Africa Regional Anticrime Program

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2002 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2001

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2000

FY 2001

FY 2002




    • Encourage countries to adopt and implement strong narcotics control legislation, improve the efficiency and effectiveness of criminal justice institutions to bring drug offenders to account, and develop bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance cooperation;
    • Strengthen host nation counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities to deal with drug trafficking, money laundering, and other crimes;
    • Help nations and regional organizations develop institutions capable of combating the potentially destabilizing corruption and lawlessness that accompany large sums of narcotics dollars; and
    • Develop governmental and NGO capabilities to address drug abuse and prevention.


    As recently as 1985, African criminal organizations were inconsequential in the international drug trade. Now they are major players, moving a substantial amount of the world’s heroin and cocaine. Neither growers nor street-level retailers, the African criminal groups are the middlemen of the drug trade. Africa, with its porous borders and poorly paid civil servants, is an important transit region for heroin bound for the United States and Europe, and cocaine bound for Europe. Major African cities are increasingly the destination for drug shipments as well as being transshipment hubs.

    Most of the limited counternarcotics and anticrime funds spent in Africa have been focused on narcotics problems in Nigeria and South Africa. African criminal groups that operate in these countries are now spreading throughout the region and increasing their geographic diversification. Countries as disparate as Malawi, Ethiopia, and the Ivory Coast have become transit routes. Nigerian and South African criminal organizations have matured and become transnational concerns that exploit whatever weakness they can find or, with their growing sums of money, create. The law enforcement assault on these organizations must be region-wide and closely coordinated.

    The USG should dedicate more funds to fight this growing regional problem. Future programs will continue to concentrate on Nigeria and southern Africa, but will also aid other governments and regional organizations so that African organized crime will be reduced and eventually eliminated, not just displaced to other countries in the region.

    Training will remain paramount in the Africa program. Customs training, police science training, specialized training for counternarcotics units, demand reduction programs, technical assistance and public education campaigns will account for the majority of Africa regional funding. Material assistance will also increase, with communications equipment, vehicles, computer databases and other equipment being provided to police organizations that work closely with U.S. law enforcement on transnational crime problems that affect the U.S. In addition, the U.S. is working closely with other donors to coordinate assistance efforts.

    South Africa

    Largely because of South Africa, the most developed economy in Africa, southern Africa possesses the most advanced crime-fighting infrastructure on the continent. Still, South Africa faces a violent crime problem that could impede its progress as a nonracial democracy. Its murder rate is eight times higher than that of the U.S., and extremist Islamic terrorism is a growing threat. As the most powerful member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), South Africa’s stability is crucial to the region.

    The USG must do more to help South Africa combat its rising crime threat. South Africa’s police lack sufficient training and equipment to fight crime effectively. The average policeman often has less than a high school education. South Africa has founded the Directorate for Special Operations (DSO), an elite, independent agency they plan to pattern after the FBI. INL has funded basic new agent training for the first two contingents of agents, and advanced, train-the-trainer training for experienced agents. INL will continue to support the development of the DSO. The South African Police Service (SAPS) is also in need of technological and material support. Vehicles, communications equipment and other essential investigative equipment are often in short supply. Cases built on scientific evidence require modern forensic equipment; and the country’s law enforcement databases must upgraded and integrated.

    Southern Africa (excluding South Africa)

    Crime is a growing menace throughout the southern Africa region, including narcotics and small arms trafficking and illegal migration. A border control program covering ports of entry in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia will address this concern. While some training will be conducted on a bilateral basis, most resources will be targeted at regional training programs conducted primarily through the new International Law Enforcement Academy in southern Africa, or with the cooperation of regional and international organizations. INL will complement training with carefully selected commodity assistance such as computers, communication equipment, and vehicles.

    West Africa

    Nigeria is the key to crime control efforts in West Africa. Nigerian organized crime syndicates are major players in worldwide narcotics trafficking and financial crimes. Organized crime, coupled with decades of corrupt military rule, has undermined Nigeria’s relatively advanced institutional development, and threatens the other West African states. While Nigeria’s police institutions are not as well developed as South Africa’s, Nigeria will be INL’s second major anchor for regional anticrime and counternarcotics efforts. Country-appropriate training, material assistance, and modernization programs will be tailored for Nigeria. As with southern Africa, West African crime will be addressed bilaterally, through independent regional programs, and through cooperation with regional organizations.

    East Africa

    Major East African cities, such as Nairobi, Mombassa and Addis Ababa, are significant transit points for heroin headed for the U.S. from Asia. The will to fight narcotics trafficking exists in East Africa. Kenyan authorities, for example, have participated in European and UN counternarcotics programs. INL will take advantage of this to establish aggressive programs that will enhance police, immigration, and airport authorities’ capabilities. As with other subregions, this will be accomplished through a combination of bilateral programs, regional programs, and programs conducted with organizations such as UNAFRI and the African Women’s Center for Justice in Dar es Salaam.

    Effectiveness Measurements

      • Increased national political and financial commitment to combat crime and illegal narcotics trafficking;
      • Increased institutional capacities of law enforcement agencies in the region measured by quantities of drugs interdicted, arrests of major criminals and disruption of trafficker networks;
      • Adoption of effective counternarcotics and money laundering legislation and countercorruption measures;
      • Effective use of counternarcotics legislation, including conspiracy and asset forfeiture statutes;
      • Reduction in the volume of illegal narcotics transiting the region; and
      • Increased public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse, decreased levels of drug abuse, and increased resources committed to the problem by host governments.