Appendix D -- US Programs and Policy
|Antiterrorism Assistance Program||Congress authorized the Antiterrorism Assistance (ATA) Program in 1983 as part of a major initiative against international terrorism. Since that time, ATA has provided training for more than 36,000 students from 142 countries. The ATA Program provides training and related assistance to law enforcement and security services of selected friendly foreign governments. Assistance to the qualified countries focuses on the following objectives:
ATA courses are developed and customized in response to terrorism trends and patterns. The training can be categorized into four functional areas: Crisis Prevention, Crisis Management, Crisis Resolution, and Investigation. Countries needing assistance are identified on the basis of the threat or actual level of terrorist activity they face.
Antiterrorism assistance and training may be conducted either in-country or within the United States. This arrangement provides flexibility to maximize the effectiveness of the program for countries of strategic importance in the global war on terrorism.
ATA programs may take the form of advisory assistance, such as police administration and management of police departments, how to train police instructors or develop a police academy, and modern interview and investigative techniques. This approach enables the program to provide a narrow focus to solutions for country-specific problems that are not resolved in the classroom-training environment. Equipment or explosive-detection trained dogs may also be included in the assistance package.
The ability of the United States to assist friendly governments to master the detection and prevention of terrorist activities will clearly enhance the mutual security of all the participating nations. Detecting and eliminating terrorist cells at the root before their violence can cross borders and oceans will ensure a safer world for all nations.
ATA continues its efforts to familiarize ambassadors, regional security officers, and other US officials with the program offerings. The success of these efforts is evidenced by the fact that every frontline nation has requested antiterrorist assistance in some form. US diplomats report that the ability of the United States to offer immediate, specific, and intensive training, along with technical tools and equipment, has succeeded in breaking down barriers and building trust.
ATA is responding to the growing demand for training and services not only by expanding course selection but also by pursuing development of the Center for Antiterrorism and Security Training. ATA is already offering training at a variety of venues, to include other government agencies and state and local facilities—both within and outside the Washington, DC, metropolitan area.
|Rewards for Justice Program||The Rewards for Justice Program is one of the most valuable US Government assets in the fight against international terrorism. Established by the 1984 Act To Combat International Terrorism—Public Law 98-533—the Program is administered by the US Department of State's Bureau of Diplomatic Security.
Under the Program, The Secretary of State may offer rewards of up to $5 million for information that prevents or favorably resolves acts of international terrorism against US persons or property worldwide. Rewards may also be paid for information leading to the arrest or conviction of terrorists attempting, committing, and conspiring to commit—or aiding and abetting in the commission of—such acts.
The USA Patriot Act of 2001 authorizes the Secretary to offer or pay rewards of greater that $5 million if he determines that a greater amount is necessary to combat terrorism or to defend the United States against terrorist acts. Secretary Powell has authorized a reward of up to $25 million for the information leading to the capture of Usama Bin Ladin and other key al-Qaida leaders.
In November 2002, the State and Treasury Departments announced a $5 million rewards program that will pay for information leading to the disruption of any terrorism financing operation.
Diplomatic Security has fully supported the efforts of the private business sector and citizens to establish a Rewards for Justice fund, a nongovernmental, nonprofit 501 C (3) charitable organization administered by a group of private US citizens. One hundred percent of all donated funds will be used to supplement reward payments only. Diplomatic Security has forged a strong relationship with the private business and US citizen representatives of the Rewards for Justice Fund. Diplomatic Security has embarked on a much closer relationship with the US public and private businesses? in the US Government's continuing efforts to bring those individuals responsible for the planning of the September 11 attacks to justice and to prevent future international terrorist attacks against the Untied States at home or abroad.
Since its inception, the Rewards for Justice Program has been very effective. In the past seven years, the Secretary of State has authorized payments for more than $52 million to 33 people who provided credible information that put terrorists behind bars or prevented acts of international terrorism worldwide. The program played a significant role in the arrest of international terrorist Ramzi Yousef, who was convicted in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center and most recently in the efforts to locate Uday and Qusay Hussein.
|International Terrorism: US Hostages and US Government Policy||The US Government will make no concessions to individuals or groups holding official or private US citizens hostage. The United States will use every appropriate resource to gain the safe return of US citizens who are held hostage. At the same time, it is US Government policy to deny hostage takers the benefits of ransom, prisoner releases, policy changes, or other acts of concession.
US Government Responsibilities When Private US Citizens Are Taken Hostage
Consequently, the United States strongly urges US companies and private citizens not to accede to hostage-taker demands. It believes that good security practices, relatively modest security expenditures, and continual close cooperation with Embassy and local authorities can lower the risk to US citizens living in high-threat environments.
The US Government is concerned for the welfare of its citizens but cannot support requests that host governments violate their own laws or abdicate their normal enforcement responsibilities.
If the employing organization or company works closely with local authorities and follows US policy, US Foreign Service posts can be involved actively in efforts to bring the incident to a safe conclusion. This includes providing reasonable administrative services and, if desired by local authorities and the US entity, full participation in strategy sessions. Requests for US Government technical assistance or expertise will be considered on a case-by-case basis. The full extent of US Government participation must await an analysis of each specific set of circumstances.
The host government and the US private organizations or citizen must understand that if they wish to follow a hostage-resolution path different from that of US Government policy, they do so without US Government approval. In the event a hostage-taking incident is resolved through concessions, US policy remains steadfastly to pursue investigation leading to the apprehension and prosecution of hostage takers who victimize US citizens.
|US Terrorism Lists:
|The US Government has established four primary counterterrorism lists to serve as tools in the fight against terrorism: The State Sponsors of Terrorism, Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO), Executive Order 13224, and the Terrorist Exclusion List (TEL). Each list has its individual mechanisms, but they all serve to prevent terrorism, punish terrorists and their supporters, and pressure changes in the behavior of designated states and groups.
Because these lists are a means to fight terrorism rather than an end in themselves, they are not designed or intended to be immutable. The US Government encourages states and organizations to take the necessary actions to get out of the terrorism business. The bar for a state or group being removed from a terrorism list is and must be high—it must end all involvement in any facet of terrorism, including passive support, and satisfy all US Government counterterrorism concerns.
State Sponsors of Terrorism
Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Executive Order 13224: Terrorist Financing
|Patriot USA Act: Terrorist Exclusion List||
On 26 October 2001, President Bush signed into law a comprehensive
|Terrorist Exclusion List Designees:
5 December 2001
|The TEL designees are as follows:
|Designated on 6 November 2002||