support development of the Financial Analysis Unit and an Anti-Corruption Investigations Unit.

Border Control and Port Security. Project funding will be used to provide training and equipment to strengthen GOJ capability to disrupt the movement of drugs and other contraband via commercial cargo and conveyances at air and seaports and free trade zones. Requested funding will be used for training, technical assistance and equipment for an expanded Customs Contraband Enforcement Team, portable X-ray equipment to scan cargo, and vehicles and equipment to strengthen security at secondary airfields.

Maritime Interdiction. In support of the U.S.-Jamaica maritime counternarcotics cooperation agreement, the U.S. and Jamaica have undertaken combined maritime operations that have been successful in interdicting vessels transporting drugs. In the past, the USG provided two 82-foot cutters and refurbished several boats for the JDFCG. As these boats lack the speed necessary to counter the threat of go-fast vessels transporting drugs, the U.S., in early 2003, provided three go-fast interceptor boats to the JDFCG. Requested funding for the Maritime Interdiction Project will be used for the procurement of an additional go-fast interceptor boat, expenses related to maintaining the three go-fast interceptor boats, and support of GOJ efforts to establish forward positioning sites that will enable the rapid deployment of boats for maritime drug interdiction operations.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. The INL program also provides limited assistance for demand reduction activities, the majority of which are supported by the GOJ, NGOs, and other donors. The requested funding for this project will enable the U.S. to continue support for existing demand reduction programs and organizations.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds cover the cost of salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Narcotics Law Enforcement 486 395 200
Border Control and Port Security 420 160 200
Maritime Interdiction 200 235 680
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 30 32 35
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 175 142 158
Non-U.S. Personnel 19 26 28
ICASS Costs 42 95 102
Program Support 178 115 97
Subtotal 414 378 385
Total 1,550 1,200 1,500


Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

12,000 25,000 12,000 37,000

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsMexican authorities dismantle organized crime elements and disrupt their criminal activities; authorities arrest and successfully prosecute persons who commit major crimes, including drug kingpins and their lieutenants.

There will be an increase in the number and importance of traffickers arrested (e.g., the leaders, financial experts, transportation experts, and security chiefs.)

Criminal justice sector modernization and reform lead to a reduction in corruption and abuse of authority.

There will be an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of criminal justice institutions and personnel to bring criminals, especially drug traffickers, money launderers, and members of transnational organized crime groups to justice as well as an increase in the effectiveness of the internal affairs divisions of law enforcement agencies.

Mexican officials enhance their ability to control the country’s borders, territorial waters, and airspace, preventing criminal groups from smuggling drugs, weapons, or other contraband into Mexico or through Mexico into the United States.

There will be an increase in the number of seizures of drugs and other contraband through effective inspection and enforcement operations at land ports of entry, airports, and seaports.

The ability of Mexican law enforcement to detect the diversion of precursor and essential chemicals, particularly for production of methamphetamine, and increased seizures of diverted chemicals, will increase.

The United States and Mexico enhance even further their bilateral cooperation to reduce the flow of drugs, weapons, and other trafficked items between Mexico and the United States.

Mexican officials will have a better ability to detect and intercept trafficker vessels, vehicles, and aircraft, resulting in an increased number of drug seizures.

Mexico achieves better control of money laundering and application of seizure and forfeiture laws, including legal reforms to permit the sharing of proceeds from seizures and forfeitures with law enforcement agencies.

There will be an increase in the number of seizures and forfeitures of assets of drug traffickers and other organized crime elements, including companies concealing operations or laundering drug profits.

Mexican eradication of illicit drug crops becomes even more effective through use of scientific and technological advances. Additionally, the GOM focuses more resources on combating the production of methamphetamines and other synthetic drugs.

There will be a sustained decrease in net production of opium poppy and marijuana, and an increase in the number of clandestine labs detected and dismantled.

Demand for illicit drugs decreases as communities mobilize against drugs and crime.

There will be an increase in public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking, community involvement in drug abuse and crime prevention efforts, and promotion of the rule of law.

Program JustificationThe success of Mexico’s antidrug, anti-organized crime, and border security efforts is critical to the U.S. as it pursues its national drug control strategy and border security initiatives. Up to 65 percent of the cocaine and significant amounts of heroin entering the United States pass through Mexico and adjacent waters. Mexico is also a major producer of heroin and marijuana. Mexico-based trafficking groups control drug flows and dominate the growing trade in methamphetamine. These criminal organizations cause considerable violence, corruption, and other crimes in both countries, particularly near the border.

During the first two years of the Fox Administration, the fight against drugs and crime in Mexico moved from an atmosphere of mutual distrust to one of unprecedented cooperation. Mexico wants to work with us. Strong interpersonal relationships have produced results. Authorities have arrested kingpins, dismantled drug networks, and seized drugs. They have established internal controls and rooted out corrupt officials. INL helped build the Federal Agency of Investigation (AFI) and strengthen the National Drug Control Planning Center (CENDRO). We now enjoy an historic window of opportunity in which to act. We must continue assisting the Mexican Government to build institutions now to make this cooperation permanent. Police and prosecutors need better and more equipment, training, and investigative tools. We must promote better teamwork to fight money laundering, stop diversion of precursor chemicals, ensure successful prosecutions, and enhance counterterrorism cooperation. We likewise plan to work with the judiciary to promote reforms that will end impunity and keep pace with advances in law enforcement.

We need to improve Mexico’s end-game ability to respond to suspect aircraft landing at remote locations. Mexico needs helicopters to conduct patrols, transport quick response teams, and coordinate police responses. Mexico’s aging UH-1H helicopters require upgrade or replacement. Better use of mobile checkpoints and X-ray vans would cut the flow of drugs over land. Greater cooperation between the maritime units of both countries would help in interdicting drug shipments at sea. Access to greater funding would allow INL to complement U.S. efforts in source-countries and provide greater balance to our national counterdrug strategy. Wise investment of additional resources in Mexico would yield great return on our investments.

While drug trafficking constitutes one of the most immediate and visible threats, Mexico and the United States face many other mutual challenges to their national security interests. Arms trafficking, alien smuggling, money laundering, diversion of precursor chemicals, and other criminal activities increase daily in importance. Following the terrorist attacks on the United States in September 2001, the U.S. and Mexican governments redoubled efforts to enhance security of our shared border. To enhance these efforts, the program now focuses significant resources on border security projects that will enable Mexican officials to stem the flow of illegal migrants (including special interest aliens), detect and stop possible shipments of contraband with potential use in terrorist attacks, and combat terrorist financing.

As the drug cartels’ profits have increased, their need for money laundering services has also grown. Measures enacted in 1996 and 1997 have provided the basis for more effective control of money laundering, and the GOM has strengthened the capabilities of its money laundering investigators and prosecutors. While critical legal and regulatory reforms have been enacted in the past five years, Mexico still lacks the institutional capability to implement these laws and regulations effectively and prosecute money-laundering groups. Our assistance in this area will also help the GOM to combat terrorist financing.

The Fox Administration has worked energetically to identify and root out corrupt officials, particularly among federal police entities. The AFI has started to address institutional problems by creating a career path for its investigators. Fox Administration efforts to professionalize Mexico’s law enforcement agencies, improve their organization, and institute modern management and investigative techniques, will also help to rid the government of corruption. Improved pay and benefits, merit-based promotions, improved training, stronger internal controls, and strict compartmentalization of information will help to improve the efficiency and reliability of law enforcement personnel. In addition to strengthening basic federal law enforcement agencies, INL will assist the Fox Administration to develop specialized units capable of targeting sophisticated organized crime elements and complex forms of transnational crime, such as cyber-crime. Such reforms will take years to become fully institutionalized.

The Mexican government welcomes offers of technical assistance and other support from the United States and other nations and recognizes the importance of active bilateral and multilateral law enforcement cooperation. The Fox Administration’s strategic plans for criminal justice sector reform and modernization have aided INL in refining its own support projects, including goals and benchmarks. In FY 2004, the INL program will focus on institutional development, anticorruption, border security, attacking criminal organizations, money laundering control, control of diversion of precursor chemicals, drug crop eradication, and demand reduction. While Mexico will continue to fund the vast majority of its justice sector programs and operations, U.S. funding will assist in undertaking pilot initiatives, accelerating implementation, and providing tools to enhance Mexico’s own substantial efforts.

The border region is the most affected by drug crimes and violence and leads the nation in illicit drug use. Only recently, Mexican leaders publicly acknowledged rising rates of abuse of cocaine, crack, methamphetamine, and other drugs, particularly along the border, in large cities, and in tourist areas. Mexican officials have promoted both public and private sector programs, many with U.S. support, to raise public awareness of this growing problem and to mobilize citizens against drug use.

Program AccomplishmentsU.S. drug control programs in Mexico support Mexican efforts to strengthen law enforcement institutions, enhance management of human resources, modernize infrastructure, and promote anticorruption initiatives. These areas of focus will enhance Mexican border security and counter-terrorism efforts. While the GOM continues to invest heavily in its own programs, U.S.-funded technical assistance and equipment remain essential to Mexico’s ability to achieve its objectives. In many cases, U.S. assistance permits Mexico to accelerate reform or training efforts, as was the case with the creation of the Federal Agency of Investigation (AFI), in which NAS programs helped the new police agency to become operational within one year. During its first year, AFI investigators played important roles in achieving scores of arrests of major drug traffickers and in dismantling several violent kidnapping rings. AFI has become a vital GOM counterpart for U.S. law enforcement agencies.

The INL program also seeks to support bilateral cooperation and cooperative activities, such as training and support for vetted units that work with U.S. investigators and handle sensitive information. The Mexican National Drug Control Planning Center (CENDRO) has, with NAS support, become one of the region’s leading analytical centers; the regional International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC) designated CENDRO as one of three regional drug information coordination centers tasked with promoting information exchange in the hemisphere.

We have used INL funding to develop a series of border security projects under the auspices of the U.S.-Mexico Smart Border and Border Partnership Accords. Congress authorized 25 million dollars in funding through a FY 2002 Emergency Supplemental appropriation to support these efforts. NAS has worked closely with U.S. and Mexican officials on these critical activities, aimed at increasing the efficiency of border law enforcement and coordination between U.S. and Mexican police agencies.

FY 2004 ProgramThe key to enhancing law enforcement cooperation relies on an integrated approach aimed at (1) pursuing criminals and their organizations aggressively, (2) seizing the goods that harm our citizens, (3) targeting the financial proceeds of crimes, and (4) strengthening law enforcement and judicial institutions. The following projects address these key objectives.

Northern Border Security Infrastructure. The Northern Border Security Infrastructure project was initiated with $25 million in FY 2002 Emergency Supplemental funding. Funding is being used to strengthen border controls by providing Mexican authorities with non-intrusive inspection equipment, computer systems for information sharing on airline passengers, and developing and implementing a border safety training program. FY 2004 funding will allow us to focus on providing Mexican officials with additional non-intrusive inspection equipment, port-of-entry management and planning systems, systems for information sharing, border safety training, and technical assistance on enhancing port security. The project will enhance GOM ability to detect and seize shipments of potential terrorist weapons, illegal drugs, cash, and other contraband. Our counterparts include the Mexican Customs Department, Immigration Service, and Communications and Transportation agencies, among others.

Port Security Initiative. Maritime smuggling constitutes the dominant trafficking method currently used by South American and Mexican drug traffickers. It is likewise a primary method for smuggling aliens, weapons, proceeds of crime, potential terrorist weapons, and contraband of various kinds. Following September 11, the U.S. and Mexico have increased efforts to improve security and efficiency at the major commercial ports. In 2004, we will continue a project started this year to assist the GOM with the development of two specially trained Contraband Enforcement Teams. We will follow through with the pilot project in Manzanillo and conduct a thorough assessment of the port in Veracruz.

The Narcotics and Crime Law Enforcement projects will provide both material and technical assistance, including professional development, to Mexican law enforcement programs, particularly to various entities within the Mexican Attorney General’s Office (PGR). These projects will further improve the institutional capability of police investigators, prosecutors, and criminal experts from Mexican federal, state, and municipal investigative, prosecutorial, and judicial institutions so that these agencies can act effectively against drug trafficking and other organized crime activities, including terrorism. Beneficiaries will include drug control entities such as CENDRO, which conducts strategic intelligence analysis and supports organized crime investigations and the AFI, which conducts tactical analysis of organized crime elements. These projects support the goals of the Bi-National Drug Strategy and the Smart Border and Border Partnership Accords. FY 2004 projects will focus on PGR entities most involved in counterdrug and anticrime efforts. The PGR is developing several specialized anticrime units. INL assistance will also provide infrastructure support and equipment, including special investigative tools and laboratory equipment.

Professional Development. This project will support PGR efforts to develop a stronger administrative framework to enhance development of human resources and ensure greater career stability. Helping to build an honest, professional police force will serve the Fox Administration's goal to end corruption and increase operational effectiveness. U.S. support will also focus on strengthening law enforcement training institutions and will include numerous opportunities for professional training, seminars, expert visits, internships, and personnel exchanges with U.S. counterparts. By supporting GOM efforts to make law enforcement a respectable and viable career, this project will help to improve recruitment, reduce chronic turnover, and preserve our training investments. We will provide computers, software, laboratory equipment, and other materials. NAS-supported training over the past 12 months has contributed to seizures of illegal drugs and over 12 million dollars in undeclared cash.

Drug Interdiction and Crop Eradication Support. This project will provide material and technical assistance to Mexican enforcement programs. We will work with Mexican officials to improve their end-game capability to respond to suspect aircraft landing at remote locations or maritime vessels entering territorial waters. Technical assistance in more effective use of mobile checkpoints, non-intrusive inspection equipment, and space accountability (searches for contraband in hidden compartments) would cut the flow of drugs over land. Continued technical assistance, training, and provision of equipment will help the Mexican Navy to interdict more drug shipments at sea. While cocaine arrives in Mexico by air, land, and sea, maritime smuggling remains the preferred mode of smuggling by drug traffickers. INL funding includes support for maritime and land interdiction, including bilateral work in post-seizure analysis, critical to supporting investigations against trafficking organizations. INL also supports a project to improve maritime port security. We will also help Mexican authorities to establish Contraband Enforcement Teams to enable them more effectively to detect and deter trafficking of drugs and other contraband and contribute to border security.

Aviation Support. Through the Aviation Support project, INL will provide technical assistance to the PGR air fleet to improve the efficiency of its fleet in support of interdiction, law enforcement, and eradication operations. In FY 2004, this project will focus on assisting the PGR in implementing its fleet modernization plan. To the extent allowed by scarce resources, this support will cover engine upgrades, repairs, and specialized training, including use of night vision goggles, engine repair, and pilot instructor training, all promoting optimum safety and efficiency.

Office of the Attorney General. NAS will follow closely the development of the Fox Administration’s judicial reform efforts, offering assistance, training, and conference and seminar support where needed, including professional development activities for judges and prosecutors. NAS will encourage modern courtroom administration and promotion of transparency in court proceedings. The PGR reorganization will include the establishment of a new division of organized crime prosecutors, and this project will include broad support for this initiative, especially infrastructure support for computer systems, including systems design, installation, hardware, software, and other equipment.

Anti-Corruption Initiative. This project will also support the GOM anti-corruption plan by offering training, technical assistance, and equipment to develop the Internal Affairs and Auditing Sections of the PGR and other law enforcement agencies. INL training and technical support will also support the reorganized and streamlined Federal Agency of Investigation, responsible for investigating serious crimes, including terrorism, arms trafficking, kidnapping, money laundering, and intellectual property theft. The project will facilitate the expansion of the Culture of Lawfulness program beyond the pilot activities in Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Sinaloa, and Ixtapalapa. This program embraces a long-term approach to reducing crime by raising student awareness of the harm that organized crime, corruption, and gangs reek on their communities and nation.

Money Laundering Control. These three projects will support the Financial Investigative Unit (FIU) of the Secretariat of the Treasury, the PGR Money Laundering Control Unit, and the AFI Special Money Laundering Unit. The FIU analyzes suspicious transaction reports and conducts audits for money laundering investigations, while the PGR Money Laundering Unit coordinates criminal investigations and prosecutions. The FY 2003 project will enhance the capabilities of FIU and PGR operations by providing additional information management equipment, consultant services for software design upgrades, office equipment, and training.

Alternative Development. This project assists an indigenous community in an area plagued by drug crop cultivation and trafficking to avoid involvement in those activities. As in many other vulnerable regions, various members of this community become involved in drug crop cultivation because of economic desperation and intimidation by drug traffickers. Activities include prevention education, community mobilization, and the promotion of economic alternatives to poppy or marijuana cultivation.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction. This project responds to Mexican concerns about increasing domestic drug consumption through a public information effort and drug prevention education for high-risk populations, principally in urban areas and in communities along the border. The project includes funds to support community-based, non-governmental organizations working to get young people off the streets and away from drug abuse and crime. The project will support printed material and outreach programs, as well as curriculum for drug abuse and crime prevention.

Program Development and Support. PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, allowances, and benefits of U.S. and foreign national direct hire employees and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Border Security        
Northern Border Security Infrastructure 25,000 17,500
Port Security Initiative 500 500 2,500
Subtotal 500 25,000 500 20,000
Narcotics and Crime Law Enforcement        
Professionalization and Training 2,500 2,500 2,800
Equipment and Infrastructure Support 2,000 1,187 3,342
Drug Interdiction & Crop Eradication Support 950 286 500
Aviation Support 2,100 3,615 4,270
Subtotal 7,550 7,588 10,912
Administration of Justice        
Office of the Attorney General 1,150 913 2,500
Money Laundering Control 100 200 400
Anti-Corruption Initiative 600 450 500
Subtotal 1,850 1,563 3,400
Alternative Development 55 55 55
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 571 603 650
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 600 416 488
Non-U.S. Personnel 185 218 259
ICASS Costs 242 411 442
Program Support 447 646 794
Subtotal 1,474 1,691 1,983
Total 12,000 25,000 12,000 37,000

Latin America Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

10,000 4,000 9,500 5,000

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsCriminal justice institutions respond more effectively to threats of drug trafficking, narcotics-related crime and corruption.

Effective statutes against narcotics trafficking, money laundering, and corruption will be adopted and implemented and the number of successful investigations and prosecutions will increase.

Law enforcement acquires the ability to investigate, prosecute, seize and forfeit assets, interdict drug and chemical shipments and control money laundering.

The number of arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers and money launderers will increase significantly, as will the number of drug seizures, the amount and value of drugs and assets seized, and the number of smuggling attempts deterred.

Bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance and extradition cooperation become routine and broader in scope.

The response time for responding to MLAT requests will decrease while the number of successful extraditions will increase.

Effective maritime enforcement occurs throughout the region.

As nations enter into cooperative agreements and receive training, materiel and support for combined operations, the number of successful drug interdictions will increase.

Hemispheric and sub-regional institutions that promote intergovernmental initiatives against drug abuse and drug-related crime are fortified.

Regional bodies undertake new antidrug initiatives that result in a decrease in the level of drug abuse registered.

Program JustificationGoal Four of the National Drug Control Strategy is to shield America’s air, land, and sea frontiers from the drug threat. The countries covered by the Latin America Regional Account, which are primarily drug transit countries that lie between the U.S. and the major drug-producing countries, are facing continuing challenges in dealing with changes in traditional drug production and trafficking patterns resulting from the recent increased pressure on the Andean countries. In addition, these countries are subject to increased pressure on their often-fragile social and justice institutions by trafficker violence and corruption and by increased drug abuse. While the U.S. needs the assistance of these countries to interdict U.S.-bound drug shipments, they need U.S. assistance to strengthen their law enforcement institutions, interdiction capacities and drug abuse prevention/treatment programs to protect their societies from the corrupting influences of narcotics trafficking.

Program AccomplishmentsCooperative arrangements, bilateral and multilateral, have been negotiated to increase the ability of governments to detect and interdict illicit drugs and other contraband. To date, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras and Belize have concluded Maritime Agreements, while El Salvador is expected to do so in FY 2003. Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mexico have signed Stolen Vehicle Treaties with the United States. During 2002, the U.S. participated in successful negotiations co-chaired by Costa Rica, the Netherlands and CARICOM on a Caribbean Regional Maritime Counternarcotics Cooperation Agreement designed to foster cooperation and coordination in the carrying out of maritime law enforcement operations. The agreement entered into force April 10, 2003.

Financial crime is a major problem in numerous jurisdictions in Latin America and the Caribbean although most have adopted appropriate anti-money laundering regimes. During its June 2002 review, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) updated its list of non-cooperating countries and jurisdictions in relation to anti-money laundering naming Grenada, Guatemala, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines as the remaining countries in the region that need to take steps to address the issue. At the FATF Plenary in February 2003, Grenada was removed from the list while St Vincent and the Grenadines will likely be removed at the June 2003 Plenary.

Attention to border security was increased during 2002 - 2003 through a series of programs. Belize and Honduras both adopted machine-readable passports, with Belize incorporating the first biometric security feature in the hemisphere. Also in 2003, the last of four inspection stations in the Container Freight Tracking System (CFTS) were completed. The CFTS project will ultimately link together the Pan-American Highway countries (Panama through Mexico) to allow for the collection and sharing of inspection information.Cooperation among countries at the sub-regional level is yielding positive results. The countries of Central America, through the Central American Permanent Commission Against Drug Trafficking and Abuse (CCP), have developed a Regional Action Plan to guide collaborative actions. The countries of the Caribbean also continue to pursue program initiatives developed under the Barbados Plan of Action. All of these actions and initiatives receive support from the U.S., UNDCP and OAS/CICAD. Coordinated activities multiply the impact of our investment, and promote common approaches among neighboring countries.

FY 2004 ProgramCaribbean Country Assistance. The U.S. will continue to provide assistance to upgrade the capabilities of Caribbean countries in the areas of interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. Assistance in asset forfeiture and the development of Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) will be funded in part with INL Anticrime program funding. Country program funds will be used to improve law enforcement's maritime drug interdiction capability by offering training programs and providing go-fast interceptor boats and communications equipment. Funding will also support the salaries of Regional Security System (RSS) C-26 aircraft crews. Joint Information Communications Centers (JICCs) will be upgraded with new equipment, software and training, to promote more real-time interchange of cueing information from maritime and air detection platforms to law enforcement entities. Funds will provide limited support for drug demand reduction activities.

Central America Country Assistance. Funding will be used to continue to support efforts to modernize justice sector institutions and legal frameworks to allow successful prosecution of drug and arms traffickers, money launderers, alien smugglers, as well as corrupt public officials. Assistance will include such things as computer equipment to upgrade law enforcement, court, immigration, and anti-money laundering systems, maintenance and repair of vehicles and vessels, upgraded communications equipment and training. Regional anticorruption, anti-alien smuggling and commercial freight tracking initiatives being developed throughout Central America and which became operational during FY 2002, will require continuing U.S. assistance to be effective. The U.S. will also support sub-regional initiatives aimed at cross-border cooperation on drug interdiction efforts, harmonization of legislation, and improved information sharing.

South America Country Assistance. Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay and Argentina are used by traffickers as transit routes for cocaine originating in Andean source countries as well as to launder money and obtain precursor chemicals. The FY 2003 plan includes support to Argentina to strengthen its capacity to disrupt trafficking at its land borders and commercial ports. Significant seizures of cocaine transiting Chile highlight the need to support GOC interagency counternarcotics coordination and efforts to tighten container shipping inspection protocols and overland transit. In Paraguay, we will assist police to investigate and prosecute major traffickers and money launderers, and enhance border control by supporting the Chaco Mobil Enforcement Unit within the Anti-Narcotics Secretariat. In Uruguay, equipment and training will be provided to sustain the drug enforcement efforts of several agencies charged with implementing GOU counternarcotics legislation.

Regional Programs. The Caribbean Support Tender (CST), a State Department, U.S. Southern Command, and U.S. Coast Guard cooperative initiative, will continue to receive support, although at a reduced level. The CST is a U.S. Coast Guard buoy tender whose mission is to foster international cooperation and operational readiness for regional maritime services. The CST provides formal and on-the-job training to personnel from participating countries as it deploys throughout the Caribbean. During 2002, the two C-26 surveillance aircraft provided by the USG to the RSS, a treaty-based organization consisting of the seven East Caribbean countries, were fully operational. In Trinidad and Tobago, a C-26 aircraft will become fully operational during FY 2003 once an accelerated pilot training program is implemented. In 2004, the RSS and Trinidad and Tobago will begin phasing-in a cost-sharing plan for C-26 program expenses.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, allowances, and benefits of U.S. and foreign national direct hire employees and contract personnel working in Narcotics Affairs Sections or Offices in the region. In addition, funds pay for International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Latin America Regional
INL Budget


FY 2002

FY 2002

 FY 2003

FY 2004

Caribbean Country Assistance 3,940 2,600 1,000
Central America Country Assistance 2,590 2,750 1,000
South America Country Assistance 710 755 490
Regional Programs 1,660 1,700 700
Border Security Infrastructure 4,000
Program Development and Support 1,100 1,695 1,810
Total 10,000 4,000 9,500 5,000