Air Transport Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA (hereinafter "the Parties") ;
RECALLING the Air Transport Agreement between the Government of the United
States of America and the Government of Canada, signed at Ottawa, 24 February 1995,
with Annexes (the "1995 Agreement"), and the Agreement related to Article 10 of the
1995 Agreement effected by exchange of notes at Ottawa and Toronto, 20 January and 12
June 2000 (the "2000 Exchange of Notes") ;
DESIRING to expand the 1995 Agreement from a transborder open skies regime to a
full open skies agreement that maximizes competition among airlines in the marketplace,
including operations behind and beyond the territory of the Parties, with minimum
government interference and regulations ; and
RECOGNIZING that the geographic situation of the two countries, including the
location of their main centers of population, and the close relationship between their two
peoples create a situation unique in international civil aviation for the Parties ;
RECOGNIZING the importance of efficient air services for trade, tourism and
investment flows ;
DESIRING to promote a liberal international aviation system ;
DESIRING to promote fair and equal opportunities for airlines to compete in the
marketplace with minimum government regulation ;
DESIRING to make it possible for the airlines to offer the traveling and shipping public
a variety of service options at the lowest prices that are not discriminatory and do not
represent abuse of a dominant position, and wishing to encourage individual airlines to
develop and implement innovative and competitive prices ;
DESIRING to ensure the highest degree of safety and security in international air
transport and to maintain public confidence in the safety of civil aviation ;
BEING PARTIES to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, done at Chicago
on 7 December 1944 ;
DETERMINED that this Agreement shall reflect the special relationship between the
two countries, consistent with general international obligations ;
HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:
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For the purposes of this Agreement, unless otherwise stated, the term :
"Aeronautical Authorities" means, in the case of the United States, the Department of
Transportation, and in the case of Canada, the Minister of Transport and the Canadian
Transportation Agency, or in both cases, any person or agency authorized to perform the
functions exercised at present by those authorities ;
"Agreement" means this Agreement, its Annexes, and any amendments thereto ;
"Air transportation" means any operation performed by aircraft for the public carriage of
passengers, baggage, cargo, and mail, separately or in combination, for remuneration or
"Airline" means any air transport enterprise offering or operating air transportation ;
"Convention" means the Convention on International Civil Aviation, done at Chicago on
7 December 1944, and includes :
any amendment that has entered into force under Article 94(a) of the
Convention and has been ratified by both Parties ; and
(b) any Annex or any amendment thereto adopted under Article 90 of the
Convention, insofar as such Annex or amendment is at any given time
effective for both Parties ;
"Designated airline" means an airline designated and authorized in accordance with the
terms of this Agreement ;
"International air transportation" means air transportation that passes through the airspace
over the territory of more than one State ;
"Price" means any fare, rate or charge (including discounts, frequent flyer plans or other
benefits affecting the cost of air transportation) for the carriage of passengers (and their
baggage) and/or cargo (excluding mail), or the charter of aircraft charged by airlines,
including their agents, and the conditions governing the availability of such fare, rate or
charge but excluding general terms and conditions of carriage which are broadly
applicable to all air transportation and are not directly related to the fare, rate or charge ;
"Territory" means the land areas under the sovereignty, jurisdiction, protection, or
trusteeship of a Party, and the territorial waters adjacent thereto ; and
"User charge" means a charge imposed on airlines for the provision of airport, air
navigation, or aviation security facilities or services including related services and
Grant of Rights
Each Party grants to the other Party the following rights for the conduct of
international air transportation by the airlines of the other Party :
the right to fly across its territory without landing ;
the right to make stops in its territory for non-traffic purposes ; and
the rights otherwise specified in this Agreement.
2 . Nothing in this Article shall be deemed to confer on the airline or airlines of one
Party the rights to take on board, in the territory of the other Party, passengers,
their baggage, cargo, or mail carried for compensation and destined for another
point in the territory of that other Party .
Designation and Authorization
Each Party shall have the right to designate as many airlines as it wishes to
conduct international air transportation in accordance with this Agreement and to
withdraw or alter such designations . Such designations shall be transmitted to the
other Party in writing through diplomatic channels or by such other mechanisms
as may be agreed between the Parties .
On receipt of such a designation and on application from the designated airline, in
the form and manner prescribed for operating authorizations and technical
permissions, the other Party shall grant appropriate authorizations and
permissions with minimum procedural delay, provided :
substantial ownership and effective control of that airline are vested in the
Party designating the airline, nationals of that Party, or both ;
(b) the designated airline is qualified to meet the conditions prescribed under
the laws and regulations normally applied to the operation of international
air transportation by the Party considering the application or applications ;
the Party designating the airline is maintaining and administering the
standards set forth in Articles 13 (Safety) and 14 (Aviation Security) .
Revocation of Authorization
Either Party may revoke, suspend, limit or condition, the operating authorizations
or technical permissions of an airline designated by the other Party where :
such airline fails to maintain its qualifications as required by the
aeronautical authorities of that Party under the laws and regulations
normally applied by those authorities ;
substantial ownership and effective control of that airline are not vested in
the other Party, the other Party's nationals, or both ;
that airline has otherwise failed to comply with the laws and regulations
referred to in Article 12 (Application of Laws) of this Agreement ; or
the other Party is not maintaining and administering the standards as set
forth in Article 13 (Safety) and Article 14 (Aviation Security) .
2 . Unless immediate action is essential to prevent further noncompliance with
subparagraphs 1(a), 1(c) or 1(d) of this Article, the rights established by this
Article shall be exercised only after consultation with the other Party .
This Article does not limit the rights of either Party to withhold, revoke, suspend,
limit or impose conditions on the operating authorization or technical permission
of an airline or airlines of the other Party in accordance with the provisions of
Article 14 (Aviation Security) .
1 . Each Party shall allow a fair and equal opportunity for the designated airlines of
both Parties to compete in providing the international air transportation governed
by this Agreement .
Neither Party shall unilaterally limit the volume of traffic, frequency or regularity
of service, or the aircraft type or types operated by the designated airlines of the
other Party, except as may be required for customs and other government
inspection services, technical, operational, or environmental reasons under
uniform and non-discriminatory conditions consistent with Article 15 of the
3 . Neither Party shall impose on the other Party's designated airlines a first-refusal
requirement, uplift ratio, no-objection fee, or any other requirement with respect
to capacity, frequency or traffic that would be inconsistent with the purposes of
Neither Party shall require the filing of schedules, programs for charter flights, or
operational plans by airlines of the other Party for approval, except as may be
required on a non-discriminatory basis to enforce the uniform conditions foreseen
by paragraph 2 of this Article or as may be specifically authorized in Annex III to
this Agreement . If a Party requires filings for information purposes, it shall
minimize the administrative burdens of filing requirements and procedures on air
transportation intermediaries and on designated airlines of the other Party .
1 . The Parties acknowledge that market forces shall be the primary consideration in
the establishment of prices for air transportation . Intervention by the aeronautical
authorities shall be limited to :
prevention of unreasonably discriminatory prices or practices;
protection of consumers from prices that are unreasonably high or
restrictive because of the abuse of a dominant position ;
protection of airlines from prices to the extent that they are artificially low
because of direct or indirect governmental subsidy support ; and
protection of airlines from prices that are artificially low, where evidence
exists as to an intent of eliminating competition .
Prices for international air transportation covered by this Agreement shall not be
required to be filed . Notwithstanding the foregoing, the designated airlines of the
Parties shall continue to provide immediate access, on request, to information on
historical, existing, and proposed prices to the aeronautical authorities of the
Parties in a manner and format acceptable to those aeronautical authorities .
Neither Party shall take unilateral action to prevent the inauguration or
continuation of a price proposed to be charged or charged by (i) an airline of
either Party for international air transportation between the territories of the
Parties, or (ii) an airline of one Party for international air transportation between
the territory of the other Party and any other country, including in both cases
transportation on an interline or intraline basis . If the aeronautical authorities of
one Party believe that any such price is inconsistent with the considerations set
forth in paragraph 1 of this Article, they shall so notify the aeronautical authorities
of the other Party and the airline concerned . The aeronautical authorities
receiving the notice of dissatisfaction shall acknowledge the notice, including an
indication of their agreement or disagreement with it, within 10 working days of
receipt of the notice . The aeronautical authorities shall cooperate in securing
information necessary for the consideration of a price on which a notice of
dissatisfaction has been given. If the aeronautical authorities of both Parties agree
that such an existing or proposed price is inconsistent with the principles of this
Article, they shall put that agreement into effect . Without such mutual agreement,
the price shall go into effect or continue in effect .
The aeronautical authorities of either Party may request technical discussions on
prices at any time. Unless the aeronautical authorities agree otherwise, technical
discussions shall take place no later than 10 working days following the receipt of
a request . If the aeronautical authorities are unable to resolve the issue, either
Party may then request consultations between Parties . Such consultations shall
take place no later than 10 working days following the receipt of a request, unless
The Parties acknowledge that the general terms and conditions of carriage which
are broadly applicable to all air transportation and are not directly related to the
fare, rate or charge shall be subject to national laws and regulations . Either Party
may require notification to or filing with its aeronautical authorities of any such
terms and conditions. If one Party's aeronautical authorities take action to
disapprove any such term or condition they shall inform the other Party's
aeronautical authorities promptly .
The designated airlines shall make full information on prices and the general
terms and conditions of carriage available to the general public .
Each designated airline shall have the right to perform its own ground-handling in
the territory of the other Party ("self-handling") or, at its option, select among
competing agents for such services in whole or in part . These rights shall be
subject only to physical constraints resulting from considerations of airport safety
and operational constraints arising from such physical limitations . Where such
considerations preclude self-handling, ground services shall be available on an
equal basis to all airlines ; charges shall be based on the costs of services provided,
including a reasonable rate of return/profit ; and such services shall be comparable
to the kind and quality of services as if self-handling were possible .
Both Parties shall give sympathetic consideration to representations by the other
as to problems which may arise in connection with access to airport facilities by
their respective airlines, and shall endeavor to persuade relevant airport
authorities to work with affected airlines to find constructive solutions to such
User charges that may be imposed by the competent charging authorities or
bodies of each Party on the airlines of the other Party for the use of air navigation
and air traffic control services shall be just, reasonable, and not unjustly
discriminatory . In any event, any such user charges shall be assessed on the
airlines of the other Party on terms not less favorable than the most favorable
terms available to any other airline .
User charges that may be imposed by the competent charging authorities or
bodies of each Party on the airlines of the other Party for the use of airport,
aviation security, airport environmental, and related facilities and services shall be
just, reasonable, not unjustly discriminatory, and equitably apportioned among
categories of users. In any event, any such user charges shall be assessed on the
airlines of the other Party on terms not less favorable than the most favorable
terms available to any other airline at the time the charges are assessed .
3 . User charges imposed on the airlines of the other Party may reflect, but shall not
exceed, the full cost to the competent charging authorities or bodies of providing
the appropriate airport, airport environmental, and aviation security facilities and
services at the airport or within the airport system . Such charges may include a
reasonable return on assets, after depreciation . Facilities and services for which
charges are made shall be provided on an efficient and economic basis .
Each Party shall encourage consultations between the competent charging
authorities or bodies in its territory and the airlines or their representative bodies
using the services and facilities, and shall encourage the competent charging
authorities or bodies and the airlines or their representative bodies to exchange
such information as may be necessary to permit an accurate review of the
reasonableness of the charges in accordance with the principles of paragraphs 1, 2
and 3 of this Article . Each Party shall encourage the competent charging
authorities to provide users with reasonable notice of any proposal for changes in
user charges to enable users to express their views before changes are made .
Neither Party shall be held, in dispute resolution procedures pursuant to Article
17, to be in breach of a provision of this Article, unless (a) it fails to undertake a
review of the charge or practice that is the subject of complaint by the other Party
within a reasonable amount of time ; or (b) following such a review it fails to take
all steps within its power to remedy any charge or practice that is inconsistent
with this Article .
Customs Duties and Charges
On arriving in the territory of one Party, aircraft operated in international air
transportation by the designated airlines of the other Party, their regular
equipment, ground equipment, fuel, lubricants, consumable technical supplies,
spare parts (including engines), aircraft stores (including but not limited to such
items as food, beverages and liquor, tobacco and other products destined for sale
to or use by passengers in limited quantities during flight), and other items
intended for or used solely in connection with the operation or servicing of
aircraft engaged in international air transportation shall be exempt, on the basis of
reciprocity, from all import restrictions, property taxes and capital levies, customs
duties, excise taxes, and similar fees and charges that are (1) imposed by the
national authorities, and (2) not based on the cost of services provided, provided
that such equipment and supplies remain on board the aircraft .
There shall also be exempt, on the basis of reciprocity, from the taxes, levies,
duties, fees and charges referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, with the
exception of fees and charges based on the cost of the service provided:
aircraft stores introduced into or supplied in the territory of a Party and
taken on board, within reasonable limits, for use on outbound aircraft of an
airline of the other Party engaged in international air transportation, even
when these stores are to be used on a part of the journey performed over
the territory of the Party in which they are taken on board ;
(b) ground equipment and spare parts (including engines) introduced into the
territory of a Party for the servicing, maintenance, or repair of aircraft of
an airline of the other Party used in international air transportation ;
fuel, lubricants and consumable technical supplies introduced into or
supplied in the territory of a Party for use in an aircraft of an airline of the
other Party engaged in international air transportation, even when these
supplies are to be used on a part of the journey performed over the
territory of the Party in which they are taken on board ; and
promotional and advertising materials introduced into or supplied in the
territory of one Party and taken on board, within reasonable limits, for use
on outbound aircraft of an airline of the other Party engaged in
international air transportation, even when these stores are to be used on a
part of the journey performed over the territory of the Contracting Party in
which they are taken on board .
Equipment and supplies referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article may be
required to be kept under the supervision or control of the appropriate authorities .
The exemptions provided by this Article shall also be available where the
designated airlines of one Party have contracted with another airline, which
similarly enjoys such exemptions from the other Party, for the loan or transfer in
the territory of the other Party of the items specified in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this
Baggage and cargo in direct transit across the territory of either Party shall be
exempt from customs duties .
The airlines of each Party shall have the right to establish offices in the territory
of the other Party for the promotion and sale of air transportation .
The designated airlines of each Party shall be entitled, in accordance with the laws
and regulations of the other Party relating to entry, residence, and employment, to
bring in and maintain in the territory of the other Party managerial, sales,
commercial, technical, operational, and specialist staff required for the provision
of air transportation .
The airlines of each Party may engage in the sale of air transportation in the
territory of the other Party directly and, at the airline's discretion, through its
agents, except as may be specifically provided by the charter regulations of the
country in which the charter originates that relate to the protection of passenger
funds, and passenger cancellation and refund rights . Each airline shall have the
right to sell such transportation, and any person shall be free to purchase such
transportation, in the currency of that territory or in freely convertible currencies .
4 . Each airline shall have the right to convert and remit to its country, on demand,
funds obtained in the normal course of its operations . Conversion and remittance
shall be permitted promptly without restrictions or taxation in respect thereof at
the market rate of exchange applicable to current transactions and remittance on
the date the carrier makes the initial application for remittance, and shall not be
subject to any charges except normal service charges collected by banks for such
The airlines of each Party shall be permitted to pay for local expenses, including
purchases of fuel, in the territory of the other Party in local currency . At their
discretion, the airlines of each Party may pay for such expenses in the territory of
the other Party in freely convertible currencies according to local currency
In operating or holding out the authorized services on the agreed routes, any
designated airline of one Party may enter into cooperative marketing
arrangements such as blocked-space, code-sharing or leasing arrangements, with
an airline or airlines of either Party ;
an airline or airlines of a third country ; and
a surface transportation provider of any country ;
provided that all participants in such arrangements (i) hold the appropriate
authority and (ii) meet the requirements normally applied to such arrangements,
including any requirements that passengers and shippers not be misled as to the
facts concerning such transportation .
Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, airlines and
indirect providers of cargo transportation of both Parties shall be
permitted, without restriction, to employ in connection with international
air transportation any surface transportation for cargo to or from any
points in the territories of the Parties or in third countries, including
transport to and from all airports with customs facilities, and including,
where applicable, the right to transport cargo in bond under applicable
laws and regulations. Such cargo, whether moving by surface or by air,
shall have access to airport customs processing and facilities . Airlines
may elect to perform their own surface transportation or to provide it
through arrangements with other surface carriers, including surface
transportation operated by other airlines and indirect providers of cargo air
transportation . Such intermodal cargo services may be offered at a single,
through price for the air and surface transportation combined, provided
that shippers are not misled as to the facts concerning such transportation .
With respect to the employment of surface transport for air cargo, nothing
in the above subparagraph (a) shall be deemed to confer on the airline or
airlines of one Party any new or additional rights, to take on board, in the
territory of the other Party, air traffic destined for another point in the
territory of that other Party .
Application of Laws
While entering, within, or leaving the territory of one Party, its laws and
regulations relating to the operation and navigation of aircraft shall be complied
with by the other Party's airlines .
While entering, within, or leaving the territory of one Party, its laws and
regulations relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of
passengers, crew or cargo on aircraft (including regulations relating to entry,
clearance, aviation security, immigration, passports, customs and quarantine or, in
the case of mail, postal regulations) shall be complied with by, or on behalf of,
such passengers, crew or cargo of the other Party's airlines .
3 . In the application of its customs, immigration, quarantine and similar regulations,
neither Party shall give preference to its own or any other airline over an airline of
the other Party engaged in similar international air transportation .
Each Party shall recognize as valid, for the purpose of operating the air
transportation provided for in this Agreement, certificates of airworthiness,
certificates of competency, and licenses issued or validated by the other Party and
still in force, provided that the requirements for such certificates or licenses at
least equal the minimum standards that may be established pursuant to the
Convention . Each Party may, however, refuse to recognize as valid for the
purpose of flight above its own territory, certificates of competency and licenses
granted to or validated for its own nationals by the other Party .
Either Party or the aeronautical authorities of either Party may request technical
discussions concerning the safety standards maintained and administered by the
other Party relating to aeronautical facilities, aircrews, aircraft, and operation of
the designated airlines . If, following such technical discussions, one Party finds
that the other Party does not effectively maintain and administer safety standards
and requirements in these areas that at least equal the minimum standards that
may be established pursuant to the Convention, the other Party shall be notified of
such findings and the steps considered necessary to conform with these minimum
standards, and the other Party shall take appropriate corrective action . Each Party
reserves the right in accordance with Article 4 to withhold, revoke, or limit the
operating authorization or technical permission of an airline or airlines designated
by the other Party in the event the other Party does not take such appropriate
corrective action within a reasonable time .
The Parties reaffirm that their obligations to each other to provide for the security
of civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference (including in particular their
obligations under the Convention of International Civil Aviation, done at Chicago
on 7 December 1944 ; the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts
Committed on Board Aircraft, done at Tokyo on 14 September 1963 ; the
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, done at The
Hague on 16 December 1970 ; the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful
Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, done at Montreal on 23 September
1971 ; and the Protocol for the Suppression on Unlawful Acts of Violence at
Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, done at Montreal on 24 February
1988 ; and any other multilateral agreement governing aviation security binding
upon the Parties) form an integral part of this Agreement .
2 . The Parties shall provide upon request all necessary assistance to each other to
prevent acts of unlawful seizure of civil aircraft and other unlawful acts against
the safety of such aircraft, their passengers and crew, airports and air navigation
facilities, and any other threat to the security of civil aviation .
The Parties shall act in conformity with the aviation security standards and, so far
as they are applied by them, the recommended practices established by the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and designated as Annexes to
the Convention on International Civil Aviation, and shall require that operators of
aircraft of their registry, operators who have their principal place of business or
permanent residence in their territory, and the operators of international airports in
their territory act in conformity with such aviation security provisions . Each Party
shall give advance information to the other of its intention to notify ICAO of any
differences to the ICAO standards.
Each Party agrees that its operators of aircraft may be required to observe the
aviation security provisions required by the other Party for entrance into,
departure from, or while within, the territory of that other Party. Each Party shall
ensure that effective measures are taken within its territory to protect aircraft, to
inspect passengers and their carry-on items, and to carry out appropriate checks
on crew, cargo (including baggage) and aircraft stores prior to and during
boarding or loading . Each Party shall also act favorably upon any request from the
other Party for reasonable special security measures to meet a particular threat .
When an incident or threat of an incident of unlawful seizure of aircraft or other
unlawful acts against the safety of such aircraft, their passengers and crew,
airports, or air navigation facilities occurs, the Parties shall assist each other by
facilitating communications and other appropriate measures intended to terminate
rapidly and safely such incident or threat .
When a Party has reasonable grounds to believe that the other Party has departed
from the provisions of this Article, the first Party may request immediate
consultations with the other Party . Failure by the Parties to reach a satisfactory
resolution of the matter within 15 days from the date of receipt of such request
shall constitute grounds for withholding, revoking, limiting or imposing
conditions on the operating authorizations or technical permissions of an operator
of aircraft of the other Party to operate air transport services authorized by this
Agreement. When justified by an emergency, a Party may take interim action
prior to the expiry of 15 days .
Each Party shall also give sympathetic consideration to a request from the other
Party to enter into reciprocal administrative arrangements whereby the
aeronautical authorities of one Party could make in the territory of the other Party
their own assessment of the security measures being carried out by aircraft
operators in respect of flights destined to the territory of the first Party .
The aeronautical authorities of both Parties shall continue the program which has been
inaugurated of joint preparation of agreed true origin and destination statistics for air
passenger traffic over the routes operated pursuant to this Agreement .
Consultations and High Level Meetings
The Parties shall at all times endeavour to agree on the interpretation and
application of this Agreement, and shall make every attempt through cooperation,
exchange of information and consultations to arrive at a mutually satisfactory
resolution of any matter that might affect its operation.
Either Party may request consultations regarding any aspect of this Agreement,
including, but not limited to, any actual or proposed measure or any matter that it
considers affects the interpretation or application of this Agreement . On matters
which the requesting Party deems and states to be urgent, such consultations shall
commence within 15 days of the date of delivery of the request, unless otherwise
agreed between the Parties . In all other cases consultations shall commence at the
earliest possible date, but not later than 30 days from the date of receipt of the
request for consultations, unless otherwise agreed by the Parties .
The Parties shall make every attempt to arrive as expeditiously as possible at a
mutually satisfactory resolution of any matter through consultations . To the extent
one Party has requested consultations regarding an actual or proposed measure of
a State, Provincial, or local government or authority of the other Party, which the
requesting Party believes to be inconsistent with this Agreement, such other Party
shall bring the requesting Party's views to the attention of the relevant
governmental unit or authority .
4 . The Parties shall exchange sufficient information to enable a full examination of
how the actual or proposed measure or other matter affects, or might affect, the
operation of this Agreement .
Each Party shall treat any confidential or proprietary information exchanged in
the course of consultations on the same basis as the Party providing the
information treats it .
If the Parties fail to resolve a matter pursuant to the provisions on consultations
30 days of the commencement of consultations,
30 days of delivery of a request for consultations in matters deemed and
stated to be urgent by the requesting Party, or
such other period as they may agree,
either Party may request in writing a High Level Meeting (hereinafter referred to
as an "HLM"), as set out below.
An HLM, which may include representatives of, for the United States, the
Department of State and/or the Department of Transportation and, for Canada, the
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and/or the Department of
Transport, shall be held at the request of either Party . At the request of either
Party the HLM shall be between, for the United States, the Secretary of State
and/or the Secretary of Transportation and, for Canada, the Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs and/or the Minister of Transport, or their designees .
The purpose of an HLM shall be to :
consider any matter that may affect the operation of this Agreement ; and
resolve disputes that may arise regarding its interpretation or application .
An HLM may:
establish, and delegate responsibilities to, ad hoc or standing committees,
working groups or expert groups ;
seek the advice of non-governmental persons or groups ; and
take other action to carry out its purposes .
10 . If an HLM is requested pursuant to this Article, the requesting Party shall state in
the request the measure or other matter complained of and indicate the provisions
of this Agreement that it considers relevant .
Unless it is mutually agreed by the Parties that an HLM will not be convened or
should be delayed, an HLM requested pursuant to this Article shall convene
within 20 days of delivery of the request and shall endeavour to resolve the
dispute promptly .
12 . An HLM may:
call on such technical advisers or create such working groups or expert
groups as it deems necessary,
have recourse to good offices, conciliation, mediation or such other similar
as may assist the Parties to reach a mutually satisfactory resolution of the dispute .
Resolution of Disputes
Part A - Panel Proceedings
The dispute settlement provisions of this Article shall apply when a Party
considers that there has been a violation of this Agreement except that this Article
shall not apply to individual prices charged by the airlines designated by either
If an HLM has convened pursuant to Article 16 and the matter has not been
resolved within :
40 days after the delivery of the request for an HLM, or
such other period as the Parties may agree ; or
if it is mutually agreed by the Parties, pursuant to paragraph 11 of Article 16, that
an HLM should not be convened, then either Party may request in writing the
establishment of an arbitral panel with respect to the matters referred to in
paragraph 1 of Part A of this Article which have been discussed at the HLM, or if
an HLM has not been convened, which have been the subject of consultations .
Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties, the panel shall be established and perform
its functions in a manner consistent with the provisions of this Article .
The panel shall make its final report public, except to the extent the report
contains information considered proprietary or confidential by the person or Party
who provided the information, in which case such information shall be treated on
the same basis as the person or Party who provided the information treats it .
Panel members shall :
have expertise or experience in law, matters covered by this Agreement, or
the resolution of disputes arising under international agreements, and shall
be chosen strictly on the basis of objectivity, reliability and sound
be independent of, and not be affiliated with or take instructions from, any
Party ; and
follow a code of conduct to be established by the Parties within 90 days
following the entry into force of this Agreement.
6 . All panelists shall meet the qualifications set out in paragraph 5 of part A of this
Article . Individuals may not serve as panelists for a dispute in which they have
Arbitration shall be by a panel of three panelists to be constituted as follows :
Within 20 days after the receipt of a request for arbitration, each Party
shall name one of its citizens or permanent residents as a panelist. Within
20 days after these two panelists have been named, they shall by mutual
agreement appoint a third panelist, who shall not be a citizen or permanent
resident of either country, and who shall act as President of the panel .
If either Party fails to name a panelist, or if a third panelist is not
appointed in accordance with subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, either
Party may request the President of the Council of the International Civil
Aviation Organization to appoint the necessary panelist or panelists within
20 days . If the President of the Council is a citizen of one of the Parties,
the most senior Vice-President who is not disqualified on that ground shall
make the appointment .
If a Party believes that a panelist should not serve because the panelist is in
violation of the code of conduct, the Parties shall consult and if they agree, the
panelist shall be removed and a new panelist shall be selected in accordance with
this Article .
Unless otherwise provided in this Agreement or the Parties otherwise agree :
the panel shall establish its own procedures ;
the procedures shall ensure at least one oral hearing before the panel as
well as the opportunity to present written submissions and rebuttal
(c) subject to paragraph 10 of Part A of this Article, the Parties shall deliver
their initial submissions simultaneously no later than 20 days after the last
panelist is selected, and their rebuttal submissions simultaneously no later
than 15 days after receipt by both Parties of the initial submissions . The
submissions shall each be delivered to the members of the panel and to the
other Party .
Unless the Parties otherwise agree within 20 days from the date of delivery of the
request for the establishment of a panel, within 40 days from the date of the
delivery of the request for the establishment of a panel, or within 5 days after the
last panelist has been selected, whichever is later, each Party shall submit to the
panel its views as to the question-or questions on which it believes the panel
should make its ruling . Based upon the Parties' submissions pursuant to this
paragraph, the panel shall, within 15 days after the last panelist has been selected,
reach a decision as to the question or questions to be decided . If it considers
necessary, the panel may require additional information from the Parties prior to
reaching a decision as to the question or questions to be decided . If a panel is
requested to make a decision pursuant to this paragraph the time for the initial
submissions by the Parties shall be 15 days from the date of such decision by the
panel . If the Parties so agree, the panel may, if it considers necessary, extend the
period of time within which it is required to reach a decision under this paragraph .
On request of a Party, or on its own initiative, the panel may seek information and
technical advice from any person or body that it deems appropriate, provided that
the Parties so agree and subject to such terms and conditions as the Parties may
Unless the Parties otherwise agree, the panel shall base its report on the
submissions and arguments of the Parties and on any information before it
pursuant to paragraph 11, Part A of this Article,
Unless the Parties otherwise agree, the panel shall, within 90 days after the last
panelist is selected, present to the Parties an initial report containing :
findings of fact ;
its determination as to whether there has been a violation of this
Agreement ; and
if both Parties so request within 20 days of the request for the
establishment of a panel, its recommendations, if any, for resolution of the
Panelists may furnish separate opinions on matters not unanimously agreed .
15 . A Party may submit written comments to the panel on its initial report within 14
days of presentation of the report, and shall serve those comments on the other
Party . The other Party may reply to the comments within 5 days .
In such an event, and after considering such written comments, the panel, on its
own initiative or on the request of either Party, may :
request the views of either Party ;
reconsider its report ; and
make any further examination that it considers appropriate .
The panel shall present to the Parties a final report, including any separate
opinions on matters not unanimously agreed, within 30 days ofpresentation of the
initial report, unless the Parties otherwise agree .
Unless the Parties agree otherwise, the final report of the panel shall be published
15 days after it is transmitted to the Parties .
Part B - Implementation of Panel Reports
If in its final report a panel has determined that there has been a violation of this
Agreement, the Party complained against shall either cure the violation or the
Parties shall reach agreement upon the resolution of the dispute, which normally
shall conform with the determinations and recommendations, if any, of the panel .
2 . Where resolution of the dispute involves a State, Provincial, or local government
or authority, the Parties shall use their best efforts, consistent with national law, to
give full effect to such resolution .
If in its final report a panel has determined that there has been a violation of this
Agreement and the Party complained against has not cured the violation or
reached agreement with the complaining Party upon a mutually satisfactory
resolution pursuant to paragraph 1 within 30 days of receiving the final report,
such complaining Party may suspend the application of benefits of equivalent
effect arising under this Agreement until such time as they have reached
agreement on a resolution of the dispute . However, nothing in this paragraph shall
be construed as limiting the right of either Party to suspend the application of
proportionate benefits in accordance with principles of international law.
In considering what benefits to suspend pursuant to paragraph 3 of Part B of this
(a) a complaining Party should first seek to suspend benefits similar to those
affected by the measure or other matter that the panel has found to violate
this Agreement ; and
a complaining Party that considers it is not practicable or effective to
suspend benefits similar to those affected may suspend benefits that are
Part C - Remuneration and Payment of Expenses
The panel shall use its best efforts to maintain its expenditures at a reasonable
level and shall consult with the Parties before incurring any extraordinary
The remuneration of panelists and their assistants, their travel and lodging
expenses, and all general expenses of panels shall be borne equally by the Parties .
3 . Each panelist shall keep a record and render a final account of the person's time
and expenses, and the panel shall keep a record and render a final account of all
If either Party considers it desirable to modify any provision of this Agreement, it may
request consultations with the other Party . Such consultations, which may be through
discussion (including discussion between aeronautical authorities) or by correspondence,
shall begin within a period of sixty (60) days from the date of the request . Any
modification agreed pursuant to such consultations shall be effected by agreement
between the two Governments.
If a general multilateral air transport services convention comes into force in respect of
both Parties, in the event of inconsistencies, the provisions of that multilateral convention
shall prevail . Consultations in accordance with Article 16 of this Agreement may be held
to determine if, and in what manner, this Agreement should be amended to bring it into
conformity with the provisions of the multilateral convention .
Either Party may, at any time, give notice in writing through diplomatic channels to the
other Party of its decision to terminate this Agreement . Such notice shall be sent
simultaneously to the International Civil Aviation Organization . This Agreement shall
terminate at midnight (at the place of receipt of the notice to the other Party) immediately
before the first anniversary of the date of receipt of the notice by the other Party, unless
the notice is withdrawn by agreement of the Parties before the end of this period . In the
absence of acknowledgement of receipt by the other Party, the notice shall be deemed to
have been received fourteen (14) days after the receipt of the notice by the International
Civil Aviation Organization .
Registration with ICAO
This Agreement and all amendments thereto shall be registered with the international
Civil Aviation Organization .
Continuation of Designations and Authorizations
1 . Any airline of Canada or the United States holding a current designation from its
respective government under the 1995 Agreement, as amended, shall be deemed
to be an airline designated to conduct international air transportation pursuant to
this Agreement .
2 . For purposes of Canadian licensing requirements, any airline of the United States
or Canada holding a valid licence issued by the Canadian Transportation Agency
on the date of entry into force of this Agreement for the operation of scheduled or
nonscheduled air services shall, pending issuance of an appropriate licence under
this Agreement, continue to have all the authorities provided in the said licence
and be deemed to have therein the authority to operate scheduled or nonscheduled
international air transportation respectively to and from points in Canada and the
United States as provided in this Agreement .
Any license issued to an airline of Canada or the United States by the U .S .
Department of Transportation shall continue in effect under otherwise- applicable
terms and conditions of that license pending application for and issuance of an
appropriate license under this Agreement .
Entry into Force
This Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the last note of an exchange of
diplomatic notes between the Parties confirming that all necessary internal procedures for
entry into force of this Agreement have been completed .
The 1995 Agreement and the 2000 Exchange of Notes shall terminate upon entry into
force of this Agreement.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized by their respective
Governments, have signed this Agreement .
DONE at Washington, in duplicate, this twelfth day of March, 2007, in the English and
French languages, both versions being equally authentic .
e7~~ imijAep (ChLP~l~U
FOR HE GOVERNMENT OF THE FOR THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
Scheduled Air Transportation
Designated airlines of Canada and designated airlines of the United States shall, in
accordance with the terms of their designation, be entitled to perform scheduled
international air transportation between points on the following routes:
Routes for the airline or airlines designated by the Government of the United
From points behind the United States via the United States and
intermediate points to a point or points in Canada and beyond .
For all-cargo service or services, between Canada and any point or points .
Routes for the airline or airlines designated by the Government of Canada :
From points behind Canada via Canada and intermediate points to a point
or points in the United States and beyond .
For all-cargo service or services, between the United States and any point
or points .
Each designated airline may, on any or all flights and at its option :
operate flights in either or both directions ;
combine different flight numbers within one aircraft operation ;
carry its own stop-over traffic ;
serve behind, intermediate, and beyond points and points in the territories
of the Parties on the routes in any combination and in any order ;
omit stops at any point or points ;
transfer traffic from any of its aircraft to any of its other aircraft at any
point on the routes ; and
(g) serve points behind any point in its territory with or without change of
aircraft or flight number and may hold out and advertise such services to
the public as through services ;
without directional or geographic limitation and without loss of any right to carry traffic
otherwise permissible under this Agreement; provided that, with the exception of allcargo
services, the service serves a point in the territory of the Party designating the
Change of Gauge
On any segment or segments of the routes above, any designated airline may perform
international air transportation without any limitation as to change, at any point on the
route, in type or number of aircraft operated ; provided that, with the exception of allcargo
services, in the outbound direction, the transportation beyond such point is a
continuation of the transportation from the territory of the Party that has designated the
airline and, in the inbound direction, the transportation to the territory of the Party that
has designated the airline is a continuation of the transportation from beyond such point .
Slots and Access to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Slots at Chicago O'Hare and New York LaGuardia Airports
Except as otherwise provided in this Annex, Canadian and United States airlines
shall be subject to the same system for slot allocation at United States high
density airports as are U .S . airlines for domestic services .
The United States shall establish a base level of free slots for Canada at New
York LaGuardia Airport of 42 slots in the summer and winter seasons, and a base
at Chicago O'Hare Airport of 36 slots for the summer season and 32 slots in the
winter season . With respect to slots made available by the United States
additional to those held by Canadian airlines as of December 22, 1994, the United
States will endeavor to provide such slots at times of the day suitable for
transborder air service . Should Canadian airlines purchase slots at New York
LaGuardia Airport and/or Chicago O'Hare Airport between December 22, 1994
and February 24, 1995, those slots shall be added to the base level for that airport .
Slots received by a Canadian airline other than by purchase between December
22, 1994 and February 24, 1995, shall not increase the base level of slots, but
instead shall be included within the base level of slots to be made available by the
U.S . Government .
Base slots shall be subject to normal non-discriminatory U .S . regulations
including withdrawal under the "use it or lose it" rules . Canadian base slots shall
not, however, be subject to withdrawal for the purpose of providing a U .S . or
foreign airline with slots for international services or to provide slots for "new
Any slot needs of Canadian airlines above the base levels shall be acquired
through the prevailing system for slot allocation applicable to U .S . domestic
operations . Slot holdings so acquired shall be subject to normal nondiscriminatory
U .S . regulations including "use it or lose it" .
5 . Canadian airlines may monetize slot holdings and may freely buy, sell and trade
slots . The sale or other disposal of a slot which forms part of the base level shall
permanently modify the base so that neither the airline nor the Government of
Canada shall have a claim to any other time slot to restore the base . However,
slots acquired above the base level and later disposed of shall not modify the base .
6 . Any United States airline authorized to provide transborder services from O'Hare
or LaGuardia may make unconditioned use of any existing or new slot holdings at
its disposal to operate such services, consistent with United States regulations .
Access to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Nonstop air services under this Agreement may be provided by designated
airlines of the United States and Canada to and from Ronald Reagan Washington
National Airport, subject to the following :
the prevailing perimeter rule ;
United States customs and immigration pre-clearance being available at
the Canadian point of departure ;
the acquisition by Canadian airlines of the necessary slots at Ronald
Reagan Washington National Airport under the prevailing rules for slot
acquisition and minimum slot use applicable to United States airlines ; and
other uniform and non-discriminatory regulations consistent with Article
15 of the Convention .
United States airlines may not inaugurate non-stop service between Ronald
Reagan Washington National Airport and any point in Canada unless and until a
Canadian airline inaugurates a non-stop service from any point in Canada to
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport . Following the inauguration of any
non-stop service by any Canadian airline between any point in Canada and
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, United States airlines may operate
any non-stop services between Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and
any point in Canada .
Charter Air Transportation
Designated airlines of Canada and designated airlines of the United States shall,
in accordance with the terms of their designation, have the right to carry
international charter traffic of passengers (and their accompanying baggage)
and/or cargo (including, but not limited to, freight forwarder, split, and
combination (passenger/cargo) charters) :
Between any point or points in the territory of the Party that has
designated the airline and any point or points in the territory of the other
Party ; and
Between any point or points in the territory of the other Party and any
point or points in a third country or countries, provided that, except with
respect to cargo charters, such service constitutes part of a continuous
operation, with or without a change of aircraft, that includes service to the
homeland for the purpose of carrying local traffic between the homeland
and the territory of the other Party .
In the performance of services covered by this Annex, designated airlines of each
Party shall also have the right :
to make stopovers at any points whether within or outside of the territory
of either Party ;
to carry transit traffic through the other Party's territory ;
to combine on the same aircraft traffic originating in one Party's territory,
traffic originating in the other Party's territory, and traffic originating in
third countries ; and
to perform international air transportation without any limitation as to
change, at any point on the route, in type or number of aircraft operated ;
provided that, except with respect to cargo charters, in the outbound
direction, the transportation beyond such point is a continuation of the
transportation from the territory of the Party that has designated the airline
and in the inbound direction, the transportation to the territory of the Part,,
that has designated the airline is a continuation of the transportation from .
beyond such point.
C . Each Party shall extend favorable consideration to applications by airlines of the
other Party to carry traffic not covered by this Annex on the basis of comity and
Any airline designated by either Party performing international charter air transportation
originating in the territory of either Party, whether on a one-way or round-trip basis, shall
be required to adhere to :
(a) the requirements of the country of origin of the traffic relating to the
protection of passenger and passenger-charterer funds and passenger
cancellation and refund rights ;
the rules and regulations of each Party relating to wet-lease and code-share
operations ; and
the requirement of each Party relating to the filing of traffic statistics .