Because religious and political issues overlap, it was difficult to categorize some incidents as being solely based on religious identity.
According to the UN, on December 30, 2013, members of the 6th Military Region, agents of the Military Police, and Republican Guard soldiers killed at least 46 followers of Prophet Joseph Mukungubila, an evangelical Christian pastor and former presidential candidate, in Katanga province. The government said Mukungubila’s followers had attacked government facilities in Kinshasa and Lubumbashi earlier that day and taken control of a state-owned television station, broadcasting a political message to the public. There were conflicting reports as to the number of deaths. The BBC reported Mukungubila told them his followers carried out the attacks in response to government harassment. According to the minister of communications, the government was responding to politically motivated security threats. On May 15, Mukungubila was detained in Johannesburg, South Africa, where he had requested asylum, under the authority of an Interpol warrant issued at the request of the Congolese government in connection with the December 2013 attacks. Mukungubila was granted bail in South Africa and was awaiting extradition proceedings at year’s end.
The government conducted military operations in North Kivu against the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a largely Islamic rebel armed group that originated in Uganda. While leaders of the Muslim community reported they kept in frequent contact with the government regarding the ADF, there were reports that in the Beni area, security forces harassed members of the Muslim community who were suspected of being associated with the ADF.
According to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, there are currently 404 Catholic organizations, 93 Protest organizations, 54 Muslim organizations, 2,352 Evangelist organizations, and one Kimbanguist organization registered with the government. Despite the registration requirement, unregistered domestic religious groups operated unhindered. Foreign religious groups operated without restriction after receiving approval from the government.
Catholic, Muslim, Protestant, and evangelical religious leaders stated they enjoyed a good relationship with the government, as the government relied on religious organizations to provide public services such as education and healthcare throughout the country. According to the Ministry of Education, approximately 72 percent of students attended government-funded schools that were administered by religious organizations.