Advancing Freedom and Democracy Report 2013

U.S. Government Support for Democracy and Human Rights: The U.S. government advances democracy and human rights by strengthening democratic institutions, supporting civil society, enhancing the rule of law and judicial independence, and promoting political pluralism and free and fair electoral processes. We also protect independent media; promote respect for internet freedom, freedom of association, and labor rights; advocate security sector reform; and promote human rights for all members of society.

The United States uses bilateral and multilateral diplomatic advocacy, foreign assistance programs, and public planning tools to advance human rights and democracy. Foreign assistance programs involve the Human Rights Defenders Fund, the Human Rights and Democracy Fund, the U.S.-Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI), Near East Regional Democracy (NERD), and Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with Eurasia (ACE). The public diplomacy tools include the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP),[1] the Voluntary Visitors (VolVis) program,[2] Lincoln Learning Centers (LLC),[3] Ambassadors’[4] and other small grants[5] (ASG) programs, American Corners,[6] and the MEPI Leaders for Democracy Fellowship. As well, we use the Voice of America,[7] and the Fulbright,[8] Humphrey,[9] and Edward R. Murrow Fellowship[10] programs. Finally, we provide funding to prepare university-level students for leadership roles,[11] and fund speakers on democracy-related issues.[12]

Democratic Institutions and Civil Society: The U.S. government seeks to strengthen the legal framework and management practices for democratic governance to improve government response to citizens.[13] U.S. government activities also support recruitment and training of professionals.[14]

U. S. assistance funds programs for civil society oversight of government activities. We also develop civil society capacity to further democracy and human rights.[15] Such programs strengthen the ability of civil society organizations to lobby governments on behalf of citizens, increase accountability, advocate political reform, build partnerships with public and private sectors, and promote more inclusive societies. Assistance supports organizations that address freedom of assembly and association, religious freedom, democratic governance, gender-based violence, responsible legal framework, and independent media reporting.[16]

Elections and the Political Process: U.S.-funded programs strengthen electoral institutions,[17] support improved political processes,[18] increase awareness of civic responsibilities, encourage nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to provide civic education and citizen advocacy,[19] and encourage citizen participation in governance.[20] The United States supports programming to promote a more independent media, improve political party organization and elections legislation, and the implementation of legislation to provide access to official information and permit freedom of assembly.[21] The United States also promotes free and fair elections through training of election officials, supporting NGO coalitions to observe elections, encouraging female and other marginalized group participation, and building political party capacity.[22] The United States supports reporting to increase understanding of election processes.[23]

The United States supports programs to prevent violence and promote reconciliation after post-election violence.[24] Such programs work with leaders from diverse political, religious, and ethnic groups to promote tolerance, respect, and reform. Working with human rights activists, the United States combats

post-election violence against women and minorities, including LGBT groups.

Economic Freedom and Opportunity: The United States improves democratic governance by helping governments meet socio-economic challenges, decentralize decision-making, encourage political and fiscal reforms to address citizen grievances, and strengthen commercial legislation.

The United States works with the International Labor Organization, the International Finance Corporation, and civil society partners to support worker rights and well-regulated labor markets. The United States is committed to increasing prosperity and advancing inclusive economic growth globally.[25] The United States uses e-governance programming in its anticorruption efforts, as well as targeting government and civil society capacity building, and creating government anticorruption strategies. U.S. programs provide technical assistance, training, and systems support including fiscal and budget management, community participation in policy discussions, and support to associations of governors and mayors.[26] U.S. programs strengthen the independence and good governance of trade unions,[27] and facilitate modern industrial relations. They also seek to include informal workers, the majority of whom are women, into the formal economy, and promote fair labor standards.[28] The United States is particularly concerned about child labor and the use of forced labor or indentured servitude connected to trafficking or criminal activity.

Press and Internet Freedom: The United States advocates for media freedom including broadcast, print, and online. We encourage networking with international journalists’ associations that enhance professionalism through workshops, program support, and technical assistance. We utilize programming and public diplomacy to convey the importance of the media’s role in building a democratic society.[29] The press is invited to U.S.-sponsored events focusing on the democratic process. The United States supports journalistic ethics, media capacity building and professionalization, and local efforts to increase press access to public information. The United States promotes academic exchanges, visits of U.S. speakers, and the continued use of electronic media such as social networks, blogs, and electronic journals.

U.S. officials and U.S.-funded media development programs encourage governments to increase access to information laws. We urge governments to rescind criminal penalties for libel[30] and advocate transparent investigations of violent attacks against journalists.[31] We urge the release of journalists and bloggers imprisoned for politically motivated reasons. U.S.-funded projects further the professionalization of women in journalism and coverage of women’s issues. In closed societies, U.S.-supported broadcast programming provides citizens with alternative sources of news. We support open, public, and safe Internet access and training programs that increase citizen access to information[32], including through U.S.-funded resource centers.[33] The Department’s internet freedom programs promote digital free expression, assembly, and association, helping those in closed societies connect personally and globally.

Rule of Law: U.S. government programs combat impunity and corruption and increase access to legal services. We provide technical assistance to civilian and military courts, legal aid services, and legislative reform. U.S. assistance helps national and provincial legislatures, courts in pilot jurisdictions, and provincial and municipal authorities. U.S.-funded programs also support efforts to propose, review, and implement criminal law-related legislation; train judges,[34] police,[35] prosecutors, and defense attorneys[36][37]; and offer institutional support to establish effective and accountable law enforcement structures[38]and bar associations.[39]

The United States funds programs to protect judges and their families from violence or intimidation. We work for the cessation of extrajudicial killings and disappearances while encouraging the investigation and prosecution of cases.[40] U.S. officials exchange best practices in reforming countries’ commercial laws, migration management, and anti-trafficking legislation, and encourage training and professional exchanges in the United States for commercial law judges.

Protection of Other Human Rights: U.S. officials urge governments to bring their human rights practices into compliance with their human rights commitments and obligations. We support systemic reforms and press for the release of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience. The United States urges governments to distinguish between those seeking to express political dissent and those engaged in violence.

The U.S. government funds civil society projects to support freedoms of expression, association and assembly, and rights of children. Assistance seeks to enhance respect for labor rights, prevent violence and discrimination against women and girls, assist indigenous communities to access effective justice, and monitor human-rights observance by local police. We provide emergency assistance to activists under threat, increase local NGO advocacy for LGBT people, and promote religious freedom.

U.S.-funded military training[41] encourages cooperation in legal proceedings involving human rights abuses committed during conflict. Training for foreign peacekeepers via the U.S. government’s Global Peace Operations Initiative includes instruction that promotes appropriate behavior and conduct during missions. Foreign participants are vetted as units and individuals for past abuses in accordance with U.S. law and policy.

The United States addresses deplorable prison conditions and prisoner abuse, urging countries to comply with universal human rights commitments and supporting programs to improve conditions.[42]

The United States promotes international labor standards. We support efforts to eliminate exploitive child labor by engaging indigenous communities in planning, budgeting, and monitoring to move children from exploitive labor to education programs.[43] The United States funds American labor rights organizations,[44] supports the participation and leadership of women and other vulnerable groups in trade unions, and promotes HIV/AIDS programs that combat workplace discrimination.[45]

The United States provides funding for local NGOs to identify and respond to acts of violence against women and children. We actively campaign against female genital mutilation/cutting and other harmful practices.[46] U.S. programs support NGOs assisting survivors of gender-based violence in navigating the justice system. We also aid pro bono mediation specialists to develop materials for mediation training and law workshops.[47]

The advancement of the human rights of LGBT persons is a high priority. The Department’s Global Equality Fund provides assistance to local civil society organizations when they are unable to operate freely.

U.S. officials meet community and government leaders in regions with large ethnic minorities. To support development of civil society within minority regions,

U.S. officials work with NGOs to organize capacity building seminars. We also support social outreach programs, networking opportunities with domestic and international NGOs, and tolerance in schools projects.[48]

U.S. officials exchange best practices to advocate globally for stronger, more comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation. We also urge increased protection for victims and victim services; and convictions of traffickers.[49] U.S. programs train judges, prosecutors, lawyers, and service providers on trafficking victim identification and protection.[50]

U.S. programs support religious freedom. We encourage cross-sectarian dialogues,[51] and monitor government adherence to the universal human right of religious freedom. U.S. officials meet with religious leaders and members of interfaith dialogue committees in various communities.[52]

Promotion of Disability Rights: The United States promotes the rights of persons with disabilities by supporting organizations run by the disabled. We assist in the development of legal reforms, encourage implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,[53] empower civil society organizations that promote the rights of the disabled[54], and assist disabled people’s organizations to monitor compliance with legal protections of disability rights.[55]

Promotion of Women’s Rights: The United States is committed to gender equality and advancing the status of women and girls. This commitment is reflected in policy documents calling for the integration of gender equality in

U.S. operations, diplomacy, and programming. The U.S. National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security outlines commitments to ensure women’s participation in peace negotiations and reconstruction, protecting women and children from conflict abuse, and addressing female needs in disaster response. The United States has a Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally. This involves a multi-sector approach to addressing

gender-based violence that seeks to empower women and girls as equal partners in preventing conflict. It also ensures their representation in peacemaking, and protects women and men from gender-based violence.

End notes:

Comment on endnotes: Because of the complexity of U.S. government programming assistance worldwide, the endnotes on country applicability are more illustrative than definitive.

[1] Afghanistan; Armenia; Belarus Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Democratic Republic of Congo; Comoros; Republic of Congo; Egypt; Fiji; Guinea-Bissau; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Laos; Lesotho; Libya; Macedonia; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tonga; Tunisia; Uganda; Ukraine; Vietnam

[2] Afghanistan; Nepal

[3] Afghanistan; Ecuador; Malaysia

[4] Afghanistan; Swaziland

[5] Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Burma; Comoros; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Fiji; The Gambia; Georgia; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Morocco; Nicaragua; Oman; Pakistan; the Palestinian Territories; Qatar; Russia; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen

[6]Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; China; Comoros; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Fiji; Georgia; Guinea; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Malawi; Maldives; Mauritania; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Russia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Venezuela Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe

[7] Angola; Azerbaijan; Guinea-Bissau; Iran; Paraguay

[8] Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Republic of the Congo; Libya; Macedonia; Maldives; Moldova; Nepal; Paraguay; Ukraine

[9] Armenia; Bhutan; Burma; Moldova; Nepal

[10]Armenia; Brunei Darussalam; Moldova; Nepal

[11] Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies fellows; ACCESS Micro-scholarship program; the President's Entrepreneurial Summit; English Language Fellows; MEPI Student Leaders

[12] Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bolivia; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Egypt; Ethiopia; The Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lesotho; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Paraguay; Qatar; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Zambia

[13] Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Burma; Burundi; Cambodia; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Ecuador; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Fiji; Gabon; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Moldova; Mozambique;; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Philippines; Russia; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe

[14] Afghanistan; Haiti; Iraq; Kyrgyz Republic; Maldives; Pakistan; Paraguay; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Ukraine.

[15] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Cambodia, Georgia; Indonesia, Kenya; Libya, Macedonia; Moldova; Montenegro; Nepal; Russia; Sri Lanka, Ukraine.

[16] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Moldova; Tajikistan; Pakistan; Cote d’Ivoire; Gambia; Russia; Senegal; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[17] Training to Independent Election Commission, National Assembly, Afghanistan; Elections Process Support Program, Armenia; Independent Electoral Commission, Democratic Republic of Congo; Increased Trust in Electoral Processes, Egypt, Georgia; The Party Training Academy, Kosovo; Central Election Commission, Kyrgyz Republic; Legislative Strengthening Program, Malawi; Election Commission, Maldives; Moldovan Electoral Administration Capacity Development Program, Moldova; Election Committee, Nepal; Election Commission, Pakistan; Permanent Election Committee, Qatar; La CENA Training, Senegal; Electoral Commission, Uganda; Political Process Program, Ukraine; Tunisia; Yemen

[18] Training to Civil Service Commission, and the Independent Directorate of Local Governance, Afghanistan; Monitoring of Elected Bodies, and Political Process Development, Armenia; Strengthening Civic Leadership and Civic Participation in the Democratic and Electoral Process in Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan; pardons of opposition candidates, Ethiopia; International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), Guatemala; Strengthening Political Competition, Georgia; implementation of the Human Rights Action Plan, Kazakhstan; Political Processes and Party Support (PPPS) Program, Strengthening Election Administration in Kosovo program, Kosovo; IVLP, Lesotho; Strengthening Democratic Political Activism, Moldova; IVLP, Morocco; IVLP, The American Library, Strengthening political parties, Electoral and legislative processes, Nepal; small grants, Nicaragua; Pilot Engagement with States (PES) program, Jos Task Force, Nigeria; IVLP, Pakistan; IVLP, Papua New Guinea; IVLP, Rwanda; ILVP, the Middle East Partnership Initiative, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Yemen, Oman; Bahrain, Kuwait; American Connections, Singapore; enforcement of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Sudan; American Corners, Tajikistan; small grants, Togo; Promoting Credible Elections and Accountable Government in Togo; Political Process, Ukraine

[19] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; China; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Fiji; Honduras; Iraq; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Maldives; Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Swaziland; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Ukraine; Libya; Tunisia; Yemen

[20] Armenia; Azerbaijan; “Get Out the Vote" (GOtV) campaign, Georgia; GOtV, Kuwait; GOtV campaign, Moldova; Ukraine

[21] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Cuba; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Moldova Russia; Tunisia; Ukraine; and Zimbabwe

[22] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Georgia; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya, Moldova; Pakistan; Russia; Sierra Leone; Togo; Tunisia; Ukraine; Zimbabwe

[23] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Burma; Central African Republic; Cuba; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Mauritania; Nigeria; Pakistan; Russia; United Arab Emirates, Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[24] Central African Republic; Guinea Bissau; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal, Senegal; Somalia; Zimbabwe

[25] Albania; Algeria; Armenia; Bahrain; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Liberia; Libya; Mauritania; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Oman; Philippines, Russia; Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam, West Bank/Gaza; Yemen, Zimbabwe

[26] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Liberia; Libya; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Somalia; Ukraine; Zimbabwe

[27] Georgia; Guinea; Kenya; Tunisia

[28] Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cuba; Egypt; the Gambia; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Niger; Nigeria; Russia; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; China

[29] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Argentina; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ecuador; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; ; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Russia; Somalia; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Yemen; Zimbabwe;

[30] Armenia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Kyrgyz Republic

[31]Armenia; Azerbaijan; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal; Russia; Somalia; Ukraine

[32]Armenia; Azerbaijan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia, China; Cuba; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Georgia; Guinea Bissau; Iran; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Madagascar; Malaysia; Nigeria; Russia, Rwanda; Singapore; Syria, Timor Leste; Tunisia; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Vietnam

[33] Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; Cameroon; China; Congo; Cuba; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Georgia; Guinea; Haiti; Honduras; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Laos; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Russia; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe

[34] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bahrain, Bosnia; Cameroon; Democratic Republic of Congo; Georgia; Indonesia, Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Moldova; Qatar; Russia; Serbia; Ukraine

[35] Albania; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Moldova; Nepal; Nigeria; Russia; Serbia; United Arab Emirates

[36] Albania; Azerbaijan, Armenia; Bahrain; Bosnia; Georgia; Indonesia, Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Moldova; Qatar; Russia; Serbia; Ukraine

[37] Albania, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bahrain; Georgia, Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Macedonia, Russia, Serbia; Ukraine

[38] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal, Russia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates

[39] Armenia; Bahrain, Georgia; Kosovo; Kuwait, Libya; Moldova; Qatar; Russia; Tunisia; Ukraine

[40] Armenia; Central African Republic; Chad; Nepal; Russia; Tunisia; Zimbabwe

[41] Albania, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vietnam

[42] Afghanistan; Brazil; Cambodia; Colombia; Democratic Republic of the Congo; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Iraq; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Russia; Serbia; South Sudan. In May 2012, the Department of State published a practical guide to understanding and evaluating prison systems for Department personnel, and in May of 2013, the Department also issued a congressionally mandated report on international prison conditions that includes a description of U.S. activities and programs aimed at addressing those conditions

[43] Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Cote d’Ivoire; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; the Gambia; Guinea; Niger; Sierra Leone

[44] Cuba; the Gambia; Georgia; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Niger; Nigeria; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates.

[45] Egypt; Eritrea; Kenya; Ukraine; Zimbabwe

[46] Egypt; Eritrea; Guinea

[47] Armenia; Burkina Faso; Cote d’Ivoire; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Liberia; Pakistan; Sudan; Ukraine; Mexico

[48] Azerbaijan; Cote d’Ivoire; Georgia; United Arab Emirates

[49] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bangladesh, Belarus; Cambodia, Georgia; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Russia; Sierra Leone; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Zimbabwe

[50] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Chad; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Georgia; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Russia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam, Zimbabwe

[51] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Tunisia; Bahrain; Zimbabwe

[52]Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Central African Republic; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Sudan; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates; Zimbabwe.

[53] Armenia; China

[54] Algeria; Armenia; Cambodia, Laos, Libya; Kenya, Morocco; Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia

[55]Armenia; Kenya