Africa and the Middle East

International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
March 2003


I. Summary

Angola does not have significant drug production, trafficking, or use. However, cannabis is cultivated and consumed locally. Angola serves as a transit point for illegal drugs, particularly cocaine from Brazil to South Africa. Angolan counternarcotics officials report seizures of cocaine. Angola is not a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, although its parliament has urged prompt accession by the government..

II. Status of Country

Angola is not a major center of drug production, trafficking, money laundering, or production of precursor chemicals. Despite the fact that the counternarcotics department of the national police has extremely limited resources, the police continued to seize significant amounts of cocaine and cannabis in 2002. With the relaxing of border and internal travel controls since the end of the war in April, authorities anticipate somewhat more trafficking activity from Brazil. It seems there is a Portuguese language connection in cocaine shipments form Brazil to Angola.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Angola is not a party to any of the major multilateral drug conventions, and has not yet become a party to the SADC counternarcotics protocol. While the National Assembly has approved resolutions urging the government to ratify all of these conventions as rapidly as possible, the government has yet to deposit its instruments of ratification. Given the end of its civil war, Angola plans to consider ratification of the SADC Protocol as well. There have been no known cases of public corruption connected to narcotics trafficking prosecuted in recent years.

Although Angola has enacted legislation mandating treatment for those convicted of narcotics abuse, there are no public treatment centers available. Angola cooperates with South Africa in fighting the flow of cocaine from Angola to South Africa, and South Africa has offered training and equipment to the Angolan police. Angola also cooperates on a regional basis via SADC, despite its failure to sign the drug protocol. The Angolan National Police have expressed strong interest in participating in U.S. training opportunities, but the Angolan government has not responded to recent invitations to regional courses.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The Road Ahead. During the previous year the Department of State offered anti-crime and counternarcotics training and assistance programs to Angola. However, the Angolan government failed to designate participants despite expressing interest in receiving such law enforcement training. In the coming year, the U.S. Embassy in Luanda will continue to seek a mechanism for securing Angolan participation in law enforcement training. The U.S. will also encourage Angola to become party to the major multilateral drug conventions.


I. Summary

Botswana is not a major producer of illicit drugs or precursor chemicals, and it is not a significant drug-transit country. Isolated pockets of cannabis cultivation occur, but eradication efforts keep production levels low. Botswana is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and is the site and joint sponsor of Southern Africa's International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA).

II. Status of Country

Botswana is not a major illicit drug producer or a significant drug-transit country, although there is concern that its porous borders have led to increased trafficking in recent years. In 2002, drug control officials seized sizable amounts of cannabis, though slightly less than in the previous year. Drug control officials remain concerned about an upsurge in drug trafficking and abuse. Cannabis remains the drug of choice due to its low price. Individuals caught with drugs in Botswana can expect fines and prison sentences, but most arrests do not result in conviction.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

The Government of Botswana created a National Drug Control Coordination Council, chaired by the Office of the President, in 1998. The Government of Botswana also has strict legislation against drug production, drug trafficking, and money laundering, whether associated with the drug trade, terrorism, or other illicit activity. Botswana courts mete out stiff sentences for drug-related offenses, with mandatory sentences of one to five years' imprisonment for possession of fewer than 60 grams (2.2 oz.) of cannabis, and five to ten years for possession of more than 60 grams. There were no arrests for hard drugs during 2002. Generally, few of the cases in which individuals were arrested for cannabis use actually proceed to the trial stage. The authorities prefer leniency to strict pursuit of punishment in the case of individual abuse.

The number of seizures of drugs in Botswana decreased slightly in 2002. Police seized approximately 1,268 kilograms of cannabis during 2002, mostly from Zimbabwean traffickers. In addition to cannabis originating from Mozambique, the police have discovered that a sizeable amount comes from Lesotho as well. The seizures resulted in 404 people being implicated, but conviction percentages are not available at this time. The BPS (Botswana Police Service) reports good cooperation on narcotics control with its regional partners, especially South Africa and Zimbabwe. The UNODC has provided drug detection dogs to Botswana for use in drug searches. There are no indications of senior government officials being involved in drug-related corruption.

Botswana is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and the other UN drug conventions.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The U.S.-sponsored ILEA offered a full schedule of courses in 2002, after its opening in September 2001. The ILEA program includes modules on narcotics interdiction. Regional police officials anticipate greater cooperation with the USG as ILEA programs continue to develop. Police officials note that they are concerned that Botswana's porous border with Zimbabwe may lead to increased drug trafficking through Botswana. The GOB has sent units of the Botswana Defense Force (BDF) to augment the Special Support Group of the BPS in conducting alien interdiction on the Zimbabwe border, due to concerns about increased crime in Francistown, where the Special Branch forces were located.

Road Ahead. The USG deeply appreciates the assistance and support of the Government of Botswana in connection with the International Law Enforcement Academy, and anticipates continuing cooperation with the GOB to assure that the SADC region continues to benefit from the academy's programs.

Burkina Faso

I. Summary

Though Burkina Faso is not a major source, destination, or transit country for drugs, there is growing concern about and awareness of drug abuse generally. Policy and enforcement authorities take their responsibilities in this domain seriously, but must work with limited means to address issues as they arise. Usage, transit and production are mostly limited to cannabis. Most trafficked drug products come from neighboring Ghana. Burkina Faso is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

There is growing concern over the abuse of cannabis and synthetic drugs in Burkina Faso. According to the police, an estimated 10 percent of young people have tried marijuana or other illicit drugs. Customs officials seized over 800 kilograms of cannabis in 2002. Investigations stemming from the seizures resulted in the conviction of approximately 280 people who received punishments ranging from a three-month to a five-year prison term. Most of the marijuana cultivated in Burkina Faso is intended for domestic consumption.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. Lacking a reliable assessment of the status of drug trafficking, use, and production in Burkina Faso, the committee this year established a panel of experts to conduct a preliminary study and to produce a proposal for further research. With the encouragement and monetary support of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, an inter-ministerial National Committee to Fight Against Drugs has been in place since 1993. This committee has a permanent secretariat and gathers together representatives of the various ministries involved in counternarcotics efforts. The committee is currently chaired by the Minister of Security. In 1999, the committee helped prepare and pass national counternarcotics legislation that was harmonized with those of other countries in the region. By mid-2003, the committee is hoping to have its first regional office established in southern Burkina Faso, where drug trafficking and production are relatively more common. This office would help coordinate at a regional level the agencies that work on drug interdiction efforts. Also in 2002, the committee celebrated international counternarcotics day in various provinces of the country with sensitization activities and conferences about drugs. They also took advantage of the event to incinerate stocks of drugs that were seized.

Agreements and Treaties. Burkina Faso is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol. Although limited by a lack of resources, the GOBF has endeavored to meet the goals of the 1988 UN Drug Convention wherever possible. The creation and continued activity of the National Committee to Fight Against Drugs is indicative of the GOBF's efforts in this regard. Burkina Faso has signed and ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Burkina Faso has signed an extradition treaty with ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) member countries.

Corruption. Corruption is endemic throughout the poorer countries of Africa, including Burkina. The government in Burkina punishes corruption when encountered. The USG is not aware of any narcotics related corruption at senior levels of the government of Burkina Faso.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The U.S. has no current narcotics-related initiatives planned for Burkina.

The Road Ahead. Burkina is not an important transit country for drugs. U.S. liaison with Burkina officials on drug issues includes periodic visits from the regional DEA Attach�. Should there be any sign of increased use of Burkina for trafficking in hard drugs, the U.S. has regional programs which could respond. However, for the moment, there are no plans for narcotics assistance programs in Burkina.


I. Summary

The Arab Republic of Egypt is not a major producer, supplier, or consumer of narcotics or precursor chemicals. Heroin and cannabis are transported through Egypt, but levels have not risen during the last three years. The Anti-Narcotics General Administration (ANGA), the main drug fighting organization in Egypt, is competent and progressive, and it cooperates fully with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) office in Cairo. Egypt is party to a number of international and bilateral agreements and treaties, including the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Egypt is not a significant producer or consumer of narcotics or precursor chemicals, despite the fact that opium and cannabis plants are grown here. The substances that are most commonly abused are cannabis, which is known here as "BANGO," and legitimate pharmaceuticals.

Narcotics do pass through Egypt. Egypt's long and mostly uninhabited borders, combined with the high level of shipping passing through the Suez Canal, have made Egypt prone to the transshipment of Asian heroin, while other types of narcotics periodically pass through Cairo International Airport. The narcotics are destined primarily for Western Europe, with only small amounts headed to the United States. There is no available evidence suggesting that significant levels reach the United States through this transshipment point, transshipments in general having diminished considerably in recent years due to the elevation of security in Egypt and the region as a whole.

The ANGA is the oldest counternarcotics unit in the Arab world. It has jurisdiction over all criminal matters pertaining to narcotics and maintains offices in all major Egyptian cities and ports of entry. The U.S. DEA office in Egypt has a superb relationship with ANGA, which is open, cooperative, and receptive to ideas and training. DEA assists ANGA in interdiction operations in the Suez Canal Zone and at Cairo International Airport, and crop eradication operations in the Sinai Peninsula and Upper Egypt. It also has funded and conducted training for ANGA officers at regional counternarcotics courses in Nairobi, Kenya and provided in-country training on airport interdiction and chemical controls. Despite limited resources, ANGA has demonstrated continued improvements in its capabilities.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

The Government of Egypt (GOE) continues aggressively to pursue a comprehensive drug control strategy that was developed in 1998. ANGA, the Egyptian Ministry of Interior, the Coast Guard, the Customs Service, and select military units all cooperate in task forces designed to interdict narcotics shipments. Government and private sector demand reduction efforts exist, but are hampered by financial constraints and logistical challenges. While Egypt neither imports nor exports large quantities of chemical precursors at present, the U.S. DEA office in Cairo sponsored a chemical control investigation course in 2002 to familiarize Egyptian personnel with precursor chemical control procedures.

Accomplishments. In May 2002, the GOE passed its first anti-money laundering legislation. This new law criminalizes the laundering of proceeds derived from trafficking in narcotics and numerous other crimes. Regulations guiding the enforcement of the law are in the final drafting stages and should provide law enforcement officials with the tools necessary to go after narcotics traffickers. The new law likely will be an added deterrence to those criminals who try to sell narcotics here in Egypt.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Internal security and combating terrorism are the major focus of Egyptian law enforcement efforts. However, ANGA still is able to operate an effective program against narcotics trafficking. It investigates and targets significant drug traffickers, intercepts narcotics shipments, and detects and eradicates illegal crops. Large-scale seizures and arrests are rare, primarily because Egypt does not have a significant narcotics market or narcotics abuse culture. ANGA does operate its own drug awareness campaign in addition to other government and private sector demand reduction programs. ANGA's Eradication Unit conducts monthly operations against cannabis and opium crops in the Sinai.

Drug seizures in 2001 (latest complete-year figures available) included cannabis (50,940 kilograms), hashish (486 kilograms), and smaller amounts of heroin, opium, psychotropic drugs, and cocaine. Significant amounts of prescription and "designer" drugs such as Ecstasy (82,293 tablets), amphetamines (16,965 centiliters), and codeine (2,280 centiliters) also were seized in 2001. Egyptian law enforcement officials eradicated 228 hectares of cannabis and 2.8 hectares of opium poppy plants. The total amount of currency seized in 2001 in drug related cases was L.E. 2,000,000 (U.S. $432,900).

Corruption. There does not appear to be serious narcotics-related corruption in Egypt. Only low-level local police officials have been identified and arrested. The GOE has strict laws and harsh penalties for government officials convicted of involvement in narcotics trafficking or related activities.

Agreements and Treaties. Egypt and the United States have an extradition treaty that dates from the Ottoman Empire. Egypt has signed and ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention. In 1993, the bilateral narcotics agreement was amended to provide greater funding for ANGA , and the assistance was transferred to the ANGA. The U.S. is again considering assistance to Egypt in the current or succeeding fiscal years. Egypt is also a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The U.S.-Egypt Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty entered into force on November 29, 2001. Egypt has signed the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

Cultivation and Production. Cannabis is grown year round in the northern and southern Sinai and in Upper Egypt, while opium poppy is grown in the southern Sinai only from November through March. Rugged terrain means that plots of illegal crops are small and irregularly shaped. ANGA combats this production by using aerial observation and confidential informants to identify illegal plots. Once the crops are located, ANGA conducts daylight eradication operations that consist of cutting and burning the plants. ANGA has yet to implement a planned herbicide eradication program. No heroin processing laboratories have been discovered in Egypt in the last 12 years and no evidence is available indicating that opiates or cannabis grown in Egypt reaches the United States in sufficient quantities to have a significant impact.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). In 2002, the GOE activated the previously dormant National Council for Treatment of Addiction and Against Drug Abuse. The Council is an inter-ministerial group chaired by the Prime Minister, who is represented by the Minister of Social Affairs. One of the goals of the Council is to raise the level of attention given to the treatment of addictions. Currently, private doctors treat most drug addicts in Egypt. In addition, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, and several religious organizations operate drug awareness programs oriented toward demand reduction. The Ministry of Health also is a co-sponsor, with the Ministry of Interior, of a separate national counternarcotics campaign. These programs are aimed at school-aged children and rely on the mass media. DEA country attaches also assist the GOE with this campaign.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The U.S. counternarcotics policy in Egypt is to engage the GOE in a bilateral program to reduce narcotics transshipments and decrease opium poppy and cannabis cultivation. The policy includes the following specific objectives:

  • Increase training to ANGA and other government offices responsible for narcotics enforcement.

  • Assist with the identification of illegal crop eradication targets.

  • Improve narcotics interdiction methodology.

  • Improve intelligence collection and analysis.
The Road Ahead. In fiscal year 2003, the U.S. Government plans to provide additional training in drug interdiction, anti-corruption measures, border control operations, and chemical identification and control. The DEA country office will continue to work closely with ANGA to improve interdiction and eradication techniques and to develop additional sources of information on trafficking and production.


I. Summary

Ethiopia does not play a major role in the production of illicit narcotics or precursor chemicals associated with the drug trade. Ethiopia is strategically located along a major narcotics transit route between Southwest Asian heroin production and European markets and West African trafficking networks. Cannabis is grown in Ethiopia, but most is consumed in rural areas of Ethiopia itself. Recent seizures indicate that opium poppy is grown in Ethiopia, but only in a few small plots. Nigerian traffickers are active in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Counternarcotics Unit (ECNU) maintains an interdiction team at Bole International Airport, where the ECNU uses its two drug detector dogs to examine, with a degree of randomness, cargo and luggage. The ECNU routinely screens passengers, luggage, and cargo on flights arriving from "high risk" origins, i.e., Bangkok, New Delhi, Mumbai, and Islamabad. Ethiopia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Ethiopia is not now, and not likely to become, a significant producer of narcotic drugs or precursor chemicals. A small share of the total cannabis grown is being produced for export, primarily to neighboring countries; the majority is consumed at home, but absolute quantities in both cases are moderate. For the first time, in 2001, cultivated opium poppy was seized at two locations where it was apparently being grown as an experimental crop. No further seizures have been reported. Indications are that the techniques for growing the opium came from India and that the appearance of these apparent experimental plots may be explained by a downturn in coffee prices. No opium gum has been found yet.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

The use of heroin and other hard drugs in Ethiopia remains quite low, due primarily to the high street price and limited availability of such drugs. To the extent these hard drugs are available, it is in large part due to the "spillover" effect from the transiting of drug couriers through Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa. Bole is a major air hub for flight connections between Southeast and Southwest Asia and Africa, and much of the heroin entering and/or transiting Ethiopia comes from Asia. Many of the flights require up to a two-day layover in Addis, permitting a ready opportunity for the introduction of these drugs into the local market.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The ECNU has improved upon its performance in 2002. It has changed leadership and been more proactive at the federal level. At the unit level, the ECNU is being expanded from 50 to 150 police and will be doing some border road interdiction efforts as well as its work at the airport. The ECNU has a new commander and has been more efficient in its training and investigations. The interdiction team at Bole has improved with the provision of several profiling and interdiction courses. The interdiction unit has improved its ability to more consistently identify male Nigerian/Tanzanian drug "mules" who traditionally swallow drugs to smuggle them.

Policy Initiatives. The Ethiopian Ministry of Justice drafted an updated penal code, and has introduced it in Parliament. Currently the maximum sentence for trafficking is two to three years, but the government seeks to increase it to 15-20 years. A stiffer sentence should serve as a more effective deterrent to using Ethiopia as a transit country. Additionally, Ethiopia lacks a central coordinating body to coordinate systematically counternarcotics activities of the Ministries of Education, Health, and Justice. There is no master plan for drug issues.

Corruption. There is no evidence of government corruption relating to illicit drugs. The Anti-Corruption Commission, created in May 2001, was given substantial police powers to investigate corruption, and for a short while attracted considerable attention with some high profile cases. Since then the Commission seems to have become bogged down and is less effective than hoped. However, in 2001 and 2002, the Ethiopian government arrested and charged high-level government officials for corruption unrelated to drugs, and it is likely the government would address drug-related corruption in the same way.

Agreements and Treaties. Ethiopia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol. Ethiopia has signed but not yet ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, which is not yet in force internationally.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. The United States is trying to raise the profile of crime-related issues and encourage criminalization of money laundering. A U.S. Treasury advisor to the Central Bank has been providing advice to the Ministry of Justice on drafting money laundering legislation. A draft of new money laundering legislation is now in Parliament.

The focus of U.S. programs remains on the law enforcement side, specifically the ECNU. State department narcotics assistance supports curriculum advice and training for Police Academy instructors in drug investigations, both basic and advanced level courses, and a new course in proper supervision and use of drug detector dogs. These courses are offered at Ethiopia's National Police College. The objective is to "institutionalize" training, ensuring that courses will be repeatedly offered by Ethiopian trainers, rather than relying on return visits by DEA trainers from the States. The recent threefold increase in the personnel of the narcotics unit assures that the courses will be in high demand. But even after the narcotics unit is trained, there are plans to continue to offer the basic course to all police officers. Prosecutors will also attend the course, a first for Ethiopia in prosecutor/investigator cooperation.

The Road Ahead. Ethiopia is likely to remain a trafficking center for Africa because of its airport and the flight arrangements described above. The GOE has an excellent plan for using U.S. narcotics assistance to maximum effect. The U.S. plans to continue close cooperation with the GOE.


I. Summary

Ghana takes steps to combat illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and has mounted major efforts against drug abuse. It has active enforcement, treatment, and rehabilitation programs; however, lack of resources is a problem. Ghana-U.S. law enforcement coordination continued in 2002, and Ghana's law enforcement agencies took important steps to deepen cooperative efforts with their counterparts in the West African sub-region. Ghana is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Ghana is increasingly a transit point for illegal drugs, particularly cocaine from South America and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia. Europe remains the major destination, but drugs also flow to South Africa and to North America. Accra's Kotoka International Airport is increasingly a focus for traffickers. Ports at Tema and Sekondi are also used, and border posts at Aflao (Togo) and Elubo and Sampa (C�te d'Ivoire) see significant traffic. Nigerian traffickers continue to strengthen their presence in Ghana as it becomes a major transportation hub. Trafficking has also fueled increasing domestic consumption. Cannabis use is increasing in Ghana, as is local cultivation. The government has mounted significant public education programs. Production of precursor chemicals is not a major problem.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. The Narcotics Control Board (NCB) coordinates government efforts involving counternarcotics activities. These activities include enforcement and control, education, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and social re-integration. The NCB's counternarcotics national strategy, the "National Plan of Action 1999-2003," was approved by the Cabinet in June 2002. Amendments that the NCB proposed in 1999 to the 1990 narcotics law are pending in the Attorney General's office for final edit and review. These proposed amendments include stricter application of bail bond system sanctions and a provision to grant a percentage of proceeds from seizures to the NCB to fund their operations.

Accomplishments. Although 2002 seizure data is incomplete (January-September figures only are available), it appears that seizures of cocaine and heroin in the first three quarters of 2002 have already surpassed 2001 totals. However, cannabis seizures in the first three quarters of 2002 suggest a decline from 2001 figures. Arrest data for 2002 is also incomplete, but if the current trend continues, the number of 2002 arrests will be roughly equivalent to that in 2000 and 2001.

The NCB and other law enforcement agencies continued their successful cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies in 2002, cooperating on extradition and information requests. The NCB's national drug education efforts continued in schools and churches, heightening citizens' awareness of the fight against narcotics and traffickers. On July 25-26, 2002, the NCB hosted a regional conference against narcotics trafficking called the West Africa Joint Operations (WAJO) Initiative. The meeting was hosted by the NCB, with funding and organizational assistance from the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) and the regional DEA office in Lagos. Drug enforcement representatives from 12 West African nations attended the conference. The purpose of the conference was to discuss West African regional narcotics enforcement operations in an effort to stimulate the sharing of narcotics intelligence throughout the region. The WAJO conference ratified a draft convention that set in motion a coordinated effort in the area of intelligence gathering, information sharing, undercover operations, airport interdictions, and cross-border operations in fighting illicit trafficking and transnational crimes. The convention resulted in a highly successful West African Joint Simultaneous Operation by ten of the WAJO countries, which took place in August and September 2002.

Law Enforcement Efforts. In 2002, Ghanaian law enforcement agencies increased the frequency with which they conducted joint police-NCB-military operations against narcotics cultivators, traffickers, and abusers. Police, NCB, and military units conducted joint raids on numerous marijuana farms and on known drug peddling areas of Accra and other cities. NCB agents are not armed; they rely upon the police's Criminal Investigative Division's (CID) narcotics unit in situations requiring armed force.

Regional NCB narcotics squads are located at Kumasi, Koforidua, Ho, and Tema. New NCB offices opened in Accra in 2001 at CID headquarters, Regional Police headquarters, and Kotoka International Airport. The Customs Excise and Preventative Service (CEPS) headquarters has a counternarcotics unit with counternarcotics squads at two border posts—Aflao (Togo) and Elubo (C�te d'Ivoire), and at Kotoka International Airport. The government has authority to seize equipment and property upon conviction.

While the military alone does not actively attempt to interdict drugs, they coordinate with civilian law enforcement when necessary, and act on information from other Ghanaian entities, particularly the NCB and the police. Most drug confiscations by the military result from anti-smuggling activities by the Ghanaian navy. Counternarcotics training and education in the military is conducted by the NCB and the military's medical corps.

While making consistent arrests, law enforcement officials have complained about slow judicial prosecution of narcotics suspects. Courts often release suspected smugglers, including non-Ghanaians, on bail, and those of other nationalities frequently skip bail. NCB officials complain that courts set bail at only a tiny fraction of the value of the drugs found in a suspect's possession. For example, in early 2002, a woman was caught with 1.3 kilograms of cocaine at Kotoka International Airport boarding a flight to Canada. Bail was set at 20 million cedis (U.S. $2,400), a relatively insignificant sum to large-scale traffickers. The woman jumped bail and has not been found. In another case, a 26 year-old Nigerian man jumped bail after being intercepted in July 2002 at the airport with 5.9 kilograms of heroin destined for London. The man was released on bail even after confessing to officers that he was carrying the narcotics for sale in the United Kingdom. He has not been found. In February 2002, the Minister of the Interior wrote a letter expressing concern over this phenomenon to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, asking the courts to seek ways to remedy the situation.

In the meantime, in a move to ensure speedy and efficient prosecution of drug traffickers, the NCB has adopted a policy of allowing suspected traffickers to leave Ghana with their illegal cargo, and informing authorities in the destination country of the smugglers' arrival for arrest and prosecution in the destination country. This strategy, dubbed the Control Delivery Program, was employed in the May 2002 arrest of a retired Ghanaian Armed Forces officer in the United Kingdom.

A gram of cocaine of average purity sells for cedis 165,000 (approx. U.S. $20), a 33 percent increase over last year. Ghanaian narcotics officials attributed the rise to increased seizures and a change in the KLM flight schedules that used to provide a more expeditious link between the Caribbean island of Curacao to Accra via Amsterdam. A gram of heroin of average purity sells for cedis 200,000 (approx. U.S. $25), a slight increase from previous years. Greater interdiction efforts were credited for this rise. A kilogram of cannabis sells for approximately cedis 40,000 (approx. U.S. $5.00). A wrap or joint sells at cedis 1,000-1,500 (U.S. $0.12-0.18). The police narcotics unit and the NCB continued to work closely with U.S. agencies through the U.S. Embassy in Accra. The NCB continued to work with DHL and Federal Express to intercept packages containing narcotics.

Corruption. There were no narcotics-related public corruption cases reported in 2002. In fact, local press carried three reports of customs and law enforcement officials rejecting bribes offered by suspected drug traffickers.

Agreements and Treaties. Ghana is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol. U.S.-Ghana extradition relations are governed by the 1931 U.S.-U.K. Extradition Treaty, to which Ghana acceded at its independence. Additionally, Ghana is a party to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Protocol Agreement, which includes an extradition provision among member states.

Cultivation and Production. Cannabis (also known as Indian hemp) is widely cultivated in rural farmlands. The Volta, Brong-Ahafo, Western, and Ashanti regions are principal growing areas. Most is consumed locally; some is trafficked to neighboring and European countries. Cannabis is usually harvested in September and October, and law enforcement teams increase their surveillance and investigation efforts at these times. In 2002, combined NCB and police teams continued to investigate production and distribution, and to destroy cultivated cannabis farms and plants. In the past, the NCB believed a local drug laboratory processing cannabis into hashish existed somewhere in Ghana, but extensive efforts to locate it were fruitless, and the NCB no longer believes such a lab exists.

In July 2002, the NCB announced a pilot program under which marijuana cultivators who give up marijuana voluntarily will receive government assistance with planting new food crops and immunity from prosecution. This incentive program is designed to reduce the area under cultivation. However, program funds had not been made available as of December 2002.

Drug Flow/Transit. Cocaine and heroin are the main drugs that transit Ghana, chiefly from South America and Southeast and Southwest Asia on their way to North America and Europe. Narcotics are sometimes repackaged in Ghana for reshipment. New methods of concealment in 2002 included hiding drugs in lawn mower engines, women's sanitary pads, and foodstuffs (specifically yams). Ghanaian yam dealers in London complained that because so much cocaine was shipped to the United Kingdom hidden inside the carved-out centers of yams, which are then discarded or sold at deeply discounted prices, the price of yams in London has collapsed. In 2002, there was an increase in the number of older women arrested at Kotoka International Airport. NCB officials believe traffickers have begun using older women as couriers, as they are considered to be less suspect than men, or younger women.

While in absolute terms, drugs transiting Ghana do not yet contribute significantly to the supply of drugs to the U.S. market, Accra is an increasingly important transshipment point from Africa. Direct flights from Accra play an important role in the transshipment of heroin to the U.S. by West African trafficking organizations. NCB officials say that since the change in KLM flight schedules interrupted the Curacao link, traffickers have been forced to use other routes for cocaine from South America.

The NCB believes Nigerians dominate local cocaine and heroin trafficking routes, often using Malian passports. Many traffickers land in Mali and travel overland to Ghana. Ghanaian passports, easily obtainable, are often used fraudulently. Smugglers often purchase their tickets in Ghana because the exchange rate favors their currencies.

Cannabis is shipped primarily to Europe, specifically to the United Kingdom. All known cannabis shipments detected through September 2002 at Tema harbor and Kotoka International Airport were destined for the U.K.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The NCB works with schools, professional training institutions, churches, local governments, and the general public to reduce local consumption. The NCB continues its work with Drug Free Clubs in secondary schools throughout the country, and with the Ghana Education Service and its counseling and welfare units to oversee drug education efforts. A draft Drug Education Policy is currently before the Ghana Education Service, pending approval for use in all schools. The Ministries of Health and Education further coordinate their efforts through their representatives on the Board. The NCB also worked with numerous church groups during the year with its Sensitization Program. It has now conducted drug education programs with all of the country's 110 district assemblies, and with such entities as the Ghana Institute of Management and Professional Training and the Regional Maritime Academy. The NCB once again participated in the International Day Against Drug Abuse in June, held this year in the Eastern Region city of Koforidua. Board Members and staff frequently host public lectures, participate in radio discussion programs, and encourage newspaper articles on the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking. The NCB continues its collaboration with the UNODC's Regional Office for West and Central Africa.

Although treatment programs have lagged behind preventative education and enforcement due to lack of funding, there are three government psychiatric hospitals receiving drug patients, and three private facilities in Accra, run by local NGOs, also assisting drug abusers. As of August 31, 2002, 1,182 people were being treated for drug addiction on an in-patient basis in the three government psychiatric hospitals.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Goals and Objectives. The USG's counternarcotics and anticrime goals in Ghana are to strengthen Ghanaian law enforcement capacity generally, to improve interdiction capacities, to enhance the NCB's office and field operation functions, and to reduce Ghana's role as a transit point for narcotics.

Bilateral Cooperation. In 2002, the United States provided the Government of Ghana with U.S. $84,000 worth of counternarcotics assistance in the form of surveillance and detection equipment, and in early 2003 will hand over two narcotics detection devices ("Itemizers") for use at Kotoka International Airport.

Recently approved FY2002 funding from INL will help create Internal Affairs Units for the police and CEPS, which will assist in suppressing corruption and strengthening their capacity to interdict illegal drugs.

The Road Ahead. Improved narcotics interdiction, investigative capabilities, and prosecutorial successes sum up the USG's major policy goals. A focus on improved oversight of financial transactions is a particular concern, given the potential for any narcotics financial networks to be used by terrorist organizations.


I. Summary

The Islamic Republic of Iran is a major transit route for opiates smuggled from Afghanistan and through Pakistan to the Persian Gulf, Turkey, Russia, and Europe. There is no evidence that narcotics transiting Iran reach the United States in an amount sufficient to have a significant effect on the United States. Iran is no longer a major drug producing country. An extensive 1998 U.S. survey, and a follow-up survey in 1999, concluded that the amount of opium poppy cultivation in Iran was negligible. An office of the UNODC in Iran has also repeatedly assured the international community that poppies are not cultivated in Iran. Iran remains an important transit country especially for opiates and hashish, although trafficking routes for opiates from Afghanistan to Russia and beyond, by way of Central Asia, have grown in importance.

There is overwhelming evidence of Iran's strong commitment to keep drugs moving out of Afghanistan from reaching its citizens. As Iran strives to achieve this goal, it certainly also prevents drugs from reaching markets in the West.

Opium addiction in Iran has long historical roots, and it is a major social and health problem for the Islamic Republic's Government. The Iranian Government (GOI) estimates that about two percent of Iran's 67.7 million citizens (1,354,000) are regular drug abusers (drug-dependent addicts), but many respected observers of drug abuse worldwide view this estimate as low. Other sources (including informed observers working on drug abuse in NGOs in Iran) would add perhaps 500-600 thousand "casual" (i.e., non dependent) users to reach perhaps two million Iranians who abuse drugs. UNODC estimates that 2.8 percent of the Iranian population over 15 used opiates in2001. This figure is more than five times the estimate (0.5 percent) for the U.S. Only Laos and Russia come even close to Iran's figure, with 2 percent of Laos' over 15 population estimated to have used opiates in the last year, and 1.8 percent of Russia's. The GOI seems particularly concerned over the sharp increase in intravenous drug abuse. By the end of 2002, the number of deaths from drug abuse had increased by 230 percent to 2106 individuals from just 632 deaths in 2000, reflecting a shift in Iran to abuse of heroin, especially intravenous abuse. Inmates in prison and the homeless are the most likely to take drugs by intravenous injection and to contract HIV through sharing needles. Sixty-seven percent of all recorded HIV cases are associated with drug abuse.

Iran has been in the forefront of efforts by the international community to combat the Afghan drug trade. Three thousand two hundred Iranian law enforcement personnel have died in clashes with heavily armed drug traffickers over the last two decades. Iran spends a significant amount on drug-related expenses, estimates ranging from U.S. $250-U.S. $300 million to as much as U.S. $800 million each year, depending on whether treatment and other social costs are included. Opiate drug seizures during 2001 in Iran, the last year for which complete-year statistics are available, were 206 metric tons of opium equivalent (Opium Equivalent = Opium +(heroin x 10)+(morphine base X 10), making Iran number one in the world in opiate seizures. Drug trafficking from Afghanistan under the Taliban became a serious security concern in Iran, with significant killing, kidnapping, and intimidation of villagers along Iran's border with Afghanistan. Traffickers from Afghanistan continue to cause major disruption along Iran's eastern border.

Iran has ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention, but its laws do not bring it completely into conformity with the Convention. The UNODC is working with Iran to modify its laws, train the judiciary, and improve the court system.

II. Status of Country

Land routes across Iran constitute the single most important conduit for Southwest Asian opiates en route to European markets. Entering from Afghanistan and Pakistan into eastern Iran, heroin, opium, and morphine are smuggled overland, usually to Turkey, but also to Turkmenistan, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Drugs are also smuggled by sea across the Persian Gulf.

Iranians are using more heroin. Heroin has not replaced opium, the traditional drug of abuse in Iran, but lower street prices for heroin, and shortages of opium plus higher prices for it have encouraged some addicts to switch from opium to heroin. Some heroin is smoked or sniffed, but a growing share is injected. The quantity of heroin seized in Iran, expressed as a share of all opiates (i.e., heroin, morphine and opium), has been rising since 1996 (3.1 percent), and reached 22.4 percent according to data for the first nine months of 2002. As the share of heroin in total opiates seized in Iran has increased, the share of morphine base seized has fallen; it thus appears that Afghani refineries are producing more heroin for Iranians. Morphine base is destined for shipment across Iran, ultimately to Turkey, where the refining process into heroin is completed.

While the Central Asian trafficking routes are growing in importance, carrying up to one-third of the total volume of Afghan opiates, the several trans-Iranian trafficking routes continue to carry the lion's share. While a number of factors contribute to the emergence of Central Asia as an important trafficking route for opiates from Afghanistan, it is not unreasonable to speculate that avoiding Iran's tough enforcement effort along its eastern border is part of the story. That said, 20 percent more seizures in Iran during the first nine months of 2002 indicate that trafficking in opiates continues to grow from depressed levels following the Taliban poppy cultivation ban in 2000. There are simply enough opiates flowing out of Afghanistan now to keep all trafficking routes active, traditional and emerging alike.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. In 2002, the National Drug Abuse Research and Training Institute officially opened. The Institute is expected to function as the main monitoring and specialized expertise center for all demand reduction programs in Iran. Iran is spending roughly 50 percent of its budgeted counter drug expenditures on demand reduction activities, a significant shift from recent expenditure patterns where most funds went for enforcement-related supply reduction. The shift seems a clear response to the growing social and health impact of more dangerous drug abuse (e.g., heroin vice opium) and the trend towards more intravenous heroin abuse with shared needles among certain addict populations.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The Drug Control Headquarters coordinates the drug-related activities of the police, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, and the Ministries of Intelligence and Security, Health, and Islamic Guidance and Education.

Iran pursues an aggressive border interdiction effort. A senior Iranian official told the UNODC that Iran had invested as much as U.S. $800 million in a system of beerms, moats, concrete dams, sentry points, and observation towers, as well as a road along its entire eastern border with Pakistan and Afghanistan. According to an official GOI Internet site, Iran has installed 212 border posts, 205 observation posts, 22 concrete barriers, 290 km of canals (depth-4m, width-5m), 659 km of soil embankments, a 78 km barbed wire fence, and 2,645 km of asphalt and gravel roads. It also has relocated numerous border villages to newly constructed sites.

Thirty thousand law enforcement personnel are regularly deployed along the border, and Iran reports that more than 3,200 law enforcement officials have been killed in clashes with heavily-armed smugglers during the last two decades. Interdiction efforts by the police and the Revolutionary Guards have resulted in numerous drug seizures. According to the UNODC, Iranian officials seized 206 metric tons of opiates (opium equivalent) in 2001, and 150 metric tons of opiates (opium equivalent) in the first nine months of 2002. During the same nine-month period of 2001, 119 metric tons (opium equivalent) of opiates were seized. Thus, seizures rose by more than 20 percent in the first 9 months of 2002 in comparison to 2001. The rise in seizures in 2002 suggests a gradual return to larger shipments of opiates from Afghanistan as stocks are cleared in anticipation of a large harvest in the 2002/03 crop year.

Drug offenses are under the jurisdiction of the Revolutionary Courts. Punishment for narcotics offenses is severe, with death sentences possible for possession of more than 30 grams of heroin or five kilograms of opium. Those convicted of lesser offenses may be punished with imprisonment, fines, or lashings, although it is believed that lashings have been used less frequently in recent years. Offenders between the ages of 16 and 18 are afforded some leniency. More than 60 percent of the inmates in Iranian prisons are incarcerated for drug offenses, ranging from use to trafficking. Primarily as a result of a sharp (45 percent) increase in the number of addicts arrested, narcotics-related arrests in Iran during the first six months of 2001 increased to 165,183, an increase of 16 percent over the same period of 2000. Iran has executed more than 10,000 narcotics traffickers in the last decade; executions continue, but the UNODC reports that many in Iranian judiciary are questioning the deterrent effect of executions.

Corruption. Although there is no indication that senior government officials aid or abet narcotics traffickers, there are periodic reports of corruption among lower-level law enforcement, which is consistent with the transit of multiple-ton drug shipments across Iran. Punishment of corruption appears to be harsh, and the evidence of Iran's commitment to keep drugs from its people is compelling. Iran points to its drug interdiction efforts as benefiting countries in Western Europe and beyond. In fact, given the large quantity of drugs seized in Iran, and the expenditure in life and treasure necessary to make those seizures, this claim would seem to have considerable validity.

Agreements and Treaties. Iran is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Its legislation does not bring it completely into conformity with the Convention, particularly in the areas of money laundering and controlled deliveries. However, a bill governing money laundering countermeasures was submitted to the Iranian Parliament in October 2002 by the Minister of Economic Affairs and Finance. The bill provides for confiscation of properties of those involved with money laundering. A special council of applicable ministers and the Governor of the Central Bank has also been formed to consider necessary powers for the Government to fight economic crimes. The UNODC is working with Iran through the NOROUZ Program to modify its laws, train the judiciary, and improve the court system.

Iran is also a party to the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substance, the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and it has signed and ratified, the 1972 Protocol amending the Single Convention in 2001. Iran has shown an increasing desire to cooperate with the international community on counternarcotics matters. Iran is a member of the ten-nation Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), which established a counternarcotics center as part of its secretariat. The Iranian permanent envoy to the UN's Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) was elected by a large majority to chair the CND in 2001 for a one-year term, and was re-elected for a second one-year term in 2000. Under his leadership, the CND developed a reporting and evaluation program to follow up on commitments made at the 1998 UNGA Special Session on Drugs. Iran has been an active participant on counternarcotics issues through the UN's "Six Plus Two" process on Afghanistan, and signed the Six Plus Two Regional Action Plan in 2001. Iran signed the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime on December 12, 2000, but has not yet ratified it.

Cultivation/Production. A 1998 U.S. survey of opium poppy cultivation in Iran and a detailed multi-agency assessment concluded that the amount of poppy being grown in Iran was negligible. The survey studied more than 1.25 million acres in Iran's traditional poppy-growing areas, and found no poppy crops growing there, although the survey could not rule out the possibility of some cultivation in remote areas. A follow-up survey in 1999 reached the same conclusion. The UNODC office located in Tehran has repeatedly assured the international community since then that poppies are not cultivated in Iran. Thus, the somewhat dated U.S. evidence that no poppies are being grown is consistent with Iranian claims and vigorous enforcement actions against drugs, evidence from other concerned countries, and the UNODC.

Iran is generally viewed as a transit country for drugs produced elsewhere, but there are some reports of opium refining near the Turkish/Iranian border. Most refining of the opiates moving through Iran is done elsewhere, either in Afghanistan or in Turkey.

Drug Flow/Transit. Shipments of opiates enter Iran overland from Pakistan and Afghanistan by camel, donkey, or truck caravans, often organized and protected by heavily armed ethnic Baluch tribesmen from either side of the frontier. Once inside Iran, large shipments are either concealed within ordinary commercial truck cargoes or broken down into smaller sub-shipments. Foreign embassy observers report that Iranian interdiction efforts have disrupted smuggling convoys sufficiently to force smugglers to change tactics and emphasize concealment. The use of human "mules" is on the rise. Individuals and small groups also attempt to cross the border with two to ten kilograms of drugs, in many cases ingested for concealment. In 2000, Iranian authorities seized more than 1 metric ton of drugs from almost 4500 human couriers. Almost all the drugs seized were opiates; 87 percent of the couriers were male. While these figures are dated, they give some sense of the scale of human courier "mule" trafficking through Iran. Trafficking through Iran's airports also appears to be on the rise.

Most of the opiates smuggled into Iran from Afghanistan are smuggled to neighboring countries for further processing and transportation to Europe. Turkey is the main processing destination for these opiates, most of which are bound for consumption in Russia and Europe. Essentially all of the morphine base, running at more than 40 percent of opiates seized in Iran, is likely moving towards Turkey, as is a large share of the ca. 20 percent of opiates moving as heroin. Significant quantities of opium are consumed in Iran, but some share also moves on to the west to be refined and consumed as heroin in Europe and elsewhere. There is a northern smuggling route through Iran's Khorasan Province, to Turkmenistan, to Tehran, and then on to Turkey. The mountainous, desert, sparsely settled nature of this route makes it hard to police. Traffickers are frequently well armed and dangerous. The southern route also passes through sparsely settled desert terrain on its way to Tehran en route to Turkey; some opiates moving along the southern route detour to Bandar Abbas and move by sea to the Persian Gulf states. Bandar Abbas also appears to be an entry point for precursor chemicals moving to refineries in Afghanistan. Iran does not specifically control precursor chemicals used for producing illicit drugs, but has made a number of important seizures, mostly at Bandar, of acetic anhydride, used in the refining of heroin. All precursor chemicals seized were consigned to Afghanistan. Azerbaijan and Armenia provide alternative routes to Russia and Europe that bypass Turkish interdiction efforts. Additionally, despite the risk of severe punishment, marine transport is used through the Persian Gulf to the nations of the Arabian Peninsula, taking advantage of modern transportation and communication facilities and a laissez-faire commercial attitude in that area. Oman and Dubai appear to be important destinations, but some Iranian hashish even finds its way to Iraq. Iranian enforcement officials have estimated that as much as 50 percent of the opium produced in Afghanistan in past years entered Iran, with as much as 700-800 tons of opium consumed in Iran itself by its 1.8-2 million users (median estimate).

Hashish seizures in Iran in 2002 also continued a sharp upward trend, begun in 1999. At almost 48 metric tons in the first nine months of 2002, seizures already exceeded all of 2001, and were on a path to be up by almost 60 percent year-over-year.

The amount of drugs moving to all destinations by mail and courier service in 2001 continued to increase, with seizures of 42.5 kilograms of drugs in 82 cases. The share of total drugs moving in this channel remains miniscule, and seizures of some of these shipments before they leave Iran provide the only evidence of this smuggling method.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The GOI estimates the number of opiate drug addicts at over 1.3 million, with an additional 600,000 casual drug abusers reliably estimated by other sources. However, a physician and member of the National Committee Against AIDS has estimated that there are 3.3 million total abusers. The UNODC estimates that 1.5 to 2 percent of a population of 67.7 million (1,000,000-1,354,000) has a serious drug problem. Smoked opium is the traditional drug of abuse in Iran, but opium is also drunk, dissolved in tea. Opium and its residue are also injected, dissolved in water, by a small number of addicts. Heroin is sniffed, smoked and injected. Ninety-three percent of opiate addicts are male, with a mean age of 33.6 years (plus or minus 10.5 years), and 1.4 percent (ca. 21,000) are HIV positive. In the past, the Islamic Republic attacked illegal alcohol use with more fervor than drug abuse, and was reluctant to discuss drug problems openly. Since 1995, public awareness campaigns and attention by two successive Iranian presidents as well as cabinet ministers and the Parliament have given demand reduction a significant boost. Under the NOROUZ plan, the GOI spent more than U.S. $68 million dollars in the first year for demand reduction and community awareness. The Prevention Department of Iran's Social Welfare Association runs 12 treatment and rehabilitation centers, as well as 39 out-patient treatment programs in all major cities. 88 out-patient treatment centers are now operational. Some 30,000 people are treated per year, and some programs have three-month waiting lists. Narcotics Anonymous and other self-help programs can be found in almost all districts as well and several NGOs focus on drug demand reduction. There are no methadone treatment or HIV prevention programs, although HIV infection in the prison population is a serious concern.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

In the absence of direct diplomatic relations with Iran, the United States has no narcotics initiatives in Iran. The U.S. government continues to encourage regional cooperation against narcotics trafficking. Iran and the United States have expressed similar viewpoints on illicit drugs and the regional impact of the Afghan drug trade. In the context of multilateral settings such as the UN's Six Plus Two group, the United States and Iran have worked together productively. Iran nominated the United States to be coordinator of the Six Plus Two counternarcotics initiative.

The Road Ahead. The GOI has demonstrated sustained national political will and taken strong measures against illicit narcotics, including cooperation with the international community. Iran's actions support the global effort against international drug trafficking. Iran stands to be one of the major benefactors of any long-term reduction in drug production/trafficking from Afghanistan. The United States anticipates that Iran will continue to pursue policies and actions in support of efforts to combat drug production and trafficking.


I. Summary

Israel is not a significant producer or transit point for trafficking in drugs. Israel's National Police, however, report that most types of drugs are available in Israel and that drug use among the nation's youth is rising. Israeli citizens continue to play a significant role in the international trafficking of Ecstasy from Europe to North America. However Israeli law enforcement officials made several high profile arrests, seizures, and extraditions in 2002; important Israeli traffickers were also arrested abroad. On March 20, 2002 Israel became a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Israeli domestic law now contains the legislative requirements mandated by the Convention. Also in 2002, Israel was removed from the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) list of non-cooperative countries.

II. Status of Country

Israel is not a major producer of narcotics or precursor chemicals; In 2002 Israeli law enforcement officials have seen a large increase in the amount of Ecstasy brought to Israel. According to DEA officials, Israeli citizens living in Europe are among the largest traffickers of Ecstasy from Holland and Belgium to the rest of the world. In 2002, U.S. officials made several arrests of Israeli nationals involved in trafficking Ecstasy from Europe to the United States. Israeli authorities continue to work closely with USG law enforcement and other officials to combat the trafficking of narcotics. The GOI also has extradited suspected Israeli drug traffickers to the U.S. to face narcotics smuggling and possession charges.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. In March 2002 Israel ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention after enacting several laws that brought Israeli law into compliance with the Convention. As part of this effort, Israel passed several additional amendments to strengthen its anti-money laundering law and its financial intelligence unit (the Israeli Money Laundering Prohibition Authority) began operations.

Illicit Cultivation/Production. There is only negligible illicit drug cultivation or production in Israel.

Law Enforcement Efforts. DEA reports that cooperation between U.S. and Israeli law enforcement officers has been outstanding in 2002. DEA and Israeli National Police (INP) officials have participated in several instrumental meetings this year. The June 2002 extradition by the GOI of two Israeli citizens marks the first extradition of any Israeli citizen to the U.S. for a drug related crime. Hash/marijuana smuggling from Egypt into Israel has also been a problem and the INP would like to improve cooperation with Egyptian officials to halt this cross-border trade. Israeli law enforcement also cooperated with international law enforcement in the arrest of four Israeli Ecstasy traffickers (one who was in Israel) involved in the third largest Ecstasy seizure in the United States. U.S. and European law enforcement officials seized 1.4 million Ecstasy tablets (with an estimated street value of U.S. $42 million).

The INP reports that in 2002 there continues to be wide availability of all types of narcotics in Israel. INP reports that 2002 was a record year in seizures of ecstasy, cannabis resin, and cocaine, while they have seen stable levels in the heroin and marijuana seizures. In 2002 the INP has seen a dramatic increase in the supply and demand for cannabis resin (hashish). During 2002, the Israeli Defense Force seized 2 tons of hashish from a vessel in the Red Sea, the final destination of this cargo is unknown. The INP reports that marijuana continues to be the most common drug in Israel and seizures in 2002 did not change dramatically. The INP also reported that after a decrease in seizures last year, the Israeli authorities seized over 1,000,000 Ecstasy tablets in 2002 (800,000 tablets in one seizure) during the first ten months of 2002. The INP opened 23,619 narcotics related files in the first 10 months of 2002, an increase of 5 percent from 2001. INP made 3,628 drug arrests during the first 10 months of 2002 compared to 3,702 for the previous year. The INP also reported that Israeli citizens continue to play a significant role in international drug trafficking networks (mainly Ecstasy) in source, transit and distribution countries.

In the first 11 months of 2002, Israeli Customs authorities seized 50 kilograms of cocaine, 60 mg of morphine, 529 kilograms of cannabis, 291 grams of LSD and 31,300 LSD stamps, 1,045,000 pills of ecstasy, 8 kilograms of San Pedro, and 20 grams of pure mescaline.

Demand Reduction. The Israeli Anti-Drug Authority sets Israeli drug policy and works in the areas of prevention, education, public awareness, treatment, and rehabilitation. Many other organizations take part in the fight against drug use, including youth movements, sports organizations, kibbutzim, and NGO's. IADA officials remain concerned about increasing use of recreational drugs (primarily Ecstasy) among the nation's youth. The IADA launched a national public campaign against Ecstasy during 2001. The IADA continues to focus its efforts toward youth generally considered high risk (new immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia, Israeli Arabs, and "detached" youths, i.e., dropouts). IADA programs for youths include peer counseling, sports and other recreational activities, and a new computer program currently being adopted for school use. These programs are designed to prevent delinquency, create "alternatives" for youths, and to teach "life skills," as well as "the ability to say no." Like most GOI ministries and offices IADA's budget was cut in 2002, from USD 8 million to approximately USD 7.4 million due to Israel's continuing economic difficulties.

In 2002 IADA focused its demand reduction efforts at curbing the growing use of marijuana and placed particular emphasis on young adults between the ages of 18 and 24. IADA epidemiological research has shown that this age group was particularly vulnerable in Israel, and therefore programs have been put in place that target soldiers, students, and backpackers. The backpackers campaign is aimed at informing young Israeli travelers in South America and the Far East of the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking in those places. In 2002 IADA enlarged its mobile information campaign by adding several new vehicles that will travel throughout the country distributing information and showing counternarcotics films to at-risk communities. The mobile information centers are staffed by professionals from IADA and former drug abusers who teach communities about the harmful effects of drug use. In 2002 the IADA established the first rehabilitation village for youth and adult drug addicts and added four day-care centers for youths this year.

Corruption. In 2002 Israel had no cases of narcotics related corruption, nor is there any explicit or implicit official support for narcotics-related activities. Israel does not have specific legislation for public corruption related to narcotics, however it investigates and prosecutes corruption in all government matters.

Agreements and Treaties. In March 2002 Israel ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention after passing all the necessary laws to make Israeli laws consistent with the convention. In 1991 the U.S. and Israel signed a memorandum of understanding calling for bilateral cooperation to combat illicit narcotics trafficking and abuse. Israel also is a party to the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol. An extradition treaty, customs mutual assistance agreement, and a mutual legal assistance treaty are in force between Israel and the U.S. The Israeli Customs Department's National Drug Enforcement Unit reports drug seizures to the World Customs Organization. In December 2000 Israel signed the UN Convention against Transnational Crime and it is in the process of passing the necessary changes to Israeli law required for ratification. In November 2001, Israel also signed the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, to this convention. Under the Israeli extradition law, as recently amended, all persons, whether citizens or not, may be extradited for purposes of standing trial for extraditable offenses. If the requested person was both a citizen and resident of Israel at the time the offense was committed, he may be extradited to stand trial abroad only if the state seeking extradition promises in advance to allow the person to return to Israel to serve any sentence imposed.

Drug Flow/Transit. Most drugs imported into Israel are consumed domestically. Israel is not a significant transit country, although Israeli citizens have been part of international drug trafficking networks in source, transit, and distribution countries. INP, IADA, and Israeli customs officials are particularly concerned about drugs being smuggled into Israel from neighboring countries (primarily in Europe). DEA officials have tracked an increase in the amount of Ecstasy being shipped to Israel in 2002.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Road Ahead. DEA officials were pleased with the arrests and seizures made by Israeli authorities during 2002, and anticipate that continued cooperation will lead to a further crackdown on narcotics trafficking rings. USG and Israeli authorities will continue to hold periodic strategy sessions throughout 2003. Israeli law enforcement personnel have participated in U.S.-led training exercises in the past and look forward to future opportunities.


I. Summary

Kenya is a transit country for heroin and hashish, mostly bound from Southwest Asia for Europe and North America. Heroin transiting Kenya has increased in quality in recent years and is destined increasingly for North America. Although the exact impact that heroin transiting Kenya is having on the U.S. market is unclear, it is not believed to have a significant impact on heroin available in the U.S.. Cannabis is grown domestically and imported from neighboring countries for the illegal domestic market. There is a small local heroin market. Air passenger profiling and other techniques have helped reduce airborne heroin shipments. Interdiction of narcotics shipments by sea has been less successful, but a program for profiling shipping containers is in effect. The Anti-Narcotics Unit (ANU) of the Kenyan police continues to cooperate well with international and regional counternarcotics officials. The GoK has also cooperated closely with the DEA and other U.S. law enforcement agencies on a major narcotics-related extradition case among other issues of interest. Although government officials profess strong support for counternarcotics efforts, their overall program suffers from a lack of resources. Kenya is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and has enacted full implementing legislation.

II. Status of Country

Kenya is a significant transit country and a minor producer of narcotics for domestic consumption. Cannabis is produced in commercial quantities for the domestic market and there is no evidence of a major impact on the United States. Small quantities of cocaine and other drugs originating outside Africa transit Kenya for consumers in southern Africa. Kenya's sea and air transportation infrastructure, and the network of commercial and family ties that link some Kenyans to Southwest Asia, make Kenya a significant transit country for Southwest Asian heroin. In 2000, officials noted a dramatic shift from low-purity brown heroin to higher-purity white heroin, and believe that the higher-purity product is destined principally for the United States. This trend continued in 2002. Officials now believe that the United States is at least as significant as Europe as a destination for heroin transiting Kenya, but it is difficult to estimate in what quantities. In recent years, Kenya has been an important transit point for Southwest Asian cannabis resin (hashish), and police made several multi-ton hashish seizures. However, hashish seizures have fallen off significantly since 2000. Although Nairobi serves as a regional financial center, there is no direct evidence that Kenya is a major money-laundering country. Kenya does not produce significant quantities of precursor chemicals.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. In 2001, the Kenyan Cabinet approved a national drug control master plan, but Parliament has yet to pass the plan into law. The plan summarizes policies, defines priorities and apportions responsibilities for drug control to various agencies. A key element of this plan is the identification of a senior civil servant to liaise with donors and co-ordinate a broad counternarcotics effort, including a much-expanded education campaign focused on prevention. Regular meetings and information sharing between Kenyan, Ugandan, Tanzanian, and Rwandan narcotics officials continued in 2002. This regional cooperation was advanced in 2001 with the establishment of an East African Community protocol on combating drug trafficking in the East African region. Regular meetings between Kenyan authorities also improved internal information sharing and operational coordination between various government agencies, airlines and other entities. In 2001, Kenyan police officers observed cannabis eradication operations in Uganda and participated in an exchange program on airport counternarcotics operations with their Tanzanian and Ugandan counterparts. ANU officers also have continued a program of outreach to judges and magistrates, conducting seminars on counternarcotics law and the seriousness of narcotics abuse issues. ANU continued to publicize its message effectively through local media. ANU also engages in efforts to raise public awareness on drug abuse by giving lectures at schools and to local groups. Kenya has no crop substitution or alternative development initiatives for progressive elimination of the cultivation of narcotics. The ANU remains the focus of Kenyan counternarcotics efforts.

Accomplishments. The ANU has experienced more success this year in pushing the courts to sentence drug offenders. In March , the ANU arrested a Kenyan airline flight attendant who was later convicted on charges of smuggling 27.8 kilograms of heroin into Nairobi, and received a 20 year sentence. Many ANU officers have undergone training, much of it through the UNODC and bilateral programs sponsored by the U.S., German, British, Japanese and other governments. The ANU and the Kenyan Customs Service now have a cadre of officers proficient in profiling and searching suspected drug couriers and containers at airports and seaports. There have been some good results with profiling at airports, although generally for couriers and not major traffickers, and modest results at seaports. The ANU is building its surveillance capabilities and is able to carry out increasingly sophisticated operations. Inadequate resources, a problem throughout the Kenyan police force, significantly reduce the ANU's operational effectiveness.

The ANU cooperates fully with the United States and other nations on counternarcotics investigations. One such investigation in late 2002 led to the arrest of three suspects in a major ring smuggling narcotics to the United States. This led to an extradition request from the United States. The ANU and Attorney General's Office are assisting in this case. Two accused members of the ring are in Kenyan custody awaiting extradition to the United States.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Kenya seized 37.5 kilograms of heroin in 2002, nearly twice as much as it did in 2001, and arrested 94 people on heroin-related charges (all statistics on drug seizures in this section reflect the period from January to October 2002). Officials report a sharp shift from lower-quality brown heroin to higher-quality white heroin, and report that much of the white heroin transiting Kenya is destined for the United States, where traffickers are hoping to gain larger profits. Most couriers arrested in Kenya conceal heroin by swallowing, though some also hide it in their shoes. The ANU concentrates its anti-heroin operations at Kenya's two main international airports.

Kenyan authorities seized 16.1 kilograms of hashish in 2002 and arrested one suspect. Officials believe Kenyan coastal waters and ports are major transit points for the shipment of hashish from Pakistan to Europe and North America.

The year 2002 marked an increase from 2001 in cocaine seizures. A total of 17.6 kilograms of cocaine were seized and three people arrested. The cocaine seized in Kenya is believed to originate from Brazil and Colombia; its local availability and abuse is not widespread.

Kenyan authorities seized 76,616 kilograms of cannabis in 2002, and arrested 2,862 individuals. The drop in the number of cannabis seizures from last year probably is due to the fact that the ANU conducted a major operation in the Mt. Kenya region, in which they destroyed 14 farms and 328,362 kilograms of cannabis leaves in 2001.

The ANU continued to operate roadblocks for domestic drug trafficking interdiction and is pursuing a variety of policy initiatives for more effective coordination with other government agencies. The ANU has launched an outreach effort to persuade judges and magistrates of the seriousness of narcotics offenses and identify more effective ways to handle cases. The ANU also disseminates its messages effectively through local media.

Corruption. Corruption remains a significant barrier to effective narcotics enforcement. Despite Kenya's strict narcotics laws, which encompass most forms of narcotics-related corruption, there are regular, but unconfirmed reports of public officials being involved in narcotics trafficking. Police frequently complain that the courts are ineffective in handling narcotics cases, due likely to a combination of corruption, misunderstanding of the law, and simple judicial backlog. More broadly, anti-corruption efforts are an integral part of an economic recovery program that was negotiated with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 2000, leading to significant prosecutions that year. However, this effort faltered by 2001 when the Kenyan Parliament failed to pass anti-corruption legislation. During the election year of 2002, the government effectively put the anti-corruption legislation debate on hold. The future of Kenya's anti-corruption initiatives will largely depend on the new government's priorities.

Agreements and Treaties. Kenya is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, which it implemented in 1994 with the enactment of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Control Act. Kenya is also a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol. Kenya's National Assembly ratified the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 2000. The 1931 U.S.-U.K. Extradition Treaty remains in force between the United States and Kenya through a 1965 exchange of notes.

The United States and Kenya signed an MOU in 2002 to cover the donation of equipment and training to the ANU. The United States has prepared an amendment to the current MOU in which it seeks to continue its assistance to the ANU.

Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda established a protocol to enhance regional counternarcotics cooperation in 2001.

Cultivation and Production. A significant number of Kenyan farmers illegally grow cannabis or marijuana on a commercial basis for the domestic market. Fairly large-scale cannabis cultivation occurs in the Lake Victoria basin, in the central highlands around Mt. Kenya and along the coast. Foreign tourists export small amounts of Kenyan marijuana. Officials continue to conduct aerial surveys to identify significant cannabis-producing areas in cooperation with the Kenya Wildlife Service.

Drug Flow/Transit. Kenya is strategically located along a major transit route between Southwest Asian producers of heroin and markets in Europe and North America. Heroin normally transits Kenya by air, carried by individual couriers. West Africans, South Asians and East Africans remain active as couriers. However, the ANU reports on a trend of European couriers trafficking in heroin transiting Kenya to Europe and North America. Once in Kenya, heroin is typically delivered to agents of West African crime syndicates.

Local, regional, and international counternarcotics officials are also paying closer attention to maritime transport of heroin, though no seizures were made from this source in 2002. There is evidence that poor policing along the East African coast makes this region attractive to maritime smugglers. Kenya's neighbor Somalia has a long coastline and no functioning government. Kenya also has very few maritime interdiction resources.

Postal and commercial courier services are also used for narcotics shipments through Kenya. In the past, Kenya has been a transit country for methaqualone (mandrax) en route from India to South Africa. For several years there had been no methaqualone (mandrax) seizures in Kenya. However, this changed in 2002 when 52,103 mandrax tablets were intercepted and seven suspects arrested.

Domestic Programs. Kenya has made some progress in efforts to institute programs for demand reduction. Cannabis is the most commonly abused illegal drug in Kenya. Heroin abuse is limited generally to members of the economic elite and a slightly broader range of users on the coast. Solvent abuse is widespread (and highly visible) among street children in Nairobi and other urban centers. There are no reliable statistics on domestic consumption of illicit narcotics.

Demand reduction efforts have largely been limited to publicity campaigns sponsored by private donors and a UNODC project to bring counternarcotics education into the schools. In 2001, however, the Government of Kenya appointed a National Coordinator on Campaign Against Drug Abuse to initiate national public education programs on drugs. These efforts continued in 2002. There are no special government rehabilitation or drug abuse treatment facilities, but some churches and non-governmental organizations provide limited rehabilitation and treatment programs for solvent-addicted street children.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The principal U.S. counternarcotics objective in Kenya is to interdict the flow of narcotics to the United States. The USG seeks to accomplish this objective through law enforcement cooperation, the encouragement of a strong Kenyan government commitment to narcotics interdiction and strengthening Kenyan counternarcotics capabilities.

Road Ahead. The USG will continue to take advantage of its good relations with Kenyan law enforcement to build professionalism, operational capacity and information sharing. Nairobi is also an efficient point for conducting regional training and other regional initiatives and the USG will actively seek ways to maximize counternarcotics efforts both in Kenya and throughout East Africa. Perhaps most significantly, the USG will work with local, regional, and international partners to better understand and combat the flow of narcotics, particularly heroin, through Kenya to the United States.


I. Summary

Lebanon is not a major illicit drug producing or drug-transit country, although it remains a country of concern to the USG. The Lebanese Interior Minister proclaimed 2002 the "Year of Combating Drugs" in Lebanon and promised a zero-tolerance policy for poppy cultivation and opium/heroin production. The Lebanese government took serious actions to prevent cannabis cultivation and to eradicate illicit crops before harvest in the Biqa' Valley in 2002. However, cannabis cultivation is likely to resume, albeit at reduced levels, in 2003 due to a lack of suitable alternative crops to sustain the livelihoods of local farmers at a time of growing economic uncertainty.

Cannabis cultivation decreased from 2001 to 2002, and there was minimal poppy cultivation in 2002. There is practically no illicit drug refining in Lebanon. Drug trafficking across the Lebanese-Syrian border has diminished substantially as a result of Lebanese and Syrian efforts to deter smuggling activity. Lebanon is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

The deteriorating economic situation in Lebanon—especially in the agricultural sector—led to a resurgence of hashish cultivation by farmers in the Biqa' Valley in 2001 and to a lesser extent in 2002. There were also minor instances of poppy cultivation. The GOL made serious efforts to deter cultivation in 2002 and to eradicate the resulting crop before the summer harvest. The government also launched a counternarcotics campaign to discourage new planting.

Approximately 2,500 hectares of land were used for hashish production in 2002, as compared to 4,010 in 2001. The Judiciary Police—the law enforcement agency tasked with counternarcotics responsibilities—performed complete eradication in 2002.

At least five types of drugs are available in Lebanon: hashish, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other synthetics, such as MDMA (ecstasy). Although hashish and heroin are no longer widely available in large quantities, small quantities continue to be available for local consumption.

Lebanon is not a major transit country for illicit drugs, and most trafficking is done by "amateurs," rather than major drug networks. Marijuana and opium derivatives are trafficked to a modest extent in the region, but there is no evidence that the illicit narcotics that transit Lebanon reach the U.S. in sufficient amounts to have a significant effect. South American cocaine is smuggled into Lebanon primarily via air and sea routes from Europe, Jordan, and Syria, or directly to Lebanon. Lebanese nationals living in South America in concert with resident Lebanese traffickers often finance these operations. Synthetics are smuggled into Lebanon primarily for sale to high-income recreational users.

There is no significant illicit drug refining in Lebanon; such activity has practically disappeared due to vigilance of the Syrian and Lebanese governments. Small amounts of precursor chemicals, however, shipped from Lebanon to Turkey via Syria, were previously diverted for illicit use. Legislation passed in 1998 authorized seizure of assets if a drug trafficking nexus is established in court proceedings.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. The Interior Minister proclaimed 2002 the "Year of Combating Drugs" in Lebanon and promised a zero-tolerance policy for poppy cultivation and opium/heroin production. The Lebanese government took serious actions to prevent illicit cannabis cultivation in 2002 (see next para). The government also launched a public awareness advertising campaign in 2002 to discourage drug use. The Ministry of Interior sent counternarcotics messages on mobile phones. Counternarcotics posters and slogans were displayed throughout the country.

Accomplishments. In 2002, the Government of Lebanon conducted a large-scale operation of hashish and poppy eradication. According to Dr. Riad Saade, a reliable local expert and Director General of the Lebanese Center of Agricultural Studies and Research, approximately 2,500 hectares of land were used for illicit hashish production in 2002, as compared to 4,010 in 2001. The Internal Security Forces eradicated all these cultivated crops during this year. Given the areas eradicated, illicit drug production could have been significant without the government's action. The cost of the operation was approximately U.S. $524,323. Given the continuing agricultural crisis in the country, and considering that development funds remain limited, impoverished farmers will likely continue to cultivate illicit cannabis, and there is a danger of a return to illicit opium cultivation, unless serious deterrence measures and/or meaningful development alternatives are made available.

Law Enforcement and Transit Cooperation. Lebanese security services coordinate with their international counterparts. The Judiciary Police report that close governmental cooperation exists with the major transit countries, particularly those in Europe. The Lebanese military also closely coordinates its activities against drug traffickers with its Syrian counterpart.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). There is a growing recognition among Lebanese leaders of the need to address the problem of illicit drug use. During the year, the government launched a widespread public awareness campaign to discourage drug use. Textbooks approved for use in all public schools contain a chapter on narcotics to increase public awareness. There are several detoxification programs but the only entity in Lebanon that offers a comprehensive drug rehabilitation program is Oum al-Nour (ON), a Beirut-based NGO. The Government, through the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Public Health, provides 35 to 40 percent of ON's yearly budget, which is projected at U.S. $800,000 for 2003. ON estimates that the age of the average drug addict in Lebanon is getting gradually younger since the end of the country's civil war in 1990, with pre-college and college-age youth now being the most vulnerable. ON statistics cite that the most commonly abused illicit substance is heroin, but use of "designer" drugs such as methamphetamine and ecstasy is present and possibly rising.

ON operates three drug treatment centers in Lebanon, two for men and one for women. The centers, which increased their capacity from 40 to 70 patients in 2002, offer a yearlong residential program for hard-core addicts, and sometimes operate above capacity. The organization lacks outpatient care for individuals whose addictions do not necessarily warrant hospitalization.

ON also engages in drug prevention activities such as distributing educational materials on college campuses and promoting drug awareness among the population through advertisements and education programs.

Law Enforcement Efforts. From January to November 2002, the GOL seized 28.7 metric tons of hashish, 762 grams of opium, 1.994 kilograms of heroin, 7.732 kilograms of cocaine, 91 grams of marijuana, 821 unspecified drug pills, 4.291 kilograms of hashish seeds and 7.5 kilograms of opium seeds. In 2002, 1,378 persons were arrested on charges related to narcotics use or distribution.

Corruption. Corruption remains endemic in Lebanon up to the senior level of government. While low-level corruption in the counternarcotics forces is possible, there is no evidence of wide scale corruption within the Judiciary Police or the Internal Security Force, which appear to be genuinely dedicated to combating drugs.

Agreements and Treaties. Lebanon and the United States have no formal bilateral agreements addressing the issues of narcotics trafficking or extradition. Lebanon is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the 1961 UN Single Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol.

Cultivation and Production. According to a reliable local expert, approximately 2,500 hectares of land were used for illicit hashish production in 2002 as compared to 4,010 in 2001; minimal land was dedicated to poppy production. These estimates represent land used beyond land where the crop was eradicated by government forces, and is thus an indication of the size of illicit crop actually produced in Lebanon.

Drug Flow/Transit. Illicit drug trafficking via traditional smuggling routes has been somewhat curtailed by joint Syrian-Lebanese operations, but nonetheless continues. Drug trafficking along the Israel-Lebanon border has been negligible since the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in May 2000 and the subsequent near sealing of the border. The primary route for smuggling hashish from Lebanon during 2002 was overland to Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and via sea routes to Europe. However, the Internal Security Forces report that exports of large quantities of hashish from Lebanon to Europe was difficult for smugglers in 2002 due to increased seashore patrols. The ISF asserted that no hashish has been smuggled into the United States. The GOL conceded that small quantities of morphine and heroin are smuggled overland from Turkey for local use.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Policy Initiatives. In meetings with Lebanese officials, U.S. officials continue to stress the need for diligence in preventing the production and transportation of narcotics, and the need for a comprehensive development program for the Biqa' Valley that would provide the impoverished residents with alternate sources of income. The USG also stresses the importance of anticorruption efforts. USAID, in close cooperation with the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, continues its four-component program to aid and empower key Lebanese stakeholders, local government, media, and civil society in their efforts to fight corruption. On the supply side, USAID assists U.S. and local NGOs working with villages to promote the substitution of illicit crops with legitimate, economically viable ones.

The Road Ahead. Given the level of Syrian involvement in Lebanese domestic affairs, success in combating narcotics cultivation and trafficking depends on the will of both the Syrian and Lebanese governments. The Government of Lebanon, in cooperation with the Syrian government, eradicated most illicit cultivation during 2002. The GOL, however, has not successfully developed a socio-economic strategy to tackle the problem of crop substitution. The USG will continue to press the GOL to maintain its commitment to combating drug production and transit and implementing anti-corruption policies.


I. Summary

Lesotho is not a major producer of narcotics or precursor chemicals, nor does it have drug-processing laboratories. High THC-content marijuana is cultivated in the country's mountainous, rural areas and is smuggled to major cities in South Africa, but is not smuggled outside the region, with the possible exception of some shipments to Europe. Lesotho suffers from the impact of South Africa-based organized crime, mainly in the areas of livestock and motor vehicle theft and armed robbery, against which most of the country's scarce police resources are deployed. Domestic narcotics abuse is not a serious social problem.

II. Status of Country

Treaties and Agreements. Lesotho is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It has also approved the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Counternarcotics Protocol. The 1931 U.S.-U.K. extradition treaty remains in force between the United States and Lesotho. Lesotho has signed, but not yet ratified, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. Lesotho is concerned about the possible impact of organized crime, but its highest priorities in that regard are livestock and motor vehicle theft, both of which were the subject of new laws enacted by Parliament during 2000. Lesotho's scarce law enforcement resources have been stretched to the limit dealing with livestock and motor vehicle theft, and the country has thus far been unable to develop a master plan consistent with the terms of the 1988 UN Drug Convention. A task force working in the Attorney General's Office is evaluating additional laws based on models prepared by the UNODC for implementing the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

Corruption. The Prevention of Corruption and Economic Offenses Act ("Corruption Act") provided stiff penalties for corruption, but is just the first step. Lesotho strives to enforce all its laws, but resources—both human and material—are frequently unavailable. The USG is not aware of any involvement of senior officials in drug-related corruption. Payments to facilitate passage of contraband goods to lower officials at border crossing points might occur, and could facilitate drug trafficking. The GOL would no doubt prosecute any case that would come to the attention of authorities under the Corruption Act. The GOL has continued to try to staff the investigating body created by the Corruption Act and to study further and adopt the best practices of SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) partners against public corruption.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Lesotho has been an enthusiastic participant in the International Law Enforcement Academy's (ILEA) programs. During 2002, Lesotho sent 26 persons to five different courses given by ILEA. When the ILEA Regional Director visited Lesotho in August, he met with the Home Affairs Minister, who expressed strong support for ILEA's programs and a willingness to cooperate in any way possible with U.S. law enforcement efforts.

The Road Ahead. Lesotho and other Southern African countries should continue to benefit from the presence of the ILEA in Gaborone.


I. Summary

Madagascar is not a major producer, supplier or exporter of drugs or precursor chemicals. Cannabis is the main narcotic cultivated in Madagascar and it is produced in the northern and far southern provinces of the island. In 1998 Madagascar established an inter-ministerial commission, the CICLD ("the Commission"), headed by the Prime Minister, to address narcotics control. The Commission's first objective is to develop a national plan to address all aspects of narcotics control. The Commission says the national plan, which it hopes to present to the cabinet in early 2003, will provide both a complete overview of the drug problem in Madagascar and an integrated approach for dealing with it. Narcotics control as an issue may have assumed new relevance as the promised national plan is supposed to link narcotics control to overall development questions.

II. Status of Country

Available statistics (which the GOM acknowledges are inadequate) indicate that production, cultivation and trafficking in illicit drugs in Madagascar are chiefly limited to cannabis. Conditions in the northern provinces of Mahajanga and Antsiranana in particular favor rapid, plentiful growth of this crop. Significant cultivation also occurs in the southern provinces of Tulear and Fianarantsoa. A portion of this production may be finding its way to illicit markets on neighboring islands and the African continent, but the majority is intended for domestic consumption. Production, cultivation and traffic of cannabis are directly linked to overall economic conditions in Madagascar. Over 80 percent of the Malagasy people live in rural areas in severe poverty, and cannabis provides rural populations with vital additional income as well as a widely used folk remedy for many ailments.

Greater deployment of military and law enforcement assets in rural areas, and the appearance of roadblocks along all the major arteries of the island during the 2002 political crisis, may have had the unintended positive result of interdicting increased quantities of harvested cannabis in 2002. GOM figures indicate that in 2001, 693 metric tons of cannabis were seized, while in 2002 seizures rose to 1,744 metric tons.

Small seizures of heroin and cocaine at Madagascar's international airport suggest at least some trafficking in these drugs. However, neither of these seizures occurred within the last two years. The draft national plan also mentions that morphine priced at 300,000 Malagasy Francs per dose (about U.S. $55) is sometimes available in a small number of big city nightclubs. Since this sum is more than a month's salary for the average Malagasy, the consumers are assumed to be primarily foreigners. Malagasy law enforcement conducts frequent checks on main highways and at main ports and, in concert with regular army units, is engaged in several interdiction operations in cannabis producing regions. While law enforcement certainly takes the threat of narcotics trafficking seriously, traditional high-profile crimes, such as cattle rustling, continue to absorb a significant share of law enforcement resources.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

On the international level, Madagascar is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and its 1972 Protocol and the 1971 Vienna Convention on Psychotropic Substances. On a regional level, Madagascar has been a party since 1990 to a bilateral agreement with Mauritius aimed at preventing illicit traffic in narcotics. There are also plans for increased bilateral cooperation between Madagascar and the Comoros on this issue. Since 1997, Madagascar has been working on both its legal system and administrative practices to comply fully with international standards embodied in the UN agreements to which it is party. In 1998, the GOM created the "Commission Interministerielle de Coordination de la Lutte Contre la Drogue" or CICLD, which, although officially headed by the Prime Minister, is managed on a day-to-day basis by its own Secretary General, the Malagasy equivalent of a "drug czar". As noted above, the Commission promises an overall counternarcotics strategy linked to Madagascar's overall development strategy for 2003.

The draft national plan reflects important requirements of the 1988 UN Drug Convention by aiming at three distinct results: 1) to reduce the supply of narcotics by disrupting its traffic; 2) to reduce demand for narcotics by implementing programs reflecting traditional Malagasy values and targeting the most vulnerable segments of the Malagasy population; and 3) to streamline gathering and analysis of relevant statistics. However, many aspects of the program remain mere aspirations without concrete, realistic implementation strategies. As an example of the draft plan's questionable realism, an overall program to eradicate cannabis cultivation is scheduled entirely for the first trimester of 2004. There is a component of the plan that calls for an ongoing study into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. It also calls for studies, planned for the second half of 2003, on the links between narcotics trafficking and corruption of public officials and political party financing, but there currently is no plan for funding and carrying out these studies.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

In November 2002, the U.S. Embassy in Madagascar provided funding for DEA training in Mauritius for two field grade level law enforcement officers. The USG is also in the process of transferring to the Malagasy Navy seven motor lifeboats, scheduled for deployment in early 2003. These motorized lifeboats will significantly increase Madagascar's ability to monitor its 5,000 kilometers of coastline and enhance the overall security of its borders.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will work closely with Madagascar to improve the interdiction capacity of law enforcement personnel.


I. Summary

Drug trafficking and abuse in Malawi currently appears to be confined to the local cultivation of and traffic in cannabis. The GOM views this illegal activity as a serious problem, and is doing what it can, given severely limited resources, to fight the illicit cultivation and trade in cannabis. The GOM is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

As of November 2002, the Dangerous Drug Unit (DDU) of the Malawi Police Service investigated 735 cases involving the production, trafficking or use of cannabis. These cases involved 751 suspects, 726 of whom were Malawian, and resulted in 7 arrests and the seizure and destruction of 10,938 kilograms of cannabis. During the same period, the DDU investigated only 1 case involving a substance other than cannabis. This case involved a foreign national, who was arrested for possession of a single tablet of Mandrax (Methaqualone), which was seized and destroyed.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs In 2002

Policy Initiatives. The GOM, with UNODC and SADC (Southern African Development Community) assistance, is currently working on a National Drug Control Master Plan (NDCMP). The Plan was completed in draft late in 2001, and the GOM had hoped to implement it during the first half of 2002. Funding difficulties seem certain now to delay implementation until June 2003. The Plan calls for efforts to eradicate Malawi's domestic cannabis cultivation and to intensify interdiction efforts against drugs and other contraband passing through Malawi.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Malawi has not been able to mount a consistent effort against illicitly grown cannabis since many growers have no ready alternatives. Law enforcement forces also lack the resources necessary to move consistently against illicit cultivation, even if they were not dissuaded by social welfare considerations.

Corruption. Corruption at some level is always a problem in a country as poor as Malawi, but as a matter of policy the government certainly does not encourage narcotics trafficking or money laundering, and the USG is unaware of any high level official of the government who benefits from narcotics-related corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. The GOM is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol. The 1931 US-UK Extradition Treaty remains in force between the United States and Malawi through a 1966-1967 exchange of notes.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. The USG supports training for Malawi police and at the regional ILEA, and expects that Malawi will also benefit from efforts to improve customs enforcement throughout the SADC region.

The Road Ahead. GOM efforts in the area of narcotics control appear to be sincere and surprisingly aggressive, given the resource constraints under which the entire government currently operates. The DDU currently lacks much of the equipment and training normally associated with basic policing, much less the more specialized resources and expertise necessary for effective drug enforcement operations. The police and the ministries of home affairs and justice are all well aware that cannabis trafficking can lead to trafficking in harder drugs. They will continue to do their best to control the illicit cannabis trade.


I. Summary

Morocco continues to be a major producer and exporter of cannabis. Morocco produced an estimated 2000 tons of cannabis in 2002, with more than 1500 tons believed to have been smuggled into Europe. Evidence continues to indicate the United States is not a major recipient of drugs from Morocco. The GOM's Royal Center for Remote Sensing estimates that Morocco's cannabis growing area covers a total of 15,000-20,000 hectares, a figure that has remained steady for a number of years. In contrast, the EU and independent studies suggest the area of cannabis cultivation is far greater, and growing. Morocco's estimates of production seem to be increasingly questionable in light of the GOM's acknowledgement that its cultivation estimates are surely low. Morocco is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention; Moroccan legislation implemented the Convention in 1992. To some extent, Morocco effectively tolerates cannabis cultivation for want of any short term alternative.

II. Status of Country

Morocco consistently ranks among the world's largest producers and exporters of cannabis, and its cultivation and sale provide the economic base for much of northern Morocco. Only very small amounts of narcotics produced in or transiting through Morocco reach the United States. According to an EU-funded report, the illicit trade in hashish generates approximately U.S. $3 billion a year, and the hashish trade remains Morocco's primary source of hard currency. Independent estimates indicate that the returns from cannabis cultivation range from U.S. $16,400-U.S. $29,800 per hectare for farmers, compared with an average of U.S. $1,000 per hectare for one possible alternative, corn. According to EU law enforcement officials, Moroccan cannabis is typically processed into hashish resin or oil and exported to Europe, Algeria, and Tunisia. To date, Morocco has no enterprises which use dual-use precursor chemicals, and is thus neither a source nor transit point for them.

While there has been a small but growing domestic market for harder drugs such as heroin and cocaine, cannabis remains the traditional drug of choice for Moroccans. There is no substantial evidence of trafficking of harder drugs.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. Throughout the 1980's, the GOM worked in conjunction with the United Nations to confront the unique geographic, cultural and economic circumstances that confront the many people involved in the cultivation of cannabis in northern Morocco. Joint projects to provide alternative agricultural products included providing goats for dairy farming, apple trees, and small bee-keeping projects. This effort also included paved roads, modern irrigation networks, and health and veterinary clinics. The end result was the illicit use of these projects by the cannabis trade to facilitate their activities.

Morocco has legislation providing the maximum allowable prison sentence for drug offenses to 30 years, as well as fines for narcotics violations in a range of U.S. $20,000-$80,000. Ten years imprisonment remains the typical sentence for major drug traffickers arrested in Morocco. Despite this extensive record of efforts to restrain cannabis cultivation in its northern provinces, it appears that Moroccan cannabis cultivation continues to expand throughout the northern Rif region.

Law Enforcement Efforts. As part of a 1992 counternarcotics initiative launched by the late King Hassan, an estimated 10,000 police were detailed to drug interdiction efforts in the north and Rif mountains in 1995. Since then, approximately every six months, the GOM has rotated personnel into this region and continued to maintain the same numbers of checkpoints. Moroccan forces also staff observation posts along the Mediterranean coast, and the Moroccan Navy carries out routine sea patrols and responds to summons for a reaction force by the observation posts. None of this has changed the underlying reality of extensive cannabis cultivation and trafficking in Northern Morocco.

Corruption. Given the scale of cannabis cultivation in Morocco, it is clear that at least some government officials must be effectively tolerating that cultivation. Given the lack of alternatives to cannabis over the short term, and the efforts Morocco has made historically to help its northern farmers to get out of the cannabis trade, it is clear that over the short term, Morocco is likely to continue as a major producer and exporter of cannabis.

Agreements and Treaties. A bilateral mutual legal assistance treaty (MLAT) has been in force between Morocco and the United States since 1993. Morocco is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and ratified the 1972 Protocol amending the Single Convention in March 2002.

Cultivation/Production. The traditional areas of cultivation in the regions around the cities of Bab-Berretand Ketama have expanded in the last 20 years north to the outskirts of Tangiers. Small farmers in the northern Rif region cultivate most cannabis, although some is also grown in the Souss valley of the south. Those who cultivate cannabis have not been hurt by Morocco's four years of drought, as cannabis is a highly resistant crop. The average hectare planted with cannabis produces two to eight metric tons of raw plant. This implies that Morocco might produce in the range of 325,000 metric tons of raw cannabis (65,000 hectares x(times) approximately .5 metric tons/hectare). The GOM has stated it is committed to the total eradication of cannabis production, but given the economic dependence on cannabis in Morocco's northern region, eradication is only feasible if accompanied by a highly subsidized crop substitution program. The growth in the total cultivation area between 1993 and 2000 has likely continued through 2002, and indicates the challenge the GOM faces.

Drug Flow/Transit. The primary ports of export for Moroccan cannabis are Oued Lalou, Martil and Bou Ahmed on the Mediterranean coast. Most large shipments headed toward Spain travel via fishing vessels and yachts. Smaller shipments have also been confiscated on small local "zodiac rafts". Smugglers also continue to ship cannabis via truck and car through the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, crossing the Straits of Gibraltar by ferry. Traffickers have also begun to smuggle cannabis out of the country via truck through Morocco's southern border, evidenced by a seizure of 6 tons of Moroccan hashish in the Senegalese port of Dakar. A helicopter crash in the Rif region in 2002 also suggests that traffickers are using various types of aircraft to smuggle cannabis out of Morocco.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The GOM does not acknowledge a significant hard drug addiction problem and does not actively promote reduction in domestic demand for cannabis. It has established a program to train the staffs of psychiatric hospitals in the treatment of drug addiction of other drugs.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. U.S. policy goals in Morocco are designed to provide training in law enforcement techniques and to promote the GOM's adherence to its obligations under relevant bilateral and international agreements. U.S. supported efforts to strengthen money laundering laws and efforts against terrorist financing may also contribute to the GOM's ability to monitor the flow of money from the cannabis trade.

The Road Ahead. The United States will continue to monitor the narcotics situation in Morocco, cooperate with the GOM in its counternarcotics efforts, and, together with the EU, provide law enforcement training, intelligence, and other support where possible.


I. Summary

Mozambique is a transit country for illegal drugs (hashish, herbal cannabis, cocaine, mandrax (methaqualone), and heroin) consumed in Europe and South Africa. Some hashish shipments passing through Mozambique find their way to the United States and Canada. The country's porous borders, poorly policed seacoast, and inadequately trained and equipped law enforcement agencies facilitate transshipment of narcotics to South Africa. Drug production is limited to herbal cannabis. Available evidence suggests significant use of herbal cannabis and limited consumption of "club drugs"(Ecstasy, etc.), prescription medicines, and heroin among the urban elite. The Mozambican government recognizes drug use and drug trafficking as serious problems, but has limited resources to address these issues. Cooperation programs with the UNODC and bilateral donors have attempted to improve training of drug control officials and provide better interdiction and laboratory equipment. Corruption in the police and judiciary significantly hampers counternarcotics efforts. Mozambique is a party to the 1998 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Mozambique is not a significant producer of illegal drugs. Herbal cannabis for local consumption is produced throughout the country, particularly in Tete, Nampula, and Cabo Delgado provinces. Limited amounts are exported to neighboring countries, particularly South Africa. Some factories producing mandrax for the South African market were raided and closed down in 1995 and 2000. But by July 2002, at least some were back in business, and further chemicals and equipment for producing mandrax were seized in Matola (near Maputo). Mozambique's role has grown as a drug-transit country. Southwest Asian producers ship cannabis resin (hashish) and synthetic drugs through Mozambique to Europe and South Africa. Limited quantities of these shipments may also reach the United States and Canada. Reports from the Mozambican Office for the Prevention and Fight Against Drugs (GCPCD) indicate that heroin and other opiate derivatives shipped through Mozambique originate in Southeast Asia. Limited amounts of cocaine from Colombia and Brazil transit Portugal and Angola or Mozambique (all Portuguese speaking countries) on their way to South Africa. Mozambique is not a producer of precursor chemicals.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Accomplishments. Mozambique's accomplishments in meeting its goals under the 1988 UN Drug Convention remain limited. Government resources devoted to the counternarcotics effort are meager, and only limited donor funds are available. Mozambique is cooperating with the UNODC through two assistance projects designed to increase law enforcement capacity and border control. Local law enforcement agents in some provinces have destroyed cannabis crops. In 1995, 2000, and 2002, Mozambique cooperated with South Africa in raiding Mandrax factories near Maputo. Mozambican officials also seized assets connected with the production of mandrax, but not assets related to profits derived from drug sales. The Mozambican government carries out drug education programs in local schools in cooperation with bilateral and multilateral donors as part of its demand reduction efforts.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Mozambique's drug unit, which operates in Maputo and reports to the Chief of the Criminal Investigation Police, received refresher training in drug interdiction techniques as part of a UNODC program in 2001 and 2002. Under this program, 20 officers were hired and trained to staff drug units. Drug detection equipment was installed at border posts, ports, and airports. Customs officers at Maputo airport and seaport have received drug interdiction training under a UNODC program. The UNODC is working with customs agents at land borders as part of a program with Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland. Publicized seizures in 2002 include:

  • A seizure and destruction of 400 kilos of marijuana in Sofala province in May 2002.

  • The arrest of three Israeli citizens with precursor chemicals and equipment for production of mandrax in Matola. Two of the suspects subsequently escaped during questioning.

  • A raid on a drug trafficking ring in Inhambane, with six arrests that yielded unspecified amounts of marijuana and 41 packets of heroin.

  • Destruction of half a metric ton of marijuana in Manica province.

  • Destruction of cannabis crops by police in several provinces. The Minister of Justice reported to the National Assembly in October that 633 kilos of cannabis were seized and 2.5 hectares of cannabis fields were destroyed in the first half of 2002.
Mozambique has not received requests for the extradition of drug-related suspects.

Corruption. Corruption is pervasive in Mozambique. Mozambique has not prosecuted government officials for corruption relating to the production, processing, or shipment of narcotic and psychotropic drugs or controlled substances, nor has it prosecuted any individual for discouraging the investigation or prosecution of such acts. The director of the Maputo maximum security prison was replaced in June after the escape of a Tanzanian citizen sentenced to 20 years for involvement in production of mandrax.

Agreements and Treaties. Mozambique is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Mozambique has signed, but has not yet ratified, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

Cultivation/Production. Cannabis is cultivated in Nampula, Zambezia, Niassa, Cabo Delgado, Tete, Manica, and Sofala provinces. The Mozambican government has no estimates on crop size. Intercropping is reportedly common.

Drug Flow/Transit. Assessments of drugs transiting Mozambique are based upon limited seizure data and observations of local and UNODC officials. Mozambique serves as a transit country for hashish, cannabis resin, heroin, and Mandrax originating in Southwest Asia. Drugs destined for the South African and European markets arrive in Mozambique by small ship via Dubai. The Maputo corridor border crossing at Ressano Garcia/Lebombo is an important transit point. Hashish and heroin are also shipped on to Europe, and there is evidence that some hashish may reach Canada and the United States, but not in significant quantities. Arrests in Brazil and Mozambique suggest that cocaine is being shipped by drug couriers from Colombia and Brazil to Mozambique and Angola through Lisbon for onward shipment to South Africa and East Asia. In addition, there is anecdotal evidence that Nigerian cocaine traffickers have targeted Mozambique as a gateway to the South African and European markets.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The primary drugs of abuse are alcohol and herbal cannabis. Heroin, cocaine, and "club drug" usage and prescription drug abuse are also reported among Mozambique's urban elite. The GCPCD has developed a drug education program for use in schools. It has provided the material to a number of local NGOs for use in their drug education programs. The Maputo GCPCD office launched an education program aimed at youth in April 2001. The program included plays and lectures in schools, churches, and other places where youth gather. The Sofala provincial GCPCD office has created teams of community volunteers to organize educational programs. Funds were not available in 2002 for expansion of these education programs beyond major cities. Drug abuse and treatment options are scarce. The GCPCD is seeking donor assistance in creating three regional treatment centers in Maputo, Beira, and Nampula.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The USG has included and will continue to include Mozambican law enforcement officials in regional training programs through the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) for Africa in Botswana. The USG provided U.S. $170,000 and approved a further U.S. $300,000 in support of the Police Sciences Academy (ACIPOL). The funds provide support for curriculum development, and the USG has also committed to providing a full-time advisor for curriculum development and strategic planning. The Department of Defense has assisted the Mozambican navy to develop a plan for improved coastal surveillance activities, but for the moment the plan cannot be implemented, as the Mozambican navy has no coastal patrol capacity.


Namibia is not a major drug producer or exporter; however, it continues to be used as a drug transit country, and drug abuse in Namibia itself is rising. There has been approximately a 6 percent increase in drug seizures in 2002. Namibia's Drug Law Enforcement Unit (DLEU) lacks the manpower and resources to adequately enforce drug laws. Namibia is not a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

Namibian police suspect that illicit drugs are smuggled into Namibia via road, hidden in large trucks. While most of the narcotics are destined for the illicit South African market, more and more of the drugs remain in Namibia, feeding a growing domestic drug abuse problem. The reported 6 percent increase in seizures was only the tip of the iceberg of a growing abuse and transit problem in Namibia. The largest growth in narcotic abuse cases is in Ecstasy.

Namibia has no bilateral narcotics agreement with the U.S. Namibia has not taken advantage of training opportunities at ILEA-Botswana.


I. Summary

Nigeria is a hub of narcotics trafficking and money laundering activity. Nigerian organized criminal groups dominate the African drug trade and transport narcotics as well to markets in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin smuggled via Nigeria accounts for a significant portion of the heroin imported into the United States. Nigerian criminal elements operating in South America transship cocaine through Nigeria to Europe, Asia, and Africa. South Africa is a major destination for Nigerian-trafficked cocaine within Africa. Nigerian-grown cannabis is exported to neighboring West African countries and to Europe, but not in significant quantities to the United States. Aside from cannabis, Nigeria does not produce any of the drugs in which its nationals traffic.

Nigerian criminal organizations are also engaged in advance-fee fraud and other criminal activities. Nigeria remains one of the world's most corrupt places to do business. The democratically elected government of President Olusegun Obasanjo has faced significant challenges in checking organized crime. In 2002, Nigeria successfully extradited a fugitive sought by the U.S. for the first time in several years. The U.S.-Nigerian Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) entered into force in January 2003.

Throughout 2002, the looming April 2003 elections commanded increasing attention from senior elected GON officials. As a result, progress on fulfilling previously-made law enforcement commitments slowed down. A 2002 budget battle between the executive and legislative branch—provoked largely by the looming elections—resulted in an impasse and caused funding shortfalls for key law enforcement agencies. Nigeria's drug enforcement performance has not advanced significantly from past years, in part due to this funding problem.

In 2002, the NDLEA (National Drug Law Enforcement Agency) encountered limited success in combating the controlling elements of the drug trade. Typically, street pushers and trafficker "mules" were apprehended; the effort against large-scale traffickers, however, was less effective. While the success of efforts against drug kingpins remains modest, the Obasanjo government in 2002 made good on previous commitments to create a structure to identify and interdict the proceeds of crime—a major criminal issue in Nigeria, as highlighted by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

II. Status of Country

Nigerian criminal organizations, sophisticated specialists in moving narcotics and other contraband, are heavily involved in corollary criminal activities such as document fabrication, illegal immigration, and financial fraud. Their ties to criminals in the United States, Europe, South America, Asia, and South Africa are well documented. Nigerian poly-crime organizations exact significant financial and societal costs, especially among West African states with limited resources for countering these organizations.

Although Nigeria does not produce reliable crime statistics, most observers agree that public security deteriorated throughout the country in 2002. The police remain grossly mistrusted by the Nigerian populace and organized crime groups exploited that mistrust by preying on citizens throughout the nation, but particularly in key urban areas such as Lagos, Enugu, Port Harcourt, Jos, Kano and Kaduna.

The NDLEA is the law enforcement agency with sole responsibility for combating narcotics trafficking and drug abuse. It was established in 1989, and works alongside Nigerian Customs, the State Security Service, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), the National Police, and the Nigerian Immigration Service at various ports of entry. The NDLEA's most successful interdictions have taken place at Nigeria's international airports, with over 50 percent of hard drug seizures (e.g. cocaine and heroin) at the Lagos International Airport. The agency has successfully apprehended individual drug couriers transiting these airports and some of the drug traffickers sponsoring these couriers; major traffickers remain at large.

NDLEA seizures of hard drugs in 2002 were modest. No one seizure exceeded 15 kilograms. Failure to make large seizures in 2002 contrasted unfavorably with success in 2001 in seizing a large shipment of 60 kilograms of cocaine at the Lagos port, for example. Seizures were modest despite continuing evidence of large drug shipments transiting Nigeria en route to the United States and Europe. The improved access of the NDLEA to Nigeria's major seaports has not resulted in any significant improvement in drug enforcement at these key interdiction points, in part due to the under-funding of the NDLEA and resistance to NDLEA operations by the Nigerian Customs Service.

Interdiction and enforcement efforts are complicated by an absence of inter-agency cooperation. Years of neglect by successive military regimes left the law enforcement community demoralized and ill-equipped to deal with sophisticated international criminal networks. There have been a few arrests of major traffickers; however, it can take years for a case to come to trial and no mechanism exists to track cases. Cases are often "systematically lost" within Nigeria's judicial system, and defendants remain unpunished.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. In 2002, Nigeria enacted money laundering legislation and created an Anti-Terrorism, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission to coordinate government-wide efforts against money laundering and financial crimes. The Obasanjo Administration's initiative to create the Anti-Terrorism, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission shows the government's commitment to meeting its international obligations, particularly the standards of the FATF.

While frequent leadership changes at the NDLEA impaired the agency's effectiveness in the past, the current NDLEA Chairman, Alhaji Bello Lafiaji, who assumed office in October 2000, has given the agency new life and much more energetic direction. Chairman Lafiaji has instituted a number of internal reforms to improve the professionalism of NDLEA staff, including accelerating the retirement of officials suspected of corruption and improved training and benefits for NDLEA personnel. The NDLEA has also embarked upon a publicity campaign to combat narcotics trafficking and drug abuse by staging various contraband destruction events around the country.

The drug trafficking situation in Nigeria, and the involvement of Nigerian nationals in drug trafficking and poly-crime organizations around the world, took years to evolve. It is in part a product of years of political, societal, and economic difficulties in Nigeria, especially under military rule. The current Nigerian government and any successor Nigerian government will have many competing priorities, and will be constrained by difficult reform issues. It is therefore entirely unrealistic to expect dramatic progress on the narcotics trafficking front quickly. Progress will be gradual, and every step forward will be difficult. Nigerian enforcement efforts currently focus on low level traffickers, but efforts are underway, including important U.S. assistance efforts, to upgrade the investigative capacity of Nigeria's enforcement officials.

Accomplishments. The increased level of drug enforcement that began in 2001 was sustained, but not improved, in 2002. With assistance from the Department of State's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the NDLEA enhanced its capacity to launch more aggressive drug interdiction campaigns and investigative efforts against drug barons.

With DEA assistance, the NDLEA created the West African Joint Operation (WAJO) initiative, bringing together drug enforcement personnel from 15 countries in the region to improve regional cooperation. Several WAJO meetings organized by the NDLEA and DEA during 2002 culminated in a month-long joint interdiction operation in ten countries, leading to cumulative seizures of hard drugs totaling more than 50 kilograms. The NDLEA also expanded counternarcotics cooperation with the police in South Africa, where Nigerian criminal organizations are responsible for the bulk of drug trafficking.

Given the weakness of Nigeria's own administration of justice regime, the threat of extradition to the U.S. could be a very significant deterrent for Nigerian traffickers engaged in major international operations. But, for many reasons, it has not been possible for Nigeria to process quickly many pending extradition requests from the U.S. The Government of Nigeria began to put in place a mechanism that promises to process U.S. extradition requests expeditiously while observing due process under Nigerian law. This mechanism includes the creation of an exclusive extradition team of public prosecutors and the designation of a High Court judge dedicated to extradition cases. Extradition requests were formerly heard in any court, including lower magistrates courts. Whether this new system works better than its predecessor will depend importantly on the quality of the person chosen for the key role of High Court Judge dedicated to extradition cases. It will also be important for the GON to assure this individual is protected from intimidation, and not open to bribery. In late 2002, Gabriel Umoh was extradited to the United States to serve a prison sentence for financial fraud. This marked the first judicial extradition of a fugitive wanted by the U.S. from Nigeria in over 10 years.

A high level U.S.-Nigeria law enforcement dialogue begun in 2001 continued with a second major ministerial-level meeting in Abuja in December 2002. Meetings cover the full range of U.S. and Nigerian law enforcement interests: drug control; financial fraud; trafficking in persons; corruption; immigration crimes; police reform; extradition; and money laundering.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The USG remains concerned over the Nigerian Government's inability to solve the murder of its former top law enforcement official, who was killed over a year ago. The assassination clearly casts a continuing shadow over law enforcement efforts in Nigeria, despite good-faith efforts by his replacement.

Nigerian counternarcotics efforts primarily focus on the interdiction of couriers transiting Nigeria's air and seaports and domestic cannabis crop destruction. Like those in many developing countries, Nigerian law enforcement and justice institutions find it difficult to both put together a case against major traffickers and try that case openly and fairly in the judicial system. Improved drug interdiction efforts at the Lagos airport and seaports led to increases in heroin seizures at ports of entry, most from low level "mules" or couriers. 91.79 kilograms of heroin and 24.04 kilograms of cocaine were seized during 2002, as compared with 43 kilograms of heroin and 98 kilograms of cocaine seized in 2001. Combined overall hard drug seizures declined 20 percent in 2002. The number of drug-related arrests fell to 1,960 from 3,592 in 2001, and 915 drug convictions were handed down during 2002, compared to 2,041 in 2001.

Major narcotics smugglers and their networks continue to elude arrest and prosecution. Attempts by the NDLEA to arrest and prosecute major traffickers and their associates often fail in Nigeria's courts, which are subject to intimidation and corruption. Asset forfeiture has not been a successful deterrent against money laundering or drug trafficking activities. Corruption among enforcement officials and the judiciary raises serious questions about whether this particular sanction can be applied consistently enough to have a salutary effect, quite apart from the technical difficulty of putting together a particular case.

In early 2002 the Inspector General of Police (IGP) was removed by the President, a move widely believed to have been linked to the IGP's alleged corruption and the failure to contain an unprecedented December 2001-January 2002 police strike over unpaid salaries and allowances. A newly appointed IGP, Tafa Balogun, began his tenure by announcing an eight-point plan to tackle corruption and crime, including an approach to dealing with violent criminals he termed "Fire-for-Fire." This was later followed by announcement of a "Shoot-To-Kill" policy. These policies, while designed to address aggressively violent crime, resulted in a dramatic increase in the excessive use of force by police officers and the killing of numerous innocent civilians throughout the country.

Nigerian police are poorly trained. Most new constables and corporals—the bulk of the force—have never qualified in the use of a firearm, yet they are given automatic weapons and the license to use excessive force. A standing internal police order allows police personnel confronting an unarmed riotous group to use firearms if they feel threatened. Implementation of a 2001 Presidential order to recruit 40,000 new police constables each year exacerbates the problem of absorbing poorly trained police into the force.

In late 2002, the USG embarked on a project to assist the Nigerian Police Force in addressing fundamental problems caused or exacerbated by 16 years of military rule, during which the Police Force was denied material and human resources. This project seeks to provide the Nigerian Police with a roadmap for adopting reforms that will provide greater transparency and checks and balances to current management practices, and reorient police officers to community policing. While President Obasanjo and his advisors are aware of the need to modernize the police as a key pillar of democratic consolidation, little has been done to address key issues such as a living wage for the police and other law enforcement personnel. Salary arrears also remain a problem. The Government of Nigeria needs to demonstrate a commitment of its own resources to reorienting the police to serve the public rather than preying on the population to earn a living.

Corruption. Corruption is pervasive in Nigerian society and a systemic problem in Nigeria's government. Estimated unemployment is over 25 percent. Civil servants' salaries are low. In addition, salaries are frequently paid months late, compounding the corruption problem. After its inauguration, the Obasanjo Administration embarked on a public anti-corruption campaign. Legislation was enacted and the ICPC was formed. This Commission began prosecution of several minor officials on corruption charges, and initiated investigations into allegations of high-level corruption, but has been stymied by slow recruitment, inadequate federal funding, and a series of court challenges questioning the legality of the Commission. The ICPC hired its first non-seconded staff of prosecutors, investigators, and administrators in 2001 but has been unable to expand its staff further in 2002. The U.S. is providing the ICPC with training and technical assistance for its new staff.

The Obasanjo Administration has made limited progress toward transparency and openness in its contracting and decision making process. A number of criminal cases, launched by the Anti-Corruption Commission against public officials accused of taking bribes, are moving forward. Meanwhile, corruption remains a significant obstacle to counternarcotics efforts, especially in the courts. While the NDLEA has attempted to purge its ranks of officers suspected of corrupt practices, a fear of corruption hampers inter-agency cooperation as agencies are often distrustful and unwilling to share information.

The Obasanjo Administration supports the domestically controversial 1990 NDLEA Act Number 33. This law dictates that Nigerians convicted of drug offenses abroad will be arrested upon their deportation back to Nigeria, and, if convicted, will be liable for a maximum of five years additional imprisonment for harming the reputation of Nigeria. Use of this law, however, has diminished; only one conviction was handed down in 2002. Corruption embedded in the everyday existence of every Nigerian over 16 years of continuous military rule continues to be a problem for the Obasanjo Government, with the administration itself having suffered from a number of corruption scandals. The USG is unaware, however, of any senior official of the government of Nigeria who corruptly facilitates narcotics trafficking or money laundering.

Agreements and Treaties. Nigeria is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1962 UN Single Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The 1931 U.S.-UK Extradition Treaty, which was made applicable to Nigeria in 1935, is the legal basis for pending U.S. extradition requests. A mutual legal assistance treaty entered into force on January 14, 2003.

Cultivation/Production. Cannabis is the only illicit drug produced in large quantities in Nigeria. The drug is cultivated in all 36 Nigerian states, and the crop is therefore large. Major cultivation takes place in central and northern Nigeria and in the Delta and Ondo states in the south. Cannabis, or "Indian Hemp" as it is known locally, is sold in Nigeria and exported throughout West Africa and into Europe, especially Great Britain. To date, there is no evidence of significant cannabis shipments from Nigeria to the United States. The NDLEA has been engaged in an active eradication campaign. The NDLEA seized more than 304 metric tons of cannabis in 2002, a slight increase from the 290 metric tons seized in 2001. This is a significant seizure/eradication number and an important accomplishment for Nigerian law enforcement. However, for many farmers cultivating cannabis, cannabis represents their sole source of income. The potential for emotional, even armed resistance to eradication campaigns exists. It is therefore difficult for the government to plan and execute eradication and interdiction efforts, adding to the accomplishment represented by their successful efforts set out above.

Drug Flow/Transit. Nigeria is a major staging point for Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin smuggled to Europe and the United States and for South American cocaine trafficked to Europe. Drugs transiting Nigeria have a significant impact in the U.S. market, and dominate the supply of certain drugs in certain cities, viz., heroin in Chicago. Nigerian criminal organizations are also involved in synthetic and club drug trafficking to the U.S. Nigerian nationals' role in crime worldwide, especially drug trafficking, probably has a more significant impact on the U.S. than do drugs trafficked to the U.S. by way of Nigeria. Nigerians are known to mastermind complex drug trafficking syndicates worldwide, and chose many different drug routes to the U.S., depending on their judgment as to likely success.

While Nigeria remains Africa's drug transit hub, there are indications that the preferred methods of transshipment have changed. Improvement of the overall security posture at Lagos' Murtala Mohammed International Airport has prompted some drug traffickers to ship more narcotics through Nigerian seaports, concealing large quantities of contraband in shipping containers. They also use other West African airports and seaports with more lax security controls. Nigerian law enforcement officials have stepped up their efforts at air- and seaports in response to drug trafficking. Containerized shipment of large quantities of drugs presents a particularly difficult challenge to a country like Nigeria, which lacks the sophisticated equipment and methods that are normally applied to this smuggling technique. The U.S. and other donors train Nigerian personnel in profiling and drug-intelligence gathering techniques, so slow but steady progress in improving interdiction methods at seaports is a realistic expectation.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The abuse of hard drugs (e.g., cocaine, heroin) is now on the rise in Nigeria. Heroin and cocaine are readily available in many of Nigeria's larger cities. Some Nigerian officials deny that domestic drug abuse is on the rise, but by serving as a transit point, Nigeria itself has begun to suffer significant drug abuse problems, like many other similar transit points worldwide. The NDLEA continues to expand its counternarcotics clubs at Nigerian universities and distribute counternarcotics literature. The NDLEA also has instituted a teacher's manual for primary and secondary schools, which offers guidance on teaching students about drug abuse.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. U.S.-Nigerian counternarcotics cooperation focuses on interdiction efforts at major international entry points and on professionalizing the NDLEA and other law enforcement agencies. USG working-level representatives enjoy excellent access to their counterparts and there is an evident desire on both sides to strengthen these relationships. The United States and Nigeria in 2002 signed a Letter of Agreement covering many aspects of law enforcement assistance, including a new U.S.-funded police reform program.

Bilateral Accomplishments. The DEA office in Nigeria continues to work with the NDLEA on expanding their relationship. Department of State assistance and U.S. Secret Service operational support have also been provided to the Nigerian Police Force to improve investigations and enforcement operations against criminal organizations involved in advance fee or 419 Fraud, which largely targets American citizens and businesses and other Western nationals. The United States also provided training for NDLEA personnel on general investigative techniques and embarked on a project to support the NDLEA's training academy in Jos, Plateau State.

The Road Ahead. The U.S.-Nigerian relationship expanded after the 1999 reintroduction of democratic government in Nigeria. Despite a prolonged budgetary impasse in 2002 that limited most GON agencies to operating budgets of 40-50 percent of 2001 levels, President Obasanjo demonstrated his commitment to the international drug fight by granting the NDLEA a special allotment exceeding the NDLEA's 2001 budget. Nevertheless, federal funding for the NDLEA and other key Nigerian law enforcement agencies remains insufficient and erratic in disbursement. This inadequate funding, and chaotic financial administration needs to be addressed by the Nigerian Government.

The U.S. government has expanded aid to Nigeria's counternarcotics efforts; counternarcotics assistance provided since February 2001 now totals over U.S. $1.2 million. Another area of key concern is the performance of Nigeria's judiciary. Law enforcement efforts are often stymied by the slow pace of the judicial system, which can be attributed to both intimidation and corruption of the judiciary by criminal organizations. The U.S. Agency for International Development is expanding a "rule of law" program with the Nigerian government to help strengthen and professionalize the judiciary. A more reliable extradition process that allows extradition requests to be heard expeditiously is now in place. Law and order in Nigeria itself will benefit if this process is used vigorously to process long-pending cases. Many U.S. extradition requests for narcotics traffickers have been outstanding for years.

Saudi Arabia

I. Summary

Saudi Arabia has no appreciable drug production and is not a significant transit country. Saudi Arabia's conservative cultural and religious norms discourage drug abuse. The Saudi Government places a high priority on combating narcotics abuse and trafficking. Since 1988, drug smuggling has been a capital crime in Saudi Arabia. Due to these factors, drug abuse and trafficking do not pose major social or law enforcement problems. However, Saudi officials acknowledge that illegal drug consumption and trafficking are on the rise. Saudi Arabia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Saudi Arabia has no significant drug production and, in keeping with its conservative Islamic values and 1988 UN Drug Convention obligations, places a high priority on fighting narcotics abuse and trafficking. Narcotics-related crimes are punished harshly, and narcotics trafficking is a capital offense enforced against Saudis and foreigners alike. As of December 15, 5 convicted traffickers have been executed in 2002, a significant decrease from 2001. Saudi Arabia maintains a network of overseas drug enforcement liaison offices and state-of-the-art detection and training programs to combat trafficking. While Saudi officials are determined in their counternarcotics efforts, drug trafficking and abuse is a growing problem. Since the Saudi government provides no statistics on drug consumption, interdiction, and trafficking, it is difficult to substantiate this assessment with hard data. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that Saudi Arabia's relatively affluent population, large numbers of idle youth, and high profit margins on smuggled narcotics make the country an attractive target for drug traffickers and dealers.

The Saudi Government undertakes widespread counternarcotics educational campaigns in the media, health institutes, and schools. The Narcotics Police are currently collaborating with the Presidency of Youth Welfare to produce a film for schoolchildren to educate them about the dangers of illegal drugs. Government efforts to treat drug abuse are aimed solely at Saudi nationals, who are remanded to one of the nation's four drug treatment centers in Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam and Qassim. There are no separate facilities for Saudi women, and expatriate substance abusers are jailed and summarily deported. Health officials confirm anecdotal reports of an increase in drug abuse, but note that most addictions are not severe due to the scarcity of available narcotics and their diluted form. Heroin and hashish are the most heavily-consumed substances, but Saudi officials report that cocaine and amphetamines are also in demand. Paint/glue inhalation and abuse of prescription drugs is also reported.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. The lead agency in Saudi Arabia's drug interdiction efforts is the Ministry of Interior, which has over 40 overseas offices in countries representing a trafficking threat. In addition, the Saudi Government continues to play a leading role in efforts to enhance intelligence sharing among the six nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Saudi Arabia is a member of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and its drug enforcement personnel regularly participate in international training programs.

Accomplishments/Law Enforcement Efforts. Saudi and U.S. drug enforcement officials regularly exchange information on narcotics cases. Drug seizures, arrests, prosecutions and consumption trends are not matters of public record, although reports of drug seizures by Saudi officials appear occasionally in local newspapers. Saudi interdiction efforts tend to focus more on individual carriers than on follow-on operations designed to identify drug distributors and regional networks.

Corruption. The USG has no evidence of involvement by Saudi Government officials in the production, processing or shipment of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances.

Agreements and Treaties. There are no extradition or mutual legal assistance agreements between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

Cultivation/Production. Cultivation and production of narcotics in Saudi Arabia is negligible.

Drug Flow/Transit. Saudi Arabia is not a major transshipment point. Due in part to new detection techniques employed at major points of entry, seizures of narcotics (coming primarily from Pakistan, Nigeria and Turkey) have increased. Anecdotal evidence suggests that narcotics trafficking is a growing problem via the country's land borders.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). In addition to widespread media campaigns against substance abuse, the Saudi Government sponsors drug eradication programs directed at school-age children, health care providers and mothers. Executions of convicted traffickers (public beheadings which are widely publicized) are believed by Saudi officials to serve as a deterrent to narcotics trafficking and abuse. The country's influential religious establishment actively preaches against narcotics use and government treatment facilities provide free counseling to male Saudi addicts.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The U.S. seeks to enhance bilateral and multilateral cooperation with the Saudi government. Saudi officials actively seek and participate in U.S.-sponsored training programs and are receptive to enhanced official contacts with DEA.

Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to arrange regular visits of DEA officers to Saudi Arabia. It will also explore opportunities for additional bilateral training and cooperation.


I. Summary

The production and trafficking of cannabis continues to be the largest domestic problem for the counternarcotics elements of the government. Trafficking of cocaine and heroin through Senegal exists, but is not a significant problem. Senegal's attempts to implement a national plan of action against drug abuse and trafficking have yet to get off the ground due to lack of funding. Senegalese authorities have been active in pursuing bilateral cooperation against international traffickers, including signing mutual assistance agreements with France and the UK. Education and strict enforcement of drug laws remain the cornerstone of Senegal's counternarcotics goals. Senegal is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

While trafficking of all types of drugs, including heroin, cocaine, and psychotropic depressants, exists in Senegal, it is cannabis production and trafficking that has continued to stymie most enforcement efforts. Southern Senegal's Casamance region is the source of the cannabis trade. A small but violent rebel insurgency there provides assistance to cannabis traffickers and has made it almost impossible for law enforcement to identify and stop this trade. Government troops have temporarily driven traffickers out of the Casamance, but have not followed through with eradication of cannabis crops, claiming they do not have the time or the manpower to do so. Drug enforcement efforts have been underfunded and undermanned, allowing the illegal cannabis trade to continue unabated. Cannabis produced in the Casamance finds its way into Dakar, the capital city.

The seaport of Dakar and its international airport are the two principal points of entry/exit of drugs in Senegal. Senegalese authorities state that, because there is not a direct flight from South America, Cape Verde serves as a way station for cocaine bound for Senegal. There is no systematic monitoring of containers at the port of Dakar. The international airport has drug enforcement agents present, but they lack the training and equipment to detect illegal drugs systematically. Consequently seizures are small and usually involve individuals from Ghana or Nigeria transiting Senegal. In 2001(latest data available), 56 grams of heroin, 310 grams of cocaine, 325 kilograms of cannabis leaf, 14 grams of cannabis resin, and 4366 tablets of synthetic drugs were seized. Senegalese police arrested 1127 persons for narcotics offenses, exclusively users and small-scale traffickers, the majority Nigerians and Ghanaians.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Senegal developed a national plan of action against drug abuse and the trafficking of drugs in 1997. This plan is multidisciplinary in its approach: control the cultivation, production, and traffic of drugs; inform the population of the dangers of drug use; and develop a program to reintroduce drug addicts to society. Full implementation of this plan remains stalled due to funding constraints. Periodic efforts to focus efforts and improve coordination have generally been hampered by the lack of adequate funding.

The amount of hard drugs seized by police in Senegal is small by international standards. Due to weak enforcement efforts and inadequate record keeping, it is impossible accurately to assess the real drug problem in the country. The head of the central office for the fight against illicit drug trafficking (OCTRIS) stated that Senegal destroyed two small fields of cannabis during the year, which amounted to only 70 plants. He added that there is no real GOS policy for systematic destruction of domestic cannabis or prevention of transshipment of harder drugs. Enforcement efforts are sporadic and uncoordinated. NGOs, such as the Observatoire Geostrategique des Drogues et de la Deviance (OGDD), have taken the lead in public education efforts.

OGDD continued a program that began in 2001. The first phase involved a campaign of information targeted at cannabis cultivators, arguing that the land had greater potential if it were used for other purposes than drugs, that drugs were bad for the environment and one's health, and that drugs were degrading the economy. Village committees have been established to pass on the above information, trying to sensitize people to the problem of drugs. The focus of the second phase of the program was to be to encourage farmers to substitute alternative crops for drugs on their land. Due to funding constraints, however, implementation of this part of the program has been impeded and has yet to be achieved.

Corruption. Corruption is a problem for narcotics law enforcement all over Africa, but the USG is unaware of any narcotics-related corruption at senior levels of the Senegalese government.

Agreements and Treaties. Senegal has several bilateral agreements with neighboring countries to combat narcotics trafficking, and has signed mutual legal assistance agreements with the United Kingdom and France in efforts to combat narcotics trafficking. Senegal is also a party to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) protocol agreement, which includes an extradition provision. Traffickers and their organizations are subject to asset seizures, imprisonment, and permanent exclusion from Senegal if convicted. Senegal is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

USG goals and objectives in Senegal are to strengthen law enforcement capabilities in counternarcotics efforts. In 2002 the USG began to implement a program to train counternarcotics agents in drug investigation and interdiction methods under the International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Bureau of the State Department (INL). The program provided U.S. $220,000 for several law enforcement programs that will aid the police in all aspects of narcotics investigations and prosecutions. Additionally, the USG provided basic drug analysis equipment and training to narcotics police and lab technicians at the national drug laboratory.

The Road Ahead. The USG will continue to work closely with the Senegalese government to improve the capacity of its narcotics law enforcement officers to investigate and prosecute narcotics crimes.

South Africa

I. Summary

South Africa is committed to fighting domestic and international trafficking in illicit narcotic drugs, but reliable evidence suggests that the country continues to be an important transit area for cocaine (from South America) and heroin (from the Far East), primarily destined for Southern African and European markets. In addition to being a large producer of cannabis, most of which is consumed in the Southern African region, South Africa may be the world's largest consumer of mandrax, a variant of methaqualone. Mandrax is the preferred drug of abuse in South Africa; it is smuggled, primarily from India, but also from China and other sources. Mandrax is the single most important money-earner for indigenous South African organized crime. A study conducted by the South African Police Service (SAPS) found that by 1997 there were 192 indigenous organized criminal gangs active in all of South Africa: 92 of these gangs were primarily focused on the international smuggling of narcotics, with mandrax the leading drug; there are clear indications that the trends reported then are even more prevalent now.

South Africa is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. In 2001, a bilateral extradition treaty and a mutual legal assistance treaty entered into force between the U.S. and South Africa. After much post-enactment tinkering by the South African Parliament, the Prevention of Organized Crime Act, particularly the asset forfeiture section, has become a useful tool for law enforcement. In October 2001, the Parliament passed a law that mandates reporting and record-keeping on certain financial transactions and that will create a Financial Intelligence Center (FIC). The FIC began work in February 2003.

II. Status of Country

South Africa's transition to democracy and its integration into the world economy have been accompanied by the increased use of its territory for the transshipment of contraband of all types, including narcotics. Outdated regulatory and legislative infrastructures and a criminal justice system that is stretched just to deal with common "street crime" make South Africa a tempting target for international organized crime groups of all types. With assistance from the U.S. and other donors, South Africa is making slow progress in crafting an appropriate response to this situation.

South Africa has for some time been the origin, the transit point, or the terminus of many major smuggling routes; this was particularly so during the apartheid period. Trends and practices begun in the sanctions-busting apartheid period continue into the current era; rather than embargoed items, drugs and other illicit items now are smuggled into and out of South Africa. Additionally, South Africa has the most developed transportation, communications, and banking infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. The country's modern international telecommunications systems (particularly wireless telephones), its direct air links with South America, Asia, and Europe, and its permeable land borders provide opportunities for regional and international trafficking in all forms of contraband, including narcotics. Narcotics trafficking is very profitable for organized crime syndicates, and they have become heavily involved in stealing vehicles and trading them across South Africa's land borders for narcotics.

South Africa continues to rank among the world's largest producers of cannabis, although this production does not have a significant effect on the U.S. Cannabis produced in South Africa is either consumed locally or exported to countries other than the U.S. Smuggling of cannabis to Europe continues to increase.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. Combating the use of and the trafficking in illicit narcotics is an important component of the anticrime agenda of the South African Government (SAG). As a practical matter, however, the SAG tends to target its limited anticrime resources on serious, violent domestic crime. South Africa has one of the world's highest rates of murder and rape. South Africa's porous borders are crossed daily by criminals trafficking in many forms of contraband, including, but certainly not limited to: illicit narcotics, stolen cars, illegal firearms, diamonds, human beings, and precious metals. The cabinet's interagency "Justice Cluster" works to help coordinate the law enforcement and criminal justice systems' response to these challenges. The Narcotics Bureau (SANAB) is being phased out, and its staff is being integrated into the police organized crime components. The organized crime units claim that drug trafficking is their number one priority.

Accomplishments. In 2002 the Narcotics Bureau met the goals and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention through arrests, seizures of drugs, spraying cannabis, seizing labs, controlling precursor chemicals, extraditing criminals, and seizing assets. South Africa's 1998 Prevention of Organized Crime Act, which criminalized certain conspiracies and put teeth into previous legislation outlawing money laundering, was used frequently and fared well in the courts in 2002. The law was used more against narcotics offenses, after certain sections were re-drafted by Parliament to address drafting/conceptual inadequacies that were exposed in initial court cases. In a related development, to improve South Africa's enforcement effort against money laundering, in October 2001, the Parliament passed the Financial Intelligence Center Act that mandates record keeping and disclosure of certain financial transactions. The legislation also created a center (the FIC) to receive financial information and statistics and analyze them for possible money laundering activity. The FIC Act is not targeted solely at drug traffickers, as money laundering is associated in South Africa with many forms of organized crime. Nevertheless, the FIC Act provides one more tool for identifying and building strong cases against drug trafficking organizations and drug-related money laundering operations.

The conviction rate for drug offenses is high in South Africa, averaging 70 percent. As of June 2002, 5808 individuals were sentenced for drug related crimes; 508 of them were foreigners.

Law Enforcement Efforts. SANAB and South African Customs continue to make seizures of cocaine arriving in South Africa at international airports and seaports. In March 2002, the SAPS seized 350 kilograms of cocaine with a street value of U.S. $10 million in a container vessel in Cape Town. The cocaine was destined for Lome, Togo. In a separate incident in July 2002, police seized sufficient chemicals and equipment to produce illicit mandrax tablets with a street value of U.S. $270 million, and 32,000 mandrax tablets ready for sale. This seizure is one of the largest seizures of mandrax ever registered. In 2002 there were also large seizures of cannabis and Ecstasy and smaller seizures of heroin and LSD. The aerial wing of the police carries out an airborne cannabis eradication program domestically and also offers cannabis eradication to other countries near South Africa, including Lesotho. The effectiveness of these operations is often hampered by lack of operational funds. Increased training of police and more units targeted on drug enforcement have led to more seizures of drugs destined for export.

The most up to date complete year seizure and arrest statistics available are for 2001. In 2001, police seized 495,927 kilograms of cannabis, worth U.S. $64 million; 4 million tablets of mandrax (methaqualone), worth U.S. $47 million; 150,000 tablets of Ecstasy; 8.5 kilograms of heroin; and small amounts of LSD. Crime statistics for 2001 include 49,839 cases of drug-related crime, of which the Narcotics Bureau investigated 8,553 cases. Eighty percent of these cases were for possession, while the remainder involved marketing, trafficking and distribution. The South African police estimate that 69 percent of all domestic crime in South Africa involves the use or trafficking of cannabis. Trafficking of cannabis within South Africa itself, and to the region, is pervasive. In addition, trafficking internationally is already significant and growing.

The police service also detected, dismantled and seized 34 labs, which were producing mandrax, amphetamine, and methamphetamine, in 2001. The police service has no estimate of how much of these drugs were to be trafficked outside of South Africa, and what share was destined for domestic use.

The revenue service has reorganized the South African Customs Service as well as upgraded its technology at border points to make it more effective in interdicting and investigating smuggling of all types, including of drugs. The Border Control Police have received training from UNODC (sponsored by the USG) on seaports security, resulting in several large seizures of mandrax and cocaine.

Corruption. Officials accused of corruption can be prosecuted under the 1992 Corruption Act. Accusations of widespread police corruption are frequent, but the experience of enforcement officers working from the U.S. Embassy in South Africa is that many of the failures and lapses by the police can be attributed as much to a lack of training, low salaries, and poor morale as to corruption. Credible evidence of narcotics-related corruption among South African law enforcement officials has not been brought to light, although many suspect it exists. Some low level corruption—and much mal- and misfeasance—among border control officials does appear to contribute to the permeability of South Africa's borders.

Agreements and Treaties. South Africa is a signatory to the 1996 Southern African Development Community (SADC) "Protocol on Combating Illicit Drug Trafficking." South Africa is also a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, and signed the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

The U.S. and South Africa have bilateral extradition and mutual legal assistance agreements in force between them, as well as a customs mutual assistance agreement and a Letter of Agreement on Anticrime and Counternarcotics Assistance. The Letter of Agreement provides for U.S. training and commodity assistance to several South African law enforcement agencies.

Cultivation/Production. Cannabis, or "dagga," grows wild in southern Africa and is a traditional crop grown in many rural areas of South Africa, particularly the Eastern Cape and Kwa-Zulu Natal provinces. It also grows wild and is cultivated in neighboring Swaziland and Lesotho. It is possible to have three cannabis crops a year in some areas of Southern Africa. Most South African-produced cannabis is consumed domestically or in the region. However, increasing amounts are being seized in Continental Europe and the UK. Mandrax, amphetamine, and methamphetamine are also produced in South Africa for domestic consumption.

Drug Flow/Transit. Significant amounts of cocaine reach South Africa from South America. While there are no statistics available for the amount of cocaine coming into South Africa, the trend is clear from the increase in cocaine seizures in South Africa, beginning in 1993: 1993: 78.4 kilograms; 1994: 69.6 kilograms; 1995: 187.8 kilograms; 1996: 106.6 kilograms; 1997: 151.5 kilograms; 1998: 635.9 kilograms; 1999: 327.5 kilograms; 2000: 135.1 kilograms; 2001: 286.3 kilograms; and 2002: seizures (not yet officially compiled and issued) substantially exceed any previous year's. While South Africa initially served as a point of transshipment for cocaine leaving the Andean countries en route to Europe, cocaine has begun to find a quite substantial domestic market in South Africa itself. South African consumption of cocaine, both powder and "crack" (crystalline) is clearly increasing; abuse of crack is growing faster than any other drug abuse in South Africa. Mindful of the U.S. struggle with its crack epidemic of the mid-to-late 1980's, South African authorities are concerned a similar crisis may occur in South Africa.

Many illegal Nigerian and West African residents in South Africa are involved in organized crime, specializing in the smuggling of crack cocaine. Nigerian gangs have also been found using South Africa as a base of operations for worldwide drug smuggling and so-called "419 Fraud." ("419 Fraud" refers to various schemes under which individuals, primarily Nigerian, offer the prospect of huge, windfall payments—which never materialize—to unsuspecting foreigners in exchange for an advance fee or access to a bank account.) According to South Africa's Institute for Security Studies, of an estimated 100,000 Nigerian residents in South Africa, only 700 are legal.

Many drug liaison officers, as well as the South African Police Service, believe that South Africa is becoming a place for traffickers to warehouse their stocks of cocaine before sending them on to other countries for final consumption. They believe that criminals view South Africa as a "weak enforcement" option for such warehousing operations. Moreover, a sophisticated modern infrastructure is in place in South Africa—financial, communications, and transportation—and enforcement efforts are not as strong as those at alternative warehousing sites nearer to the cultivation/production sites of the drugs. In addition, warehousers see a possibility for corrupting enforcement officials in South Africa. The largest "warehousers" are organized crime groups of Nigerian, Venezuelan, Colombian, and ethnic Chinese nationalities.

Heroin is smuggled into South Africa from Southwest and Southeast Asia with some moving onward to the U.S. and Europe. According to the UN, however, the majority of heroin trafficked into South Africa is intended for local consumption. Heroin consumption among South African youth has also increased markedly, particularly with the advent of smokable heroin. According to the UN, injecting drug abusers are not common in South Africa, but information in South Africa on drug abuse is starkly limited, and the real situation might differ quite sharply from the way it appears today. The most recent evidence available indicates that heroin injecting is increasing in South Africa. For example, 51 percent of people being treated for heroin abuse in Cape Town reports at least some injecting, while the same statistics for Gauteng are 36 percent. Of course these indications give rise to further concerns about the spread of HIV/AIDS through shared needles.

Domestic Programs. South Africa has had a long history of mandrax and dagga (cannabis) abuse; drug counselors have noted large increases in the number of patients seeking treatment for crack and heroin addiction in the past two to five years. General budgetary constraints have meant that SAG subsidies for non-government drug rehabilitation agencies have been cut the last two to three years. There are many people seeking treatment who are unable to register with any program, and for those who manage to enter a rehabilitation program, available services are constrained by lack of resources. Treatment demand data shows that, from 1997-2000, patients presenting themselves for treatment reporting cocaine abuse in the form of both crack and powder increased from 1 percent to between 5-10 percent of all patients presenting for drug abuse problems.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. Crime is an important issue in South Africa. U.S. law enforcement officers from the DEA, FBI, U.S. Customs, and Secret Service cooperate successfully with their South African counterparts. The U.S. also urges the SAG to propose legislation that will strengthen South Africa's legal system and provide a legal framework for prosecuting more sophisticated organized criminal activities, including drug trafficking. In support of these objectives, the U.S. helped train a new, elite South African enforcement force called the "Scorpions." This unit targets organized crime and high-profile crime of all sorts.

The Road Ahead. Although the SAG has a commitment to create an effective legal and regulatory infrastructure to combat drug trafficking, and all other forms of organized crime, the process of implementing change is likely to be slow and uneven.


International drug trafficking continues to grow in Swaziland, increasing the threat of money laundering. Swaziland's proximity to South Africa, lack of effective counternarcotics legislation, limited enforcement resources, relatively open society, and developed economic infrastructure contribute towards making Swaziland attractive for trafficking organizations. A key factor in this picture is the presence in Swaziland of a casino industry. The casino sector attracts many visitors from South Africa, creates an atmosphere where "club" drugs can be consumed, and presents an option for money laundering. Cannabis, grown in the southern Africa region, moves back and forth across the Swazi border with South Africa, and Swaziland's status as an independent state presents criminal groups with one more option for frustrating law enforcement efforts, but Swaziland is not a major factor in regional trafficking. As is the case with all neighboring states, low level corruption no doubt facilitates some trafficking, but the Swazi government punishes corruption brought to its attention.

Swaziland has an extradition treaty with South Africa, as well as a protocol and mutual understanding on narcotics with Commonwealth Countries. Swaziland is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and has signed, but not yet ratified, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, which is not yet in force internationally.


I. Summary

In 2002, the Syrian Government continued to devote increasing resources to combating the drug trade. Although drug seizures increased measurably and domestic usage was negligible, Syria remained an important transit country for drugs. Jordan and the Gulf States remained the primary destinations for drugs transiting Syria from Lebanon and Turkey. Significant amounts of opium were also shipped from Pakistan and Afghanistan through Jordan and Syria to Turkey. The Syrian Government cooperated with Lebanese authorities on successful opium and cannabis eradication programs in the Syrian-controlled Lebanese Biqa' Valley. The Government continued its strong counternarcotics cooperation with neighboring Turkey and Jordan. The Counternarcotics Unit was upgraded from a branch office to a directorate in the Interior Ministry and the Syrian Government began establishing counternarcotics offices in the regional governments. Syria's domestic drug abuse problem remained small, due largely to the active enforcement of existing laws and the cultural and religious norms that stigmatize substance abuse. Syria is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Most narcotics transiting Syria go to other parts of the Middle East region and to Europe. Syria is a transit country for hashish, cocaine, and heroin, particularly from Turkey, but also from Lebanon. Syria is also a transit country for opium entering Lebanon from Afghanistan via Jordan.

No members of the Syrian military stationed in Lebanon were prosecuted for drug trafficking in 2002. Despite previous allegations of such trafficking, Syrian counternarcotics officials maintain that they have no information about the involvement of Syrian officials in drug production in the Biqa' Valley. They acknowledge that some low-ranking individuals in the Syrian military have been arrested in the past with small amounts of drugs, but maintain that there have been no cases of Syrian military involvement in narcotics trafficking in the past several years.

Syria was added to the Majors List in the late 1980's because opium production in the Biqa' Valley exceeded the threshold limits of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. In 1991, it was estimated that 3,400 hectares were being used for opium production in the Biqa' Valley. In 1992, Syria and Lebanon launched a successful joint eradication campaign reducing poppy cultivation to approximately 150 hectares. The cultivation of cannabis, processed into hashish primarily for non-U.S. markets, was also reduced drastically during this period. In recognition of these efforts, Syria was removed from the Majors List in 1997. Since then, the U.S. has continued to monitor Syria's efforts to suppress cultivation of poppies in the Biqa' Valley and sees no evidence that cultivation of significant amounts of either opium or cannabis has resumed, despite initial reports to the contrary in 2001. There is likewise no evidence that narcotics transiting Syria are entering the U.S. in an amount sufficient to have a significant effect on the U.S.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. In recognition of the importance of combating the drug trade, Syria upgraded the Counternarcotics Unit from a branch to a directorate of the Interior Ministry. The Government also opened regional counternarcotics offices in Aleppo province, covering the Turkish border, and in Homs province, to monitor the Lebanese border, and plans to eventually open offices in every province. Despite resource constraints, the Government allocated additional manpower and new equipment to support these new initiatives.

Syrian authorities prepared a draft decree, with an expected release date of early 2003, that will provide rewards of up to several million Syrian pounds (1SP = .0194 cents) to anyone providing information about drug trafficking and/or cultivation in Syria. The Syrian Government also stated that it is finalizing anti-money laundering legislation consistent with guidelines adopted at the 1998 Arab League General Assembly.

Syria's anti-trafficking law of 1993 calls for the death penalty for certain narcotics offenses. In practice, however, most death sentences are commuted, and the maximum sentence is 30 years. There were no death sentences in narcotics-related cases in 2002. Many cases are pending under the anti-trafficking law, and there are ongoing prosecutions of drug offenders. There are provisions for the seizure of assets financed by profits from the drug trade, which are invoked on a case-by-case basis.

Accomplishments. In 2001, there were allegations that Syria did not use its authority in Lebanon to suppress drug cultivation in the Biqa' Valley. In 2002, however, the Syrian Government cooperated with the Lebanese police on successful opium and cannabis eradication programs. In February, approximately 600 hectares of opium poppies were eradicated. In August, approximately 900 hectares of cannabis were eradicated. Lebanese authorities estimate that almost all illicit crops in the Biqa' Valley were eradicated before harvest in 2002. Key border stations were staffed with personnel and specialized dogs trained in detecting concealed drugs.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The upgrading of the Counternarcotics Unit to a directorate, and the establishment of regional counternarcotics offices, illustrated the Syrian Government's commitment to combating the drug trade. Drug seizures increased. Syrian officials characterized cooperation on drug issues with neighboring Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon as "excellent." Syria has legislation which provides for seizure of assets financed by profits from the drug trade. The Government has used this legislation. Seizure rates of illegal substances increased substantially in 2002. Within Syria, the authorities confiscated 56.7 kilograms of cocaine, 12.7 kilograms of opium, 892.8 kilograms of hashish, and 2.8 million Captagon pills. Syrian authorities reported the arrest of 2,540 individuals on narcotics-related charges in 1,793 narcotics-related cases in 2002. Figures for 2002 are for the first 11 months of the year.

Corruption. In the past there have been unconfirmed reports of corruption among some Syrian military officials in Lebanon involving the issuance of passes permitting the free movement of goods and persons across the border in return for bribes. The Syrian Government has an Investigations Administration (Internal Affairs Division) responsible for weeding out corrupt officers in the counternarcotics unit and the national police force. The Investigations Administration is independent of both the counternarcotics unit, and the national police, and reports directly to the Minister of the Interior. According to Syrian authorities, there were no arrests or prosecutions of officers in the counternarcotics unit for corruption in 2002.

Agreements and Treaties. Syria is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In December 2000, Syria signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols. Syria and the U.S. do not have an counternarcotics agreement, nor is there an extradition treaty or a mutual legal assistance treaty (MLAT) between the two countries.

Cultivation/Production. The Syrian Government has an effective counternarcotics system in place that has reduced cultivation and production in Syria to negligible levels.

Drug Flow/Transit. Drug interdiction remains the focus of the Syrian counternarcotics effort. Transshipment of narcotics from Turkey continues to represent the major challenge to Syria's counternarcotics efforts. Seizure statistics suggest an increase in the flows of hashish and cocaine transiting through Syria to Europe and other countries in the region, of opium transiting from Pakistan and Afghanistan through Syria to Turkey, and of Captagon pills transiting from Turkey through Syria to Saudi Arabia. Despite increased seizure rates, Syrian officials estimate that in 2002 the overall flow of narcotics transiting Syria and destined for other countries in the region was approximately the same as in 2001.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Due to the social stigma attached to drug use and stiff penalties under Syria's strict anti-trafficking law, the incidence of drug abuse in Syria remains low. The Syrian Government's counternarcotics strategy, which is coordinated by the Ministry of the Interior, uses the media to educate the public on the dangers of drug use, and drug awareness is also part of the national curriculum for schoolchildren. The Ministry also conducts awareness campaigns through university student unions and trade unions.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. In meetings with Syrian officials, the U.S. continues to stress the need for diligence in preventing narcotics and precursor chemicals from transiting Syrian territory, the need to work with the Lebanese government on crop eradication programs and on dismantling drug laboratories in Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon, and the necessity of terminating any involvement, active or passive, of Syrian officials in the drug trade.

Bilateral Cooperation. Although the U.S. and Syria do not have a bilateral cooperation agreement, U.S. Embassy officials in Damascus and DEA officials based in Nicosia maintain an ongoing dialogue with Syrian authorities in the Counternarcotics Directorate. Additionally, high-ranking U.S. officials periodically share their views and recommendations with the Syrian Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Interior.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to encourage the Syrian Government to maintain its commitment to combating drug transit and production in the region, to follow through on plans to enact anti-money laundering legislation, and to continue to encourage Syria to improve its counternarcotics cooperation with neighboring countries. The U.S. will also encourage Syrian officials to continue their work with their Lebanese counterparts to ensure that drug production in Lebanon remains at low levels, to find and destroy drug processing laboratories in those areas where Syrian forces are present, and to work to minimize the involvement of Syrian officials in drug trafficking.


I. Summary

Tanzania is located along trafficking routes from Asia and the Middle East to South Africa, Europe and the United States. Drugs like hashish, mandrax (methaqualone), cocaine, heroin, and opium transit Tanzania's porous borders. In addition, the domestic production of cannabis is a significant problem. As a result, drug abuse, particularly involving cannabis, but also cocaine and heroin, is increasing, especially among younger, more affluent people and in tourist areas. In February, Parliament ratified a Protocol on Combating Drug Trafficking in the East Africa region, and the cabinet endorsed a national Drug Control Master Plan. Institutions nonetheless still have minimal capacity to combat drug trafficking; corruption reduces that capacity still further. Tanzania is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and, in conjunction with UNODC, is seeking to address objectives of that convention.

II. Status of Country

Until 1989, Tanzania's contact with drugs was largely limited to the traditional cultivation of cannabis in some parts of the mainland. Since then, economic liberalization has brought increased affluence to the expatriate community and some urban Tanzanians. This affluence has driven demand for new drugs like mandrax, cocaine, heroin, and opium, which have found their way into Tanzania.

In addition, the domestic production of cannabis is growing. Drug abuse among younger people is increasing, particularly abuse of the more affordable substances like cannabis and mandrax. Hard drugs like heroin and cocaine, including some crack cocaine, are used in small quantities within the affluent classes. The growth of the tourism industry, particularly in Zanzibar, has created a larger demand for narcotics.

Tanzania is located along trafficking routes with numerous possible illegal points of entry. The drugs originate from Pakistan, India, Thailand, Burma, Iran, Syria, and South America en route to Europe, South Africa, and, to a lesser extent, the U.S. The amount of drugs transiting Tanzania does not, however, significantly affect the U.S. Drugs enter Tanzania by air, sea, roads, and rail. Major points of entry include airports in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar and Kilimanjaro, and sea ports at Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar, as well as smaller ports like Tanga and Mtwara.

During the year, there were reports of "mules" carrying hard drugs to various African destinations via regional flights through Tanzania. It is widely believed that traffickers conduct a significant amount of narcotics smuggling through Tanzanian territorial waters in small "dhow" boats that never call at Tanzanian ports. In June, the Tanzanian Revenue Authority announced a program to install modern equipment and improve surveillance of major entry points. Anecdotal evidence suggests surveillance at the airports has improved, which may have the effect of driving trafficking to minor ports and unofficial entry points.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. In 1995, Tanzania passed the Prevention of Illicit Traffic and Drugs Act, which establishes severe punishments for the production and trafficking of narcotics. It stipulates long sentences, including life imprisonment and forfeiture of property derived from or used in illicit trafficking. Offenses under this act are not bailable.

Accomplishments. In addition to the endorsement of the national master plan to combat drug trafficking and abuse, the government continued its ongoing efforts to develop an effective anti-money laundering regime. Law enforcement officials made sporadic seizures during the year.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Tanzania has counternarcotics police units of more than 50 officers in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, and Moshi.

Formal cooperation between counternarcotics police in Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania is well-established, with bi-annual meetings to discuss regional narcotics issues. This cooperation has resulted in significant increases in communication as well as effectiveness in each nation's narcotics control efforts.

In 2001, the most recent year for which accurate statistics are available, the Criminal Investigative Police reported the following seizures: 7,339 grams of cocaine, 7,967 grams of heroin, 12,500 grams of cannabis resin, 2,500 grams of mandrax, and 3,338 grams of morphine. In June 2002, Tanzanian police arrested two Zambian citizens and seized 1,863 kilograms of hashish that had been concealed in a timber shipment ultimately destined for Canada. The case was pending at the high court in November.

Corruption. Pervasive corruption continued to be a serious problem in the Tanzanian police force. It is widely believed that corrupt officials at airports facilitate the transshipment of narcotics through Tanzania. As a matter of government policy, however, the country does not encourage or facilitate illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions, nor is any senior official of the government known to encourage such activities.

Agreements and Treaties. Tanzania is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The 1931 U.S.-U.K. Extradition Treaty is applicable to Tanzania. Tanzania has also signed the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol on Drug Control.

Cultivation and Production. Traditional cultivation of cannabis takes place in remote parts of the country, mainly for domestic use. No figures exist, but police and government officials report that production continues to increase. Given the availability of raw materials, and the simplicity of the process, it is possible that some hashish is also produced domestically. Most other illegal drugs imported into Tanzania are probably produced elsewhere, although a 2001 raid on a clandestine laboratory in Dar es Salaam demonstrated that Tanzania may become a manufacturing location for mandrax.

Drug Flow/Transit. Due to its location and porous borders, seaports and airports, Tanzania has become a significant transit country for narcotics moving in sub-Saharan Africa. Control at the ports is especially difficult as sophisticated methods of forged documents combine with poor controls and untrained and corrupt officials. Afghan heroin entering Tanzania from Pakistan is being smuggled to the U.S. by Nigerian traffickers, but not in significant quantities. The port of Dar es Salaam is a major entry point for mandrax from India headed towards South Africa.

Law enforcement authorities, beset by lack of resources and corruption, are able to seize only small amounts of narcotics. Because of the limited training and operational capabilities of its counternarcotics officers, Tanzania's efforts are narrowly focused and extremely limited in effectiveness. Tanzanian police officers do not understand how to implement profiling techniques, and narcotics interdiction seizures generally result from heroin smugglers, who swallow the smuggled drug, arriving from the Gulf or South Asia and becoming ill, or from tip-offs from police informants. Senior Tanzanian counternarcotics officials acknowledge that their officers are under-trained and not adequately equipped for their missions. In addition, low salaries for law enforcement officers provide sufficient impetus for engaging in corrupt behavior and looking the other way when traffickers transit the country. In a telling example of police capabilities, the harbor unit lacks modern patrol boats and relies on modified traditional wooden dhows to patrol.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Tanzania traditionally was believed to be only a transit point for narcotics, but signs point to an increase in consumer use, particularly of the lower cost drugs. The spill-over from trafficking and increased tourism both have contributed to an increase of domestic demand. The tourist industry has brought Ecstasy to Zanzibar, and police reports confirm that crack cocaine is also available locally.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. policy initiatives and programs for addressing narcotics problems in Tanzania are focused on training workshops and seminars for law enforcement officials. In September, eighteen police officers attended a six-week executive seminar at the ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico. The State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement is funding the establishment of a forensics lab and training in its use. At the Tanzanian government's request, these facilities will include narcotics analysis capabilities. The State Department's Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism is funding the "PISCES" program to improve interdiction capabilities at major border crossings. Clearly these programs mutually support each other's goals.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to assist Tanzania's own efforts against narcotic drugs.


I. Summary

Togo is not a significant producer of drugs and its role in the transport of drugs is primarily regional. The Togolese drug trade is overshadowed and to some degree dominated by Nigerian traffickers. Lome remains a spoke in the Nigerian hub of narcotics trafficking and money laundering. Togo's ability to address the transnational flow of drugs is undercut by its stalled democratic transition and the suspension of most international development aid. Togo is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Togo's drug production is limited to small amounts of cannabis primarily for local consumption. The Government of Togo estimates that a modest percentage is exported to neighboring countries. Togo's relatively porous borders permit narcotics traffickers easy access/egress to other countries. This relatively easy transit through Togo has made Togo a transit point for narcotics such as cocaine and heroin. Most narcotics trafficking arrests in Togo have involved Nigerian nationals traveling from Asia to other West African destinations. The prevalence of widespread official corruption facilitates the drug traffic.

The National Anti-Drug Committee (CNAD) coordinates all counternarcotics and money laundering activity in Togo. The CNAD is composed of magistrates and members of the Togolese security forces.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Togo works toward preventing the flow of illegal drugs into the country and toward meeting the goals of the 1988 UN Drug Convention. But ongoing budget problems have continued to hinder most GOT-sponsored counternarcotics programs. There is neither adequate money nor infrastructure for interdiction, prosecution, or prevention, nor for rehabilitation programs for drug addicts. Togo's primary goal of cutting off the flow of narcotics is additionally hampered by its porous borders, which are difficult to police.

Policy Initiatives. In 2002 the GOT has maintained its three key objectives from 2001: improving the management of drug control; reducing the supply; and reducing the demand for drugs. Reduction of demand has received the most attention in 2002. In addition to continued support for policies initiated in 2001, the CNAD opened a youth counseling center that shows films and sponsors counternarcotics discussion groups. The programs have been well attended by NGO's, religious groups, and school groups composed of parents, teachers, and students. Programs designed for high school students focused heavily on prevention/non-use. The CNAD also sponsored programs for security forces that stressed the link between drug use and HIV/AIDS. The GOT spent an estimated U.S. $20,000 on drug awareness efforts in 2002.

Accomplishments. Togo's most significant accomplishments in 2002 were the launch of the youth counseling center and its other information campaigns.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Although the number of arrests increased substantially in 2002, the law enforcement budget in Togo is still insufficient for significant law enforcement efforts. The overall operations budget for drug law enforcement in 2002 was approximately U.S. $23,000. Only occasional spot checks are made of passengers at the airport and no system of cargo screening exists at the Port of Lome. Arrests have been most numerous at the land border crossings and in Lome. Arrests are sometimes made after a tip, but are more often made in the course of other routine law enforcement activities, such as traffic security or customs checks. According to police, approximately 70 per cent of arrests are successfully prosecuted.

Seizures in 2002 surpassed 2001 figures. Police seized 144.5 kilograms of cannabis, 2.5 kilograms of heroin and 1.7 grams of cocaine. Police arrested 149 people for narcotics-related offenses—a substantial increase from arrests made in 2001.

Corruption. In 2002 the GOT extended indefinitely the mandate of the Anti-Corruption Commission, which has remained actively engaged in combating official corruption. The ACC made no drug-related arrests of government officials and, to our knowledge, no government officials are involved in the drug trade.

Agreements and Treaties. Togo is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Togo cooperates with other members of ECOWAS (Economic Community of West Africa) regarding law enforcement issues.

Cultivation/Production. There are few statistics on drug cultivation and production in Togo. The only drug cultivated in quantity is cannabis, which can be grown in all five of Togo's regions. Cultivation is primarily for a local demand although some cross border distribution by small-scale dealers is suspected. No crop destruction was undertaken in 2002 despite widespread knowledge that cannabis is cultivated in Togo. The cocaine seized in 2002 is believed to have transited India. All the heroin seized in 2002 was discovered by the express mail company DHL in a single shipment from the United States.

Drug Flow/Transit. There are sizeable expatriate Nigerian and Liberian populations involved in the drug trade, and they arrange for drug transshipments from many places in the world, through Africa, and onward to final markets. Many observers of drug trafficking in West Africa believe that hard drugs like cocaine and heroin are "warehoused" in Africa, before being dispatched in appropriate quantities to final consumption markets..

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). Demand for drugs in Togo is believed to be increasing. Togolese authorities link the increased demand to the increase in the activity of foreign drug dealers and the increase in supply. In 2002 a psychiatric service for dependency was established at the University Hospital. The GOT actively collaborates with local NGO's such as the Alliance of Anti-Drug Volunteers and the Togolese Anti-Drug and Tobacco Association. In addition, the youth counseling center and other prevention efforts described above are aimed at demand reduction.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. The U.S.' primary goal in Togo is to help the GOT combat the international trafficking of drugs. The U.S. seeks to help the GOT in improving its ability to interdict illicit narcotics entering Togo and to prosecute those traffickers who are caught. Togo's emerging willingness to confront the issue of illicit drugs is hampered by the country's ongoing democratic transition and the weak state of GOT finances.

The Road Ahead. U.S. cooperation with Togolese counternarcotics officials will continue. USG funded narcotics assistance will be used for Togolese counternarcotics infrastructure improvements.


I. Summary

Tunisia has a limited role as a drug transshipment point. The government has an active youth demand reduction education program and encourages counternarcotics educational activities by NGOs. Tunisia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Tunisia is neither a significant drug transshipment point nor a significant producer of precursor chemicals. Tunisia is a transit point for individual smugglers taking small amounts of hashish from Morocco to Europe. The government does not publish figures for narcotics consumption. NGOs active in the field report that consumption is limited, but has increased in recent years, primarily at high schools, universities, and tourist resorts. There is a negligible amount of illicit cultivation of cannabis in northern Tunisia. Cannabis was cultivated legally for local use in pre-independence Tunisia.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Accomplishments. The Government of Tunisia (GOT) continues to give a high priority to counternarcotics law enforcement, and during the year seized a small amount of drugs. The Tunisian press reported on the seizure of 15 kilograms of drugs in the northern coastal city of Tabarka. Anecdotal evidence from some younger individuals indicates that hard drugs are difficult to find or buy in Tunisia.

Corruption. Tunisia does not, as a matter of government policy, encourage or facilitate illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, nor the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. There is no evidence that any senior official of the government engages in, encourages, or facilitates the illicit production or distribution of such drugs or substances, nor the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. The 1992 drug law provides for sentences to be doubled if a drug-related crime is committed by a drug enforcement official or person involved in the administration or guarding of drug warehouses or depots.

Agreements and Treaties. Tunisia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In 1992 Tunisia enacted drug-enforcement legislation to implement the Convention. Tunisia has signed but not ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants. Tunisia also signed the 1999 UN International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.

Drug Flow/Transit. Tunisia is not a major drug transshipment country. There are reportedly some individual hashish smugglers from Morocco who transit Tunisia en route to Europe.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The GOT conducts drug education programs in schools and encourages NGOs to conduct complementary educational programs. There is not a significant addict population.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The United States supports Tunisian efforts to comply fully with the 1988 UN Drug Convention, and it seeks Tunisian support for U.S. international counternarcotics initiatives. The United States has not provided counternarcotics assistance to the GOT in recent years. The United States in the past provided narcotics-related training assistance in maritime security for Tunisian customs officials.

Road Ahead. The U.S. will work closely with Tunisia to improve narcotics law enforcement.

United Arab Emirates

I. Summary

The UAE is a transshipment point for traffickers moving illegal drugs from Afghanistan and Pakistan westward. Frequent reports of seizures of illegal drugs in the UAE during the past year underscore this conclusion. The number of news stories in 2002 about drug smuggling, dealing, and usage has risen, with roughly 2-3 stories reported in the local press nearly every day. Besides the country's general laissez-faire attitude toward trade, there are several other factors that cause the UAE to be a transit country for drugs, including its proximity to major drug cultivation regions in Southwest Asia, a long (700 kilometers) coastline, and relative affluence among the local population.

Published statistics on narcotics seizures and domestic addiction reveal a growing drug problem among UAE and third-country nationals resident in the UAE. A Ministry of Health report in late 1998 asserts that there are approximately 12,500 drug addicts in the country of 3.1 million people; most drug addicts are Emirati nationals of both sexes aged 15 to 30. The overwhelming majority of drug seizures have netted hashish—not heroin, opium, or cocaine.

The Ministry of Interior's Federal Higher Anti-Drugs Committee is tasked with coordinating drug enforcement efforts for the seven emirates, as well as executing the country's counternarcotics strategy. The UAE government is a party to the 1988 United Nations Convention and is committed to the fight against international narcotics trafficking and narcotics abuse.

II. Status of Country

A major financial center and regional hub for commercial shipping and trade, the UAE is a transshipment point for illegal narcotics from the drug-cultivating regions of southwest Asia to Europe and to a much lesser degree to the United States.

Statistics on drug-related cases released by the UAEG indicate that the majority of arrests for illegal trafficking occur in the northern emirates. Factors that contribute to the prominence of the northern emirates in narcotics cases are: the emergence of Dubai and Sharjah as regional transportation centers, a porous land border with Oman, and the fact that transshipped cargo is rarely subject to inspection at any emirate port.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

The UAE continued in 2002 to advance its national drug strategy based on intensifying security at the country's air and sea ports and patrols along the coastline, reducing demand of illegal drugs through educational campaigns, enforcing harsh penalties, and rehabilitating drug addicts. The UAEG is considering additional enforcement manpower and a larger budget to wage the war on drugs.

A national drug demand reduction plan to increase public awareness of the dangers of drugs and to help drug victims will be fully in place by 2003. Ongoing efforts include public statements by senior UAE officials, including the Commandant General of Dubai Police, who urged the UAEG to fight drug traffickers with the same intensity the USG is fighting terrorism; and the printing of counternarcotics messages on bills mailed out by the country's telecommunications monopoly. The Interior Minister has an annual budget of U.S. $65,575 for narcotics intelligence information.

In cooperation with the authorities in Saudi Arabia, the UAEG in 2002 imposed restrictions and more stringent reporting and verification requirements for Saudi citizens operating bank accounts in the UAE. These measures were largely aimed at preventing abuse of the financial system by unscrupulous elements, including narcotics traffickers.

The UAE Interior Ministry has seven offices throughout the country dedicated to the issue of precursor chemicals. These units pursue investigative leads and are active in stopping illicit chemical shipments. The Interior Ministry closely coordinates its efforts with the Ministry of Health, which oversees the granting of licenses to companies seeking to import/export chemicals, as well as the Customs and Port Authorities of all seven emirates. According to press accounts, 58 tons of chemical precursor were confiscated during the past several years in Dubai on the way to Afghanistan—32 tons were seized in Fujairah going from Armenia to Afghanistan, 10 tons of precursor chemical were stopped going to Pakistan, nine tons were seized headed for India and seven tons seized while being smuggled via Dubai from China to Iran The UAE has also conducted successful controlled delivery operations of precursor chemicals with Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Qatar, and Oman.

Law Enforcement. UAE authorities acknowledge that narcotics consumption is an increasing problem among the local population. Government statistics reveal that the number of arrests in drug-related cases surged from 1,210 in 2001 to 1,558 in 2002 with 726 (46.6 percent) of those arrested being Emiratis.

According to the UAEG, the number of drug cases climbed from 743 to 1,023 between 2000 and 2001 while the amount of hashish seized by local authorities jumped. Interestingly, as the amount of confiscated hashish and heroin soared, the amount of opium, suggesting that opium abuse waned this year. .

The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) has a close and continuing relationship with UAE officials and provided drug interdiction training to the Emirates in 2001.

Punishment for drug offenses is severe; a 1995 law stipulates capital punishment as the penalty for drug trafficking. No executions, however, have ever been announced. The only known case of a person receiving the death sentence for drug trafficking occurred in 1999, but a UAE court later commuted the sentence to life in prison. (Prisoners serving a life sentence in the UAE are typically paroled after 25 years.) The minimum sentence for individuals convicted of using drugs in the UAE is four years, and seven years if a possession charge is added, as is often the case.

Corruption. UAE officials aggressively pursue and arrest individuals involved in illegal narcotics trafficking and/or abuse. There is no evidence that drug-related corruption of public officials is a systemic problem; however, the former head of Dubai Customs and Port Authority—along with five other Customs officials—was tried, convicted, and sentenced in April 2001 to 27 years in prison on charges of financial corruption and embezzlement. Four months later he was pardoned by the Dubai government for his crimes and released.

Agreements and Treaties. No extradition or Mutual Legal Assistance treaties (MLAT) currently exist between the United States and the United Arab Emirates. Requests for renditions are handled on a case-by-case basis. The United States and the UAE continue to share information and exchange information in connection with terrorist financing and other money-laundering cases on an ad hoc basis. USG and the UAE are conducting preliminary discussions about the possibility of concluding an MLAT between the two governments. The UAE is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Cultivation/Production. There is no evidence of drug cultivation and/or production in the UAE.

Drug Flow/Transit. Narcotics smuggling through the UAE from south and southwest Asia and onward to Europe and, to the United States in a significantly lesser degree, is the typical trafficking pattern. Hashish, heroin, and opium shipments that originate in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and that transit Iran are smuggled in cargo containers, via small vessels and powerboats, and/or sent overland via Oman. UAE authorities recognize that the number of human carriers of illicit narcotics transiting local airports is also on the rise.

Recognizing the need for increased monitoring at its commercial shipping ports, airports, and borders, the UAEG is making efforts to tighten inspections of cargo containers, as well as of passengers transiting the UAE. (Container throughput in 2001 for Dubai's Jebel Ali Port was 3.5 million and an estimated 13.5 million people passed through the emirate's airport in 2001.) Customs officials randomly search containers and follow-up leads of suspicious cargo. The UAEG is in the process of procuring state-of-the-art equipment, which allows for rapid, thorough searches of shipping containers and vehicles.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The focus of the UAEG's domestic program is to reduce demand through public awareness campaigns directed at young people. Treatment is dealt with through a system of rehabilitation centers. UAE officials believe that appeals to adherence to Muslim religious mores as well as imposing severe prison sentences for individuals convicted of drug offenses are an effective deterrent to narcotics abuse.

A demand reduction plan is being formulated as part of the UAE's national drug control strategy. Although parts of the plan are already in place, the full plan will not be executed until mid-2003. In the emirate of Sharjah, a study of drug users seeking rehabilitation indicated that most addicts fell in the age group 18 to 29, that 44 percent had a good income (between U.S. $683 to U.S. $2,732 per month) and that hashish—followed by heroin—was the drug of choice. Emirati officials also cite the increasing number of drug addicts who die from their habit as a sign of the worsening drug problem.

An affluent country, the UAE has established an extensive treatment and rehabilitation program for its citizens. There is a rehabilitation center in Abu Dhabi, two in Dubai, and one each in Ajman and Sharjah for those identified as addicts. In accordance with federal law no. 1511995, UAE nationals who are addicted can present themselves to the police or a rehabilitation center and be exempted from criminal prosecution. They undergo a two-year drug rehabilitation program, which includes family counseling/therapy. Those nationals who do not turn themselves into local authorities are referred to the courts for prosecution. Third-country nationals or "guest workers," who make up approximately 80 percent of the UAE's population, generally receive prison sentences upon conviction of narcotics offenses and are deported upon completing their sentences.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Policy Initiatives. U.S. Government policy seeks continued participation by the UAEG in programs dealing with narcotics trafficking, precursor chemicals diversion, border/export control, and money laundering. Among USG initiatives is the FBI-Dubai police partnership in the Middle East Law Enforcement Training Center, which provides training to UAE as well as GCC law enforcement agencies.

Road Ahead. The USG will continue to support the UAEG's efforts to devise and employ bilateral/multilateral strategies against illicit narcotics trafficking and money laundering. The USG will encourage the UAEG to focus enforcement efforts on dismantling major trafficking organizations and prosecuting their leaders, and to enact asset forfeiture and seizure legislation.


I. Summary

Zambia is not a major producer or exporter of illegal drugs, nor is Zambia a significant transit route for drug trafficking. Zambia's Drug Enforcement Commission (DEC) reported seizures of cannabis in 2002 comparable to those of the previous year. The DEC also reported a lower success rate for drug prosecutions in 2002. The DEC works closely with other Zambian law enforcement agencies and has a strong record of cooperation with foreign governments, including the United States. As is true of the Zambian Government generally, the DEC is hampered by a lack of resources. Zambia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and, in 2001, the National Assembly passed legislation to criminalize money laundering.

II. Status of Country

Apart from small-scale cultivation of cannabis, Zambia is not a source of illegal drugs. Zambia is not an important route for drug shipments or a source of precursor chemicals.

Almost all of the DEC's interdiction effort is related to cannabis. Measured by market value, cannabis accounted for over 90 percent of illegal drug seizures in 2002. According to the DEC, cannabis is typically cultivated in Zambia by subsistence farmers who plant it alongside other crops grown for food and income. Most of Zambia's cannabis crop is exported to other countries.

Eradication of cannabis is one of the DEC's main enforcement goals, and it has a program in place for this purpose. Other DEC programs focus on training of officers, drug demand reduction, and money-laundering investigations. Following Zambia's enactment in 2001 of the "Prohibition and Prevention of Money Laundering Bill," the DEC has taken the lead among Zambian law enforcement agencies for investigating and prosecuting money laundering.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Policy Initiatives. Zambia undertook no new policy initiatives with respect to narcotics control in 2002. The DEC played a central role in a government initiative to curb corruption. The DEC continues to assess results achieved under a drug control master plan implemented between 1998 and 2001. The shape of future policy initiatives will depend upon the results of that assessment and the government's resource constraints.

Law Enforcement Efforts. DEC statistics reported for the period from January through October 2002 show results broadly consistent with those for the same period of the previous year. The DEC confiscated 12 tons of cannabis in 2002, one ton less than in 2001. As in 2001, the DEC seized only small quantities of amphetamine, including 19 grams of methaqualone ("Mandrax"), compared to 15 grams the previous year. The number of drug-related arrests was significantly higher in 2002, with 3,288 compared to 2,697 in 2001 (as revised). The success rate for prosecutions was lower, however: 44 percent in 2002 versus 56 percent in 2001. Of the 3,288 persons arrested for drug offenses in the first ten months of 2002, 169 were foreign nationals. Of these, 38 came from the Democratic Republic of Congo, 24 from Angola, and 18 from Tanzania.

Corruption. In 2002 the Government of Zambia began an important new initiative to curb corruption among public officials. While the DEC has played a central role in this initiative, especially through its anti-money laundering unit, these efforts had no direct relationship to narcotics control. No evidence has emerged to suggest that current government officials are involved in production or trafficking of drugs. Of course, any efforts focused on corruption will have a spin off benefit for enforcement efforts against narcotics.

Agreements and Treaties. Zambia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The 1931 U.S.-U.K. Extradition Treaty is applicable to Zambia.

Drug Flow and Transit. In 2002 there were no reports of significant quantities of illegal drugs being transported through Zambia from drug-producing countries to other jurisdictions, including the U.S.

Domestic Programs. The DEC's demand-reduction effort consists mainly of education programs carried out in schools and the workplace. The government has no specialized facilities for drug treatment. According to the DEC, there are 125 known addicted users of drugs in Zambia., but this figure is not reflective of the extent of domestic cannabis abuse. Cannabis users do not seek treatment and are not reflected in the few known addicts of more addictive drugs of abuse, such as methaqualone (mandrax), etc.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The U.S. provides significant training assistance to Zambian law enforcement agencies, including the DEC. In 2002 over one hundred Zambian law enforcement officers, at least a quarter of whom are active in narcotics control, completed training at the U.S.-sponsored International Law Enforcement Academies in Gaborone, Botswana and Roswell, New Mexico.

The Road Ahead. Zambia appears to have avoided some of the narcotics problems of its neighbors. Working closely with Zambia's competent government and effective enforcement officials, the U.S. will try to assist Zambia's future efforts.


I. Summary

Zimbabwe is not a major producer, supplier, or exporter of drugs or precursor chemicals. Cannabis (Dagga) remains the biggest drug problem in Zimbabwe, with the majority (80 percent) being imported from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, while the remainder is home grown. More than 50 percent of the drug is re-exported to Botswana, South Africa, and Namibia. Ecstasy has emerged as the second most popular drug in Zimbabwe within the last year. Although Zimbabwe is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and ratified the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol, a unified government program of prevention and enforcement remains largely inactive. Zimbabwe has neither requested, nor has it received U.S.-funded assistance in recent years and is not considered to be a major money laundering country.

II. Status of Country

Production, cultivation, and trafficking in illicit drugs in Zimbabwe is considered limited, as is the production of precursor chemicals. Although cannabis is cultivated in the rural areas on a small scale for local use, it remains the biggest drug problem in Zimbabwe, with the majority (80 percent) being imported from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. More than 50 percent of the drug is re-exported to Botswana, South Africa, and Namibia. Hashish, cocaine, heroin, and LSD have also been noted in very limited quantities in larger urban areas such as Harare, Bulawayo, and Gweru. Unaffordable to the mainstream population, these drugs are generally used by affluent suburban youth. Ecstasy use has reportedly been on the rise, giving it the position of the second most popular drug in Zimbabwe. The drug is predominately a product of the Rave/night club party scene and is imported from the Netherlands, Britain, and South Africa. Due to its location along established routes, Zimbabwe has also been identified as a transshipment point for Mandrax, a drug produced in India and Pakistan for distribution in South Africa. Law enforcement authorities are not presently engaged in specific programs to combat drug use, production, or transshipment and view the counternarcotics effort as minor in comparison with other law enforcement challenges that they routinely face.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2002

Zimbabwe is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, as well as the SADC Protocol. While the five-year Zimbabwe Drug Control Master Plan was formulated in 2000, it has yet to be approved by the Government of Zimbabwe. As drug seizures have reportedly declined in the past two years, these actions are generally considered byproducts of law enforcement activities other than those in the counternarcotics arena. Nevertheless, offenders continue to be prosecuted in the courts. Narcotics money laundering does not appear to be significant, and there is no available evidence to suggest that government officials are engaged in or encourage illicit drug production or distribution.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The USG neither conducted nor proposed any counternarcotics policy initiatives in Zimbabwe during the past year. No foreign assistance funds were requested, approved, or directed in any way to support Zimbabwe's waning counternarcotics program.

The Road Ahead. Zimbabwe's overall problems with illicit drugs are relatively small, certainly in comparison with many neighboring countries, but unfortunately it appears the Government of Zimbabwe's emphasis in the counternarcotics efforts continues to be sidelined by a more pressing, yet controversial, political agenda.